TPM Booklet

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This is a booklet issued by IndianOil corporation Ltd, a refinery in Guwahati (India) for understanding Total Productive Maintenance (TPM).
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TPM Booklet

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Guwahati Refinery

TPM TREE TPM POLICY We are committed to Achieving Zero abnormality, Zero breakdown, Zero defect to achieve excellence in overall plant effectiveness (OPE). Inculcating analytical attitude and ownership to be equipment and system competent and innovative.

PREFACE

The competitive environment is throwing up many management tools for performance excellence. TPM is very well laid out, holistic approach towards continual improvement. Guwahati Refinery is practicing TPM in true spirit and making good progress in its implementation and bringing the cultural change. I am pleased with the progress made in all areas of the refinery and we must work with the same spirit and continue our efforts for sustaining and further improving in TPM implementation activities so that Guwahati refinery will be able to apply for TPM award from JIPM, Japan. This booklet on Overview of Total productive Maintenance being released with a hope that every employee will make good utilization of this book and become knowledgeable in implementing TPM in right direction. I convey my good wishes to all Gangotrian and urge them to embrace TPM for better economic growth & prosperity of the organization and thereby of the individuals.

G. Bhanumurthy Executive Director

FORWARD

The business scenario across the world is going through a process of sea change, policies, practices and strategies are changing fast to cope with the situation. The Indian market scenario too has followed the global trend with the opening up of its economy and markets following deregulation. Thus the greatest challenge before the industry is to adapt to the new rules of the market quickly and effectively in order to build up profitability. Making optimum use of the available resources and opportunities as well as acquiring a competitive edge has thus become the guiding mantra of the day. Companies are drawing business strategies to achieve customer delight by ensuring timely delivery of reliable products and services at highly competitive prices. Hence the focus is on supply of quality goods and services at prices which are competitive. This scenario has necessitated bench marking of our work with global best practices. It can be achieved by adapting a time-tested philosophy, which promises total elimination of all unnecessary costs associated with material, operations, maintenance time and minimization of all type of losses with total involvement of every employee of the organization. This philosophy is called Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) armed with Indian Oils Vision and Mission to become a transnational diversified energy company. Guwahati Refinery has embarked on the path of TPM to achieve its objective. Making the TPM concepts clear to all employees this Overview on Total Productive Maintenance booklet has been prepared which explains about the concepts of TPM, the 5S practices and about the 8 pillars in brief. I hope this booklet will definitely make employees better understandable in adapting the concept of TPM. I wish all employees success in achieving our TPM goals

A C Mishra Deputy General Manager (Technical)

TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENENCEAbout TPM

TPM is a philosophy, which brings results when practiced. It achieves the optimum use of resources and obtains best results. It is more than just a 'tool'. It is a holistic productivity improvement system that drives the entire factory and work force. TPM implementation characterized by High quality of products serving consistently without increasing high costs Excellent Corporate Culture Self maintained work place (by everyone) Elimination of losses related to man, material and method Makes impossible to possible. A miracle in factory management. Zero 'break down, zero defects - the key to higher efficiency of machine / equipment. Efficiency lies in spotting problems early and preventing losses of any kind Optimal life and availability of tool closer to work place Self-improvement Productivity in indirect department Optimum potential benefits of machines / equipments achieved by enough synchronization between various factors in an organization Driven by common sense, use of brain at all levels. Simple approach triggering positive thoughts Deeper top down involvement & commitment Requires Focus, Focus & Focus Commitment, commitment & deeper commitment Communication, communication & repeated communication Hard work & involvement Motivates people to come together, builds team spirit with pride of ownership

WHY IT IS NECESSARY Consider which of the following conditions exist in your own work place: Equipment conditions The equipment is generally very dirty The equipment leaks hydraulic fluid and lubricants Oil pans are overflowing People don't mind seeing dirt and grime piling up everywhere -they accept it as normal Motors get very hot or make strange noises Switches are covered with oil Large covers are sometimes used to protect certain machines, but their internal parts are not cleaned. Some parts rattle and vibrate The equipment is positioned to make access for routine maintenance checks difficult Oilcans are left empty and dirty Drains are clogged. Wires and pipes are left in chaotic configurations making it hard to see which one goes where

Area around equipment It takes a lot of time to clean up The floor is left dirty and slippery with oil There are a lot of useless items lying around Things are not kept in specified places Equipment operators Operators do not perform regular equipment checks; in fact, they do not even know how Operators do not know how to replace equipment parts or perform precision checks When operators find an abnormality, they call the maintenance staff without trying to understand the problem. Operators do not regard breakdowns and defects as their own problems. If any of these conditions exist in the works place, it is the time for a change. TPM will get rid of these conditions and ensure high productivity and quality. TPM PARAMETERS Effectiveness of TPM in industry is reflected by improvement P Q C D S M (Productivity enhancement, Quality improvement, Cost control, Delivery in time, Safety and Mora1e) Productivity enhancement is Increase in Capacity utilization Value addition per employee Value added products Equipment effectiveness Plant availability Reduce Quality give away of product Quality improvement Reduced off spec products Reduced customer complaints (internal & external) Reduced reprocessing Cost Reduced maintenance cost Reduced input cost (Crude, catalyst, chemicals, utilities) Energy saying (power, steam, Fuel and water) Maximization of preheat Delivery On time delivery (Availability of products for marketing) Reduce product inventory Safety Zero accidents (major, minor, loss time & property damage)

Elimination of pollution incidents Meeting statutory environment requirement and attain improvement Morale

Increased number of suggestions Increased frequency of small group activity Increased number of one-point lessons Increased number of kaizen activities

WHY TPM NEED OF TPM TPM involves everyone from top to bottom to make the organization efficient & effective with Lowest cost Zero waste and Excellent Quality with Zero accidents Zero breakdowns It guarantees improved results, visibly transforms the work place, raises the knowledge level and skill level of employees. It encourages Team spirit. OBJECTIVE To maximize overall equipment effectiveness through Total employee involvement. To improve the equipment Reliability and maintainability which will improve Quality and Productivity To cultivate the equipment related expertise among operating personnel. To create an enthusiastic and lively work environment and culture. To break the barrier between the departments. BENEFITS TPM encompasses a powerful structural approach to change the mind set amongst people making a visible change in the work culture of the company. Employees are motivated, committed and excited to achieve Zero defect products Zero breakdown of equipment Zero customer complaints Zero accidents Develops a highly positive and collaborative work culture. Increases empowerment and team spirit I can decide, I can do, I am empowered to do' Enhances reliability &flexibility of the plant Results in reduction in wastage and losses Enhances the profitability of the company

Brings proactive maintenance into force. ABOUT TPM PRACTICES TPM is practiced by 8 pillars and the various functions of management assigned into 8 pillars. Prior to the commencement of TPM practices the practice of 5S is instituted. 5S 1 S Seiri (Sort out) Eliminate cluster from the work place Remove the unwanted items from the work place Develop a clear policy for determining what can be discarded Regularly throwaway unwanted items 2 S Seiton (Set in order) A place for every thing and every thing in its place Arrange everything in a way you can retrieve quickly and return them to their respective place quickly. Frequently used items should be stored for easy retrieval 3 S Seiso (Shine) Everyone is a panther Everyone should clean his/her own work area from the Executive Director to the lowest employee. Everybody should take personal responsibilities for cleanliness Clean daily Allocate specific time for cleaning in the daily work schedule 4 S Seikatsu (Standardise) Develop and maintain standard conditions in the work place Decide when, by whom and how each item should be used Standardise quantities for all items for storage and movement Arrange tools and materials so that people can see at a glance where things are and how much is available Use visual methods to indicate what is stored and where 5 S Shitsuke (Sustain) Develop self discipline among all people Teach people for good work place Identify bad practices and eliminate them Make 5 S as part of daily routine Conduct 5 S audits

Reward teams for good 5 S discipline 8 PILLARS OF TPM The 8 pillars of TPM are: 1. Autonomous Maintenance 2. Focused Improvement 3. Planned Maintenance 4. Quality Maintenance 5. Early Management 6. Office TPM 7. Education &Training 8. Safety Health & Environment Autonomous Maintenance is the maintenance activity performed by operators with the support of Maintenance. Focused Improvement is an activity by a multi-functional group focusing on specific problems. Planned Maintenance is the effective organization of the Maintenance function. It deals with the implementation of a good preventive maintenance / reliability centered maintenance program to meet the overall objectives of the Maintenance function. Quality Maintenance in process industry ensures quality of product by maintaining correct process conditions. For this, the equipment must function optimally. Quality defects are prevented by checking and measuring equipment conditions periodically Early Management ensures quality and performance aspects are taken care in the design stage. Office TPM brings improvements in the office areas. The Materials function is also covered under Office TPM. Education & Training establishes training systems to cater to the increasing growth of technology and skill requirements, to maximize the potential of each employee. Equipment competent people are developed. Safety, Health and Environment focuses on elimination of unsafe condition/unsafe action, zero accidents and zero pollution. PRINCIPLES OF PREVENTION Maintenance of Normal Conditions: To maintain normal operating conditions operators prevent deterioration by cleaning, checking, oiling and tightening the equipment on a daily basis. Early discovery of abnormalities:

While performing the above activities, operators use their sense and measurement tools to detect abnormalities as soon as they appear. Maintenance workers also conduct periodic diagnostic tests to check for abnormalities using specialized tools. Prompt response: Operators and maintenance staff respond immediately to abnormalities CLEANING THE EQUIPMENT MEANS: 1) Cleaning becomes Inspection 2) Inspection reveals abnormalities 3) Abnormalities can be restored or improved 4) Restoration and improvement produce positive effects. 5) Positive effects lead to pride in the workplace. SEVEN ACTIONS TO REACH THE TARGET OF ZERO BREAKDOWNS. 1) Prevent accelerated deterioration 2) Maintain basic equipment condition 3) Maintain operating conditions 4) Improve maintenance quality 5) Take repair work beyond quick fix measures 6) Correct design weaknesses 7) Learn as much as possible from each breakdown. TPM TERMINOLOGY KYE - Know Your Equipment It means, Knowing process parameters Basic maintenance Lubrication standards Surrounding area Inspection requirements

OPE- Overall Plant Effectiveness:OPE is the Overall Plant Effectiveness and take into account plant availability, production losses and quality rate of the yield. It is an important indicator to understand the economics of operation of a plant and identification of areas of its improvement. Mathematically it is calculated as OPE = (Availability) X (Performance Rate) X (Quality Rate) The following pictorial presentation correlates the various plant and production factors and losses to arrive at OPE.

OPL-One Point Lesson:OPL is one of the part of Training and Education in which one lesson is covered at a time within small period. It is prepared on a sheet and discussed in small groups within 5-10 minutes. It can be prepared in the following three categories: 1. Basic Knowledge Sheet: Point that must be known 2. Trouble Case Sheet: Point that prevents the recurrence of troubles 3. Improvement Case Sheet: Point for improvement concept or method leading to positive results. It can be further described as a tool to communicate 1. Knowledge about equipment 2. Cases of problems and 3. Cases of improvements OPL objectives are 1. To raise the knowledge and skill in short period of time 2. To have knowledge handy to be used any time they are needed

3. To encourage team work and 4. To raise the level of commitment in the operator / technician

Sample of OPL sheet

Kaizen:Kai means change and Zen means good (for the better). Basically kaizen is for small improvements. Kaizen is carried out on a continual basis and involves all people in the organization. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little investment. The principle behind Kaizen is that a very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value Kaizen is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.

Sample of Kaizen sheet

Autonomous Maintenance (Jishu Hozen)The Purpose of Autonomous Maintenance: 1) It brings production and maintenance people together to accomplish a common goal - to stabilize equipment conditions and accelerated deterioration. 2) It designed to help operators learn more about how their equipment functions, what common problems can occur -and why and how these problems can be prevented by early detection and treatment of abnormal conditions. 3) It prepares operators to be active partners with maintenance and engineering personnel in improving the over all performance and reliability of equipment. Some of The Skills Operators Need: I - 1) The ability to detect, correct, and prevent equipment abnormalities and make improvements that included understanding the importance of proper lubrication correct lubrication methods and methods for checking lubrication. I - 2) Cleaning (inspection) and proper cleaning methods I - 3) Improving operation and maintenance procedures to prevent abnormalities and facilitate their prompt detection. II - 1) The ability to understand equipment functions and mechanisms and the ability to detect causes of abnormalities.

II - 2) Knowing what to look for when checking mechanisms. II - 3) Understanding the relation between special causes and abnormalities. III-1) The ability to understand the relationship between equipment and quality. III-2) Knowing how to conduct a physical analysis of a problem. III-3) Understanding the causes of breakdowns. Implementing Autonomous Maintenance In Seven Steps - Autonomous Maintenance training takes a step-by-step approach making sure each key skill is thoroughly learned before going on to next. - Autonomous maintenance is implemented with the following preliminary step (0) and seven Jishu Hozen Development steps. Step 0: Preliminary Step Step 1: Conduct Initial Cleaning and inspection Step 2: Eliminate sources of contamination and inaccessible places Step 3: Establish cleaning, inspection and lubrication standards Step 4: Conduct general equipment inspection [Inspection training and develop inspection procedure] Step 5: Perform general process inspection Step 6: Systematic autonomous maintenance (Organise and manage the workplace) Step 7: Practice full self-management (Advanced improvement activities) Step 0: Know Your Equipment 1) This step is an important one in which we can recognise why TPM is necessary thorough understanding of forced deterioration. 2) Before getting down to the actual development steps consideration should be given for predicted accidents and safety education should be completed. 3) Listing up all the predicable unsafe actions an unsafe conditions and the counter measure for each predictable accident should be completed through the initial clean up. 4) Draw a sample illustration of equipment to identify its mechanism and to understand the types of possible trouble Step 1: Initial Cleaning:1. Thoroughly remove dust and contaminants from equipment. 2. Use all our senses to detect looseness and vibration wears misalignment, abnormal noise, overheating and oil leaks, etc

3. Initial cleaning expose hidden abnormalities & also valuable for understanding how various parts functions. 4. Find the sources of contamination: If the equipment becomes dirty soon after cleaning, look for the source of contamination.

5. Correct problems whenever possible: When an operator finds an abnormality and tags its location. The team then needs to figure out which abnormalities they can correct themselves and which must be looked into by a maintenance group and they should set a dead line for correcting each one however, team should take care of as many as possible by themselves. Step 2: Eliminate Contamination Sources And Inaccessible Aeas 1. In this step the teams make cleaning and inspecting easier by controlling the sources of duct and grime and other forms of contamination they found during initial cleaning. 2. Control the sources of duct. 3. Make cleaning and inspection easier. 4. Stop contamination at its source. 5. Improve accessibility of areas that hard to clean and lubricate. Review time required for cleaning and lubrication. 6. In this step Kaizen (Improvement) are made by the operator himself or herself. 7. Prepare tentative standards for cleaning and oiling based on improvement cases. Step 3: Establish Cleaning Inspection & Lubrication Standards 1. This step aims at enhancing equipment reliability and maintainability. 2. Prepare an action standard for cleaning inspecting and lubrication like inspection item, anticipated problem if abnormal, method, tools, time intervals, and responsibility. 3. Introduce visual inspection to make checking work efficiently and correctly perform by anybody. 4. Set clear cleaning standard, lubrication and inspection standards. This can be easily maintained over short inspection time allowed for daily, periodic work must be clearly specified. Visual Controls

-

Equipment name, no., and make. Put match marks on nuts and bolts Indicate ranges in instruments (acceptable) Lubricating oil levels, pipes, and quantity. Direction of rotation, v-belts and coupling. Pipes flow direction On / off indication on valves and switches.

Step 4: Perform General Equipment Inspection To enhance the operator must be knowledgeable and confident about the equipment.

Developing equipment competent operators: 1. 2. 3. Develop the operator should be able to do minor servicing and immediately recognize the equipment abnormal Develop the operator alert i.e. human sensor operators.

Develop the operator must learn about all aspects of their equipment such as equipment function, construction, and operating principles. Preparation for General Inspection Training: 1. Prepare General Inspection items, such as pumps, valves, etc. 2. Basic functional elements such as nuts, bolts, lubrication system, drive system, electrical system and instrument, etc. 3. Prepare general inspection manuals should list out and describe the basic function and structure of the equipment should be inspected. Its function failures, inspection procedure and action to take when abnormalities are discovered. 4. Hands in training in correct tightening of nuts, bolts, and proper inserting of gland packing. Implementation of General Inspection 1. 2. 3. 4. All the members to be trained by relay teaching method. Maintenance staff -> Team leader -> Team member Relay teaching in the form of hands on experience not class room instructions. Then evaluate individual skills in relation to the general inspection and provide further training as needed. Audit all the general inspection items to check for improvement in equipment reliability.

Step 5: Perform Process General Inspection To improve operator skill to ensure process competent operator and improve operation reliability. To improve stability and safety of the entire process by operating correctly. 1. Educate the operator correct operation of process and trouble shooting. 2. Teach the relationship between physical properties of material and parts to be processed. 3. Teach how the process takes place from the material into product. 4. Prepare general inspection and trouble shooting manual 5. Prepare material and energy balance 6. Prepare one-point lesson 7. Prepare basic chemical engineering lessons sheets.

Implementing process inspection 1. Educate through relay teaching method Production staff --> Group leader --> Team member 2. Provide on job training on correct adjusting and controlling method. 3. Assess operator skills by individual tests and follow up training where necessary. Step 6: Standardize Autonomous Maintenance In this step new inspection items added as a result of the general process inspection performed in the 5th step. 1. The new standard procedure not conflict with provisional inspection items that influence product quality. 2. No inspection should not be omitted. 3. The manuals and other standards to be updated using information gathered not only from the autonomous maintenance activity but also from quality assurance and breakdown analysis activity. 4. Establish a system of self-management for work place spares, tools, work in progress, finished products, data, etc. 5. Establish a quality maintenance system. 6. Select planned maintenance equipment through equipment evaluation. 7. Prepare allocation responsibility for process and maintenance. 8. Standardize various workplace regulations. Improve work effectiveness, product quality and the safety of the environment. 9. Collecting and recording data 10. Implement visual control system through the work place. Step 7: Practice Full Self-Management 1. Develop company goals engage in continuous improvement activities. 2. Improve equipment based on careful recording and regular analysis of MTBF. 3. Increase awareness of management objectives and make everyone thoroughly loss consciousness (including maintenance cost). 4. Continue with improvement to facilitate ease of inspection 5. Involve with maintenance in gathering and analyzing statistics, oil and grease usage, quality defect and breakdown data, etc. 6. Improve equipment further by keeping accurate maintenance records (MTBF, MTTR) and analyze the data in them. 7. Operators should make a habit of thinking analytically in dealing with quality problem. 8. Decide when by whom and how can each item to be used. 9. Arrange item so that people can see at a glance where things are and how they should be used.

Focused Improvement (Kobetsu Kaizen)Focused Improvement is an activity by a multi-functional group, focusing on specific problems. Focused improvement aims at maximizing the overall effectiveness of equipment, processes and plants through elimination of losses and improvement in performance. As people get bogged down in routine activities and problems, there is no focus on solving difficult problems. As a result loss and waste continue to build up. A multi functional Focused improvement circle helps to capture focus and thrash out the problem. Focused Improvement in practice The improvement teams should prepare in the following ways: Understand fully the significance of losses Understand the production process including its basic theoretical principles. Gather data on failures, trouble and losses and plot these over time Clarify the basic conditions necessary to assure proper functioning of equipment and define clearly what factors contribute to its optimal state. Understand the necessary techniques for analyzing and reducing failures and losses. Observe the workplace closer to discover what is actually happening. Step by step procedure for Focused Improvement Step 0: Select improvement topic 1. Select topic 2. Form team 3. Plan activities Step l: Understand situation 1. Identify bottleneck processes 2. Measure failures, defects and other losses 3. Use baselines to set targets Step 2: Expose and eliminate abnormalities 1. Painstakingly expose all abnormalities 2. Restore deterioration and correct minor flaws 3. Establish basic equipment conditions Step 3: Analyse causes 1. Stratify and analyse losses 2. Apply analytical techniques (PM analysis, FTA, etc) 3. Employ specific technology, fabricate prototypes, conduct experiments Step 4: Plan Improvement 1. Draft improvement proposals and prepare drawings 2. Compare cost effectiveness of alternate proposals and compile budget

3. Consider possible harmful effects and disadvantages Step 5: Implement improvement 1. Carryout improvement plan 2. Practice early management (perform test operation and formal acceptance) 3. Provide instruction on improved equipment, operating methods, etc Step 6: Check Results 1. Evaluate results with time as improvement project proceeds 2. Check whether targets have been achieved 3. If not, begin again from Step 3 (analyse causes) Step 7: Consolidate gains 1. Draw up control standards to sustain results 2. Formulate work standards and manuals 3. Feed information back to maintenance prevention program

Planned Maintenance:Planned Maintenance is the specialized maintenance carried out by the Maintenance department. Planned Maintenance needs the support of the Autonomous Maintenance by manufacturing department. The goals of Planned Maintenance are to eliminate equipment failures and process problems and minimize losses. An efficient Planned Maintenance program combines Time Based Maintenance (TBM), Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) and Breakdown Maintenance (BM) as rationally as possible. Procedures that are required for the Planned Maintenance program are Reliability Centered Maintenance- (RCM), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA) etc Steps in practicing Planned Maintenance Step 1: Evaluate equipment and understand situation 1. Prepare and update equipment logs 2. Evaluate equipment - establish evaluation criteria, prioritize equipment and select PM equipment and components 3. Define failure ranks 4. Understand situation: measure number, frequency and severity of failures and minor stops: MTBFs; maintenance costs, breakdown maintenance rates etc 5. Set maintenance goals (indicators, methods of measuring results) Step 2: Reverse deterioration and correct weakness 1. Establish basic conditions, reverse deterioration and abolish environments causing accelerated deterioration (support autonomous maintenance) 2. Conduct focused improvement activities to correct weaknesses and extend life times 3. Take measures to prevent identical or similar major failures from occurring

4. Introduce improvements to reduce process failures Step 3: Build an information management system 1. Build a failure data management system 2. Build an equipment maintenance management system (machine history control, maintenance planning, inspection planning, etc) 3. Build an equipment budget management system 4. Build systems for controlling spare parts, drawings, technical data, etc Step 4: Build a periodic maintenance system 1. Prepare for periodic maintenance (control standby units, spare parts, measuring instruments, lubricants, drawings, technical data, etc) 2. Prepare periodic maintenance system flow diagram 3. Select equipment and components to be maintained and formulate a maintenance plan 4. Prepare or update standards (materials standards, work standards, inspection standards, acceptance standards, etc) 5. Improve shutdown maintenance efficiency and strengthen control of subcontracted work. Step 5: Build a predictive maintenance system 1. Introduce equipment diagnostics (train diagnosticians, purchase diagnostic equipment, etc) 2. Prepare predictive maintenance system flow diagram 3. Select equipment and components for predictive maintenance and extend gradually 4. Develop diagnostic equipment and technology Step 6: Evaluate the planned maintenance system 1. Evaluate the planned maintenance system 2. Evaluate reliability improvement: number of failures and minor stops, MTBF, failure frequency, etc 3. Evaluate maintainability improvement: periodic maintenance rate, predictive maintenance rate, MTIR etc 4. Evaluate cost savings: decrease in maintenance expenditures, improvement in distribution of maintenance funds

Early Management:Early Management is a procedure to critically review an equipment or process at the design stage itself. Optimising life cycle costs, trouble free plant commissioning after construction, maintenance prevention and trouble free process performance are achieved by Early Management practices. The life cycle cost of an equipment or system is its total cost during the whole of its life. It is the sum of the direct, indirect, recurring, nonrecurring and other related costs during the design, development, construction, operation, and maintenance. Life cycle costing is a systematic decision making technique that incorporates life-cycle

cost as a parameter at the design stage, performing all possible trade offs to ensure an economic life-cycle cost for the equipment or system. Maintenance Prevention design activity minimizes future maintenance costs and deterioration losses of new equipment by taking into account maintenance data on current equipment & the new technology and designing for high reliability, maintainability, operability and safety. Steps in practicing Early Maintenance Step 1: Investigate and analyze the existing situation 1. Plot the current development management work flow 2. Identify problems in the flow 3. Clarify the mechanisms employed to prevent predicted problems at each commissioning stage. 4. Establish what problems occurred during pilot production, test operation and full-scale startup and what corrective actions were taken. 5. Identify any delays that occurred during pilot production, test operation and full-scale start up. 6. Collect the available information pertaining to designing equipment and systems with high levels of usability, manufacturability, ease of quality assurance, maintainability, reliability and safety. Step 2: Build an improved Early Management system 1. Investigate and outline the basic structure of the Early Management system required and define its scope of application. 2. Investigate and establish a system for accumulating and using the information required for Early Management. 3. Design or revise the standards and forms needed for operating the systems in 1 and 2. Step 3: Debug the new system and provide training Initiate model projects to enhance the system and improve everyone's performance. Select enough topics for designers to experience the new system and ensure that the topics are within the designers' capabilities. 1. Evolve the activities step-by-step for Early management phase and each topic. 2. At the same time, train people in the standard techniques required to implement the new system. 3. At each step, evaluate the new system in terms of how well people understand it, how skillfully they use the techniques, how well the feed back works and so on. 4. Use the results of this evaluation to augment or modify the system and the various standards and documents.

5. Documents the benefits gained by using the system. Step 4: Apply the new system comprehensively 1. Expand the scope of application of new system to all areas. 2. Optimize life cycle costing and enhance the use of information in Maintenance Prevention design. 3. Identify problems that occur at each Early Management stage when the new system is followed. Rectify the problems at the early stages and try to achieve vertical start up.

Quality Maintenance:

This is a practice to ensure quality through reliable processes and equipment. Off-spec products and re-processing are eliminated, by analyzing processes and equipment. Quality Maintenance consists of activities that establish equipment conditions that do not produce quality defects, with a goal of maintaining equipment in perfect condition for producing quality products. Quality defects are prevented by checking and measuring equipment conditions periodically and verifying that the measured values lie within the specified range. Potential quality defects are predicted by measuring trends in the measured values and prevented by taking measures in advance. Rather than controlling results by inspecting product and acting against defects that have already occurred, Quality Maintenance aims to prevent defects from occurring altogether. This is accomplished by identifying checkpoints for process and equipment conditions that affect quality, measuring these periodically and taking appropriate action. A Quality Maintenance program builds upon gains achieved through fundamental TPM activities such as autonomous maintenance, focused improvement, planned maintenance and operations and maintenance skill training. Elimination of accelerated deterioration, elimination of process problems and development of competent operators are prerequisites for a successful quality maintenance program. Steps in practicing Quality Maintenance Step 1: Prepare QA matrix 1. Check Quality characteristics 2. Investigate defect mode and sub process where defect occurs 3. Asses seriousness of defect mode Step 2: Prepare production - input condition analysis table 1. Check deficiencies in production - input conditions for each defect mode in each sub process 2. Check whether standards exist and are being followed Step 3: Prepare problem chart 1. Analyze production - input conditions for problems in each sub process 2. Act promptly against problems that can be tackled on the spot. Carefully work out countermeasures for problems that cannot be dealt with immediately

3. Stratify defect modes, devise investigation techniques and plan countermeasures Step 4: Evaluate seriousness of problems (FMEA 1) This step directs the equipment improvement effort 1. Prioritize problems by assessing their impact on the quality defect mode 2. Decide on the assessment scale in advance Step 5: Use PM analysis to track down causes of problems 1. For the most serious problems in the preceding step, analyze the actual phenomena 2. Investigate using techniques such as PM analysis and propose counter measures Step 6: Assess impact of the countermeasures taken (FMEA 2) 1. Perform a preliminary evaluation of the post-improvement situation using FMEA Step 7: Implement improvements Step 8: Review production - input conditions 1. Review production - input conditions identified in step 2 2. Check whether the production - input conditions are appropriate and correct Step 9: Consolidate and confirm checkpoints 1. Use the results of step 8 to summaries the inspection items 2. Prepare a quality check matrix Step 10: Prepare a quality component control table and assure quality through strict condition control 1. Standards must be numerical and observable

Office TPM:

Office TPM brings improvements in the office areas. The Materials function is also covered under Office TPM. In Office TPM, the office is oriented to provide excellent support for operations. Office systems are effectively organized. Wastages are eliminated. . The Office TPM involves the practice of Administrative Focused Improvement, Administrative Autonomous Maintenance and Performance measurement. Administrative Focused Improvement 1. Clarify the subject 2. Identify relationships and isolate problems 3. Identify and prioritize improvement topics 4. Formulate basic improvement concept 5. Implement improvement

Administrative Autonomous Maintenance The Administrative AM are practices for bringing improvements in the Administrative Function as well as Administrative Environment. 1. Do initial cleaning and stocktaking Eliminate unneeded items and remove dust and dirt

2.

3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

Rearrange office equipment for better efficiency Review workflow Review filing and storage Identify and address problems Look for hidden, unnoticed and overlooked faults Look for losses Tackle problems with organizing, retrieval and using filed data Tackle contamination sources Eliminate sources of dirt, dust trash and losses Make hard to inspect places more accessible Prepare standards and manuals Formulate action standards that support systematic cleaning, checking and loss prevention. Formulate effective filing system Educate and train Perform general inspection Use formulated checking standards and carryout inspection Enhance visual control Establish full self-management Maintain and control Standardize and institutionalize improvements

Performance measurement Cost effectiveness Reduction in processing time Functional efficiency Cost reduction in consumables, inventory, communication, transportation etc

Effective utilization of HR Creativity Environmental improvements done Workplace activities Employee morale Checklist for Office TPM - AM Applies to all areas - individual rooms, common areas, and conference rooms, canteen,reception and materials management areas. 1. Is there any clutter / unwanted materials, lying in the office? 2. Are there loose papers without filing? 3. Are the files labeled, indexed and neatly arranged? 4. Is the retrieval time for files below 30 seconds? 5. Is the retrieval time for filed paper / documents less than 1 minute? 6. Is the table, office equipment free of dust / dirt? 7. Are the table drawers, cupboards neatly arranged? Do they contain any unwanted material?

Effective Utilization of facilities Quality improvement

8. Are the windows, curtains, sills, shelves, corners, grills and concealed places clean? 9. Has Visual Management been done in the office? Are the locations of important things clearly designated? 10. Is there any wasteful movement of things in the office? 11. Are there any activities that do not add value and can be eliminated? 12. Are there any obstructions to movement in the office? 13. Can the arrangement of furniture / equipment be improved to get better office space? 14. Are there any potential safety hazards in the office? 15. Is the personal computer maintained well? 16. Are the photocopiers maintained well? 17. Is the communication equipment maintained well? 18. Are the electrical fittings in proper order? 19. Are the floors clean? 20. Is there any rodent / insect menace in the office? 21. Are conference rooms convenient? Are there any improvements needed? 22. Are the canteens and kitchens kept clean? 23. Are there flies in the canteen? 24. Do the canteens / tearooms have bad odor?

Education & Training:Education & Training pillar establishes education and training system designed to maximize potential of employees. Multi skilled employees, uniformity of work practices, zero accidents & zero breakdowns can be achieved. Educating & Training programs are made to systematically give both theoretical and practical training, so the Equipment-Competent Operators and Equipment-Competent Maintenance Personnel are developed. Steps to develop Operating and Maintenance skills 1. Evaluate the current training program and set policy and priority strategies. 2. Design a program for improving operating and maintenance skills 3. Implement operating and maintenance skills training 4. Design and develop a skill development system 5. Foster an environment that encourages self-development 6. Evaluate the activities and plan for the future.

Safety Health & Environment:Safety, Health and Environment has procedures focused on equipment processes and people, towards achieving zero accident and zero health hazards. To eliminate accidents and pollution, specific steps are taken to strengthen the organization and management of both people and equipment. Employees are made safety conscious and equipment is attended to eliminate potential safety hazards. A company wide management system that can support, promote and direct the creation

of safe, pollution free, hospitable workplaces have to be put in place. Steps to eliminate accidents and pollution Steps 1-3: Establish basic safety requirement Step 1: As part of initial cleaning, detect and correct any problems that might affect safety or the environment. Step 2: Sources of contamination are a threat to safety and pollution. Eliminate sources of contamination and work towards achieving "Zero Leak". Step 3: Include key safety procedures in cleaning and inspection standards. Steps 4-5: Develop equipment and Process competent people The more people know of their equipment and processes, the more safely they can work. Link safety education & training to skills training through the use of accident case studies. The number of accidents rises in proportion to the number of miner stoppages; so attack accidents and problems by enhancing condition monitoring of equipment and plant. Steps 6-7: Consolidation Take each step in turn, without rushing or omitting anything, until everyone becomes confident and knowledgeable about safety.

Conclusion:TPM in refinery will bring a radical change in work culture, increased efficiency, and speed of processing and ultimately improve the morale & commitment of the employees resulting in higher profitability.

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