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The goal of the international scientific conference “Applied geography in theory and practice”, Zagreb 2010. is to provide a forum for an exchange of experiences and discussions of potentials of geography in solving the problems of spatial, social and economic development, including the study of human influence in shaping the environment.
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SUPPORTED BY:

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Department of GeographyFaculty of Science

University of Zagreb

Zagreb, 2010

International Scientific ConferenceAPPLIED GEOGRAPHY IN THEORY AND PRACTICE

5 – 6 November 2010, Zagreb

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

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Publisher:

Department of GeographyFaculty of ScienceUniversity of ZagrebMarulićev trg 19/210 000 Zagreb

For publisher:

Ivo Nejašmić

Edited by:

Aleksandar Lukić

Print:

HEROINA

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the National and University Library in Zagreb under 747148

ISBN 978-953-6076-22-2

Printed in Croatia 2010

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SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Hartmut ASCHE, University of Potsdam, Germany

Antoine BAILLY, University of Geneve, Switzerland

Zoran CURIĆ, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Sanja FAIVRE, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Borna FUERST-BJELIŠ, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Anton GOSAR, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia

Reinhard HENKEL, University of Heidelberg, Germany

Marko KREVS, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Dénes LÓCZY, University of Pécs, Hungary

Damir MAGAŠ, University of Zadar, Croatia

Ivo NEJAŠMIĆ, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Vuk Tvrtko OPAČIĆ, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Michael PACIONE, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

Vera PAVLAKOVICH-KOCHI, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

Dane PEJNOVIĆ, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Ivan RATKAJ, University of Belgrade, Serbia

Zoran ROCA, University Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias Lisbon, Portugal

Aleksandar TOSKIĆ, University of Zagreb, Croatia

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE*

Laura ŠAKAJA, conference coordinator

Aleksandar LUKIĆ, secretary

Vedran PRELOGOVIĆ, treasurer

Nenad BUZJAK

Marin CVITANOVIĆ

Ivan ČANJEVAC

Danijel OREŠIĆ

*all from University of Zagreb

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PROGRAMMEThursday 4th November 2010

18:00 - 20:00 Registration (optional)

Friday 5th November 20108:00 - 9:00 Registration

9:15 Welcome speech and opening

9:45 - 10:30

Opening keynote lecture: Michael Pacione

Applied geography: principles and praxis

10:30 - 11:00 Discussion

11:00 - 11:30 COFFEE BREAK with snacks

11:30-13:00Section 1.1

Relation between theory and practice in geography

Chair: Peter Jordan ROOM

Maria PreziosoResearching in geography, is it possible to match science, theory and practice of the territorial development? 1

Katja Vintar MallyMeasuring progress towards sustainability: the geographers view 1

Ivo NejašmićApplied research in population geography 1

Danijel OrešićApplied hydrogeography – its placement and role 1

Section 2.1

Applied physical geography and geoecological analyses

Chair: Dušan Plut ROOM

Blaž Komac, Matija ZornLandslide geomorphology - landslides as an important morphogenetic factor 2

Matija Zorn, Blaž KomacMeasurments of various erosion processes in fl ysch and dolomite regions in Slovenia 2

Nenad Buzjak, Mladen PahernikApplied geoecological research of Samobor karst area 2

Neven BočićValues of geoheritage in the karst underground of Croatia and their protection 2

Section 3.1

Spatial, social and economic analysis

Chair: lučka lorber ROOM

Holger Bergmann, Eva Maria NoackThe impact of migration on social capital and social cohesion in Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire (Scotland, UK) 3

Mirjana Roksandić, Slavoljub Dragićević, Nenad ŽivkovićSocio-economic effects of the river system changes in Donja Kolubara river valley 3

Lana SlavujUrban quality of life – case study of Rijeka 3

Jernej TiranSettlement area type as a factor of electoral behavior 3

LUNCH BREAK: 13:00 - 15:00

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15:00-16:20Section 1.2

Relation between theory and practice in geography

Regional and spatial planning

Chair: Maria Prezioso ROOM

Andrej ČerneGeographical concepts in regional and spatial planning 1

Damir MagašApplied geography in spatial planning – Croatian case 1

Alois HumerThe role of applied spatial science in a complex multi-level and multi-actor system – EU regional policy and the ESPON programme 1

Darko Stilinović, Borna Fuerst-BjelišRegional development of border regions: from periphery to developmental axis 1

Section 2.2

Applied physical geography and geoecological analyses

Protection and management of natural resources

Chair: Sanja Faivre ROOM

Peter Mackelworth, Jelena JovanovićProtected areas for conservation or sustainable development 2

Jelena PuđakClassifi cation methodology of bioregions with initial proposal of Croatian bioregions 2

Luka Valožić, Marin CvitanovićForest at the end of the city: deforestation and urbanization in Medvednica protected area 2

Barbara Lampič, Irena Mrak, Dušan PlutGeographical identifi cation of development potential for the sustainable development of protected areas 2

Section 3.2

Spatial, social and economic analysis

Chair: Ivan Ratkaj ROOM

Jacques Teller, Sébastien Dujardin, François PirartHome-to-work commuting and reducing energy consumption: what role can geography play? A multi-scalar analysis of Wallonia, Belgium 3

Eva Maria Noack, Holger BergmannTransport mobility and accessibility: results of research on women in rural Aberdeenshire, Scotland 3

Martina JakovčićGeography of leisure - how to choose your favorite shopping centre 3

Aleksandar Lukić, Vedran Prelogović, Stanko RihtarPlanning more human city: student attitudes towards cycling and transport in Zagreb 3

COFFEE BREAK: 16:20 - 16:45

16:45-17:45Section 1.3

Regional and spatial planning

Chair: Anton Gosar ROOM

Dejan RebernikApplied geographical research of urban development and urban planning in Slovenia 1

Peter JordanProgress in administrative decentralisation in transformation countries – a comparative survey 1

Dritan RustjaRegional and spatial planning as a contribution in applied geography: the case of the periurban area of Shkoder city – Albania 1

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Section 2.3

Applied physical geography and geoecological analyses

Natural risk management

Chair: Peter Mackelworth ROOM

Maria CoronatoNatural risk and cohesion 2

Emir Temimović, Haris JahićLandslides in the city of Sarajevo - causes, consequences and sanitation 2

Sanja Faivre, Mladen Pahernik Vulnerability of western Istrian coast to sea-level rise 2

Section 3.3

Spatial perception and imagination

Chair: Marko Krevs ROOM

Tatjana Resnik Planinc, Mojca IlcEuropean identity in Slovenian education systems through geographical perspective 3

Ivana Crljenko, Mladen KlemenčićGeography and encyclopaedias 3

Laura Šakaja, Svjetlana VišnićExperiencing a place: Karlovac as an older teenagers’ daily environment 3

COFFEE BREAK: 17:45 - 18:00

18:00-19:00Section 1.4

Regional and spatial planning

Chair: Andrej černe ROOM

Lučka LorberInterdisciplinary methodological approach to the process of brownfi eld revitalisation of traditional industrial areas 1

Pascal Beckers, Jan Schuur, Michel Traa, Rob LokeTowards better forecasting of business spatial demand: planning of industrial estates in the Netherlands by an enhanced modeling approach 1

Marija Martinović, Ivan RatkajShrinking regions in Serbia – Zaplanje case study 1

Section 2.4

Natural risk management

Protection and management of natural resources

Chair: Danijel Orešić ROOM

Karel Natek, Marko Krevs, Barbara Lampič, Darko Ogrin, Irena Mrak, Blaž Repe, Uroš StepišnikComposition of erosion, fl ood and avalanche risk maps for the area of Tržič municipality (Slovenia) as the basis of the new municipal spatial plan 2

Nika Razpotnik ViskovićEnvironmental confl icts between habitats of the vulnerable bird species and power line network 2

Ervis KrymbiManagement of natural resources in Shkodra region 2

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Section 3.4

Spatial, social and economic analysis (tourism)

Chair: Vuk Tvrtko Opačić ROOM

Daniel Göler, Holger Lehmeier, Matthias BickertCoastal tourism in Montenegro - economic dynamics, spatial development and future perspectives 3

Jasenka Kranjčević, Izidora MarkovićGeographical aspects of spatial planning for tourism 3

Nikola GlamuzinaGeographic characteristics of the development of tourism in the Middle Dalmatian Islands at the end of the 20th and the beggining of the 21st century 3

CONFERENCE DINNER: 20:30

Restaurant Klub književnika, Trg bana J. Jelačića 7/1 (main square)

Saturday 6th November 201009:00-10:20

Section 1.5

Geographic curriculum and applied geography

Chair: biljana Vranković ROOM

Karmen Kolenc KolnikApplied geography and the new goals of geography education in Slovenia 1

Clemens WieserAction as a missing link between theory and practice of geography education: conceptual requirements for a theory of practice of geography teaching 1

Yvonne FranzFrom curricular theory to practical implementation: in-depth insight into UNICA Euromaster in Urban Studies (4Cities) 1

Đurđica KomlenovićApplicative geography curricula in secondary education in Serbia 1

Section 2.5

Valorization and protection of cultural landscapes

Chair: borna Fuerst-bjeliš ROOM

Branka ButinaFrom the seven wonders of the world to the UNESCO World Heritage: political and economic aspects of institutionalised cultural preservation 2

Jana Špulerová, František PetrovičHistorical agricultural landscape as an subject of landscape ecological research 2

Maria Helena Mesquita PinaWhich strategies should be adopted to preserve and enhance the Douro region (NE Portugal), a World Heritage site? 2

Section 3.5

Spatial, social and economic analysis (tourism)

Chair: Daniel Göler ROOM

Zoran Roca, Maria de Nazaré Roca, José A OliveiraThe growth of second homes in Portugal: spatial planning and development policy concerns 3

Vuk Tvrtko OpačićThe concept proposal for the study of the second home phenomenon in the receiving second home area 3

Milena TaleskaThe challenges and opportunities of developing wine tourism in the Republic of Macedonia 3

Matej Ogrin, Nastja Rodman, Matic Močnik, Rok Vengar, Andraž Smolej, Gregor Bunčič Climate changes and winter tourism in Slovenia 3

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Section 4.5

Applied GIS and other geo-information technologies

Chair: Nenad buzjak ROOM

Hartmut Asche, Aleksandar Toskić, Dubravka Spevec, Rita EngemaierCollaborative development of the web-based Croatian demographic atlas information system DACIS 4

Tomas HudecekAnalysis of accessibility patterns in Czechia from 1921 to 2020 4

Ákos JakobiApplication of interpolated surface models on Hungarian socio-economic data 4

COFFEE BREAK: 10:20 - 10:45

10:45-12:30Section 1.6 (10:45 – 11:45)

Geographic curriculum and applied geography

Chair: Karmen Kolenc Kolnik ROOM

Eva Konečnik KotnikApplicative economic geography in general grammar school in Slovenia 1

Biljana Vranković, Željka Šiljković, Ružica VukExternal evaluation of eight-grade students in domain of general geography 1

Felisbela Martins, Carlinda Leite(Re)Interpretations by teachers in Portugal of the National Geography Curriculum in primary education 1

Section 1.6 A (11:50 – 12:30)

Natural risk management

Chair: Matej Ogrin ROOM

Čedomir Benac, Rade Knežević The infl uence of natural hazard for touristic development in the Kvarner area (Northeastern Adriatic sea) 1

Renata Grbac Žiković, Petra Radeljak, Sanja FaivreLandslide database and its applicability: the case of Rijeka area 1

Section 2.6

Valorization and protection of cultural landscapes

Chair: Zoran Roca ROOM

Benedetta Castiglioni, Viviana Ferrario, Mauro VarottoThe contribution of geography in landscape planning: an experimental approach in Veneto Region (Italy) 2

Biserka Dumbović Bilušić, Vesna Koščak Miočić-Stošić, Vladimir KušanA contribution to research in landscape characterization methodology on example of the Strategy for Landscape Character Protection of the City of Zagreb 2

Alfonso Garcia De la VegaCultural heritage assessment in the landscape of the Tiermes Combe (Soria, Spain) 2

Ivan MadžarChanges in the physiognomy and area structure of settlements Međugorje-Bijakovići (1981-2008) 2

Vladimir Stojanović, Dragoslav Pavić, Milana PašićLandscape management in Vojvodina as a prerequisite for its sustainable development 2

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Section 3.6

Spatial, social and economic analysis

Chair: Damir Magaš ROOM

Simon KušarInstitutional approach in economic geography: applicative view 3

Mikica Sibinović, Ivan RatkajStructural changes in the peri-urban agriculture of the Belgrade region 3

Luka Valožić, Aleksandar Toskić, Dražen NjegačPopulation distribution change in Istria county 3

Tatjana FischerFrom assumptions to facts – a necessary condition for sustainable development of rural areas 3

András Donát KovácsIdeas for the future of scattered farms in Hungary 3

Section 4.6

Applied GIS and other geo-information technologies

Chair: Aleksandar Toskić ROOM

Verka Jovanović, Olgica Bošković, Emilija Manić GIS analysis of the trade development indicators in Republic of Serbia 4

Hartmut Asche, Silvija Stankute, Markus WolffDeveloping an integrated GIS-VIS software environment for GIS-based quality map production 4

COFFEE BREAK with snacks: 12:30 - 13:00

13:00 - 13:45Closing keynote lecture: Antoine Bailly

An epistemology of applied geography

13:45 - 14:15 Discussion

GUIDED CITY TOUR (optional): 16:00 - 17:45

FAREWELL PARTY (drinks, snacks): 20:00University of ZagrebTrg maršala Tita 14

POSTER PRESENTATIONS (Friday 5th and Saturday 6th November)

Ksenija Protrka, Roman OzimecMonitoring of speleological objects in Nature Park Biokovo –basement for government and protection of endogenous karst phenomena in protected areas

Jure MarićGeography in regional planning - conditions and possibilities

Mladen MaradinThe approach to the climate indicators in the spatial plans of the counties in Croatia

Márton BerkiHybrid geographies: nature and/or society

Alfonso Garcia de la VegaAcquisition of key competences in geography through problem-based learning

Madalina-Teodora Andrei, Florin VartolomeiLandscape’s evolution. GIS application approach

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Nusret Drešković, Alma Pobrić, Samir Đug Sports-recreation tourism as a component of the general turistic development : cycling track in Trnovo municipality

Aida Korjenić, Marija MisiloMorphological features of the Una-Sana Canton relief as a factor of spatial planning

STUDENT POSTER PRESENTATIONIvan ŠulcDemographic basis of tourism development on Croatian islands - the example of Mljet Island

Sunday 7th November 2010Excursion (advanced booking by e-mail necessary) 9:00 - 19:00

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TAblE OF CONTENTSWELCOME NOTE 21

IVO NEJAŠMIĆHead of the Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb

KEYNOTE LECTURES 25

AN EPISTEMOLOGY OF APPLIED GEOGRAPHY 25Antoine BAILLY

APPLIED GEOGRAPHY: PRINCIPLES AND PRAXIS 25Michael PACIONE

LANDSCAPE’S EVOLUTION. GIS APPLICATION APPROACH 27Madalina-Teodora ANDREI, Florin VARTOLOMEI

COLLABORATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEB-BASED CROATIAN DEMOGRAPHIC ATLAS INFORMATION SYSTEM DACIS 28

Hartmut ASCHE, Aleksandar TOSKIĆ, Dubravka SPEVEC, Rita ENGEMAIER

DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED GIS-VIS SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT FOR GIS-BASED QUALITY MAP PRODUCTION 29

Hartmut ASCHE, Silvija STANKUTE, Markus WOLFF

TOWARDS BETTER FORECASTING OF BUSINESS SPATIAL DEMAND: PLANNING OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATES IN THE NETHERLANDS BY AN ENHANCED MODELING APPROACH 30

Pascal BECKERS, Jan SCHUUR, Michel TRAA, Rob LOKE

THE INFLUENCE OF NATURAL HAZARD FOR TURISTIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE KVARNER AREA (NORTHEASTERN ADRIATIC SEA) 31

Čedomir BENAC, Rade KNEŽEVIĆ

THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AND SOCIAL COHESION IN ABERDEEN AND ABERDEENSHIRE (SCOTLAND, UK) 32

Holger BERGMANN, Eva Maria NOACK

HYBRID GEOGRAPHIES: NATURE AND/OR SOCIETY 33Márton BERKI

VALUES OF GEOHERITAGE IN THE KARST UNDERGROUND OF CROATIA AND THEIR PROTECTION 34Neven BOČIĆ

FROM THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD TO THE UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF INSTITUTIONALISED CULTURAL PRESERVATION 35

Branka BUTINA

APPLIED GEOECOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF SAMOBOR KARST AREA 36Nenad BUZJAK, Mladen PAHERNIK

THE CONTRIBUTION OF GEOGRAPHY IN LANDSCAPE PLANNING: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH IN VENETO REGION (ITALY) 37

Benedetta CASTIGLIONI, Viviana FERRARIO, Mauro VAROTTO

GEOGRAPHICAL CONCEPTS IN REGIONAL AND SPATIAL PLANNING 38Andrej ČERNE

NATURAL RISK AND COHESION 39Maria CORONATO

GEOGRAPHY AND ENCYCLOPAEDIAS 40Ivana CRLJENKO, Mladen KLEMENČIĆ

SPORTS-RECREATION TURISM AS COMPONENT OF THE GENERAL TURISTIC DEVELOPMENT - CYCLING TRACK IN TRNOVO MUNICIPALITY 41

Nusret DREŠKOVIĆ, Alma POBRIĆ, Samir ĐUG

A CONTRIBUTION TO RESEARCH IN LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION METHODOLOGY ON EXAMPLE OF THE STRATEGY FOR LANDSCAPE CHARACTER PROTECTION OF THE CITY OF ZAGREB 42

Biserka DUMBOVIĆ BILUŠIĆ, Vesna KOŠČAK MIOČIĆ-STOŠIĆ, Vladimir KUŠAN

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VULNERABILITY OF WESTERN ISTRIAN COAST TO SEA-LEVEL RISE 43Sanja FAIVRE, Mladen PAHERNIK

FROM ASSUMPTIONS TO FACTS – A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS 44

Tatjana FISCHER

FROM CURRICULAR THEORY TO PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION: IN-DEPTH INSIGHT INTO UNICA EUROMASTER IN URBAN STUDIES (4CITIES) 45

Yvonne FRANZ

CULTURAL HERITAGE ASSESSMENT IN THE LANDSCAPE OF THE TIERMES COMBE (SORIA, SPAIN) 46Alfonso GARCÍA DE LA VEGA

ACQUISITION OF KEY COMPETENCES IN GEOGRAPHY THROUGH PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING 47Alfonso GARCÍA DE LA VEGA

GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE MIDDLE DALMATIAN ISLANDS AT THE END OF THE 20TH AND THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY 48

Nikola GLAMUZINA

COASTAL TOURISM IN MONTENEGRO – ECONOMIC DYNAMICS, SPATIAL DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES 49

Daniel GÖLER, Matthias BICKERT, Holger LEHMEIER

LANDSLIDE DATABASE AND ITS APPLICABILITY: THE CASE OF RIJEKA AREA 50Renata GRBAC ŽIKOVIĆ, Petra RADELJAK, Sanja FAIVRE

ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIBILITY PATTERNS IN CZECHIA FROM 1921 TO 2020 51Tomas HUDECEK

THE ROLE OF APPLIED SPATIAL SCIENCE IN A COMPLEX MULTI-LEVEL AND MULTI-ACTOR SYSTEM – EU REGIONAL POLICY AND THE ESPON PROGRAMME 52

Alois HUMER

APPLICATION OF INTERPOLATED SURFACE MODELS ON HUNGARIAN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA 53Ákos JAKOBI

GEOGRAPHY OF LEISURE – HOW TO CHOOSE YOUR FAVORITE SHOPPING CENTRE 54Martina JAKOVČIĆ

PROGRESS IN ADMINISTRATIVE DECENTRALISATION IN TRANSFORMATION COUNTRIES – A COMPARATIVE SURVEY 55

Peter JORDAN

GIS ANALYSIS OF THE TRADE DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS IN REPUBLIC OF SERBIA 56Verka JOVANOVIĆ, Olgica BOŠKOVIĆ, Emilija MANIĆ

APPLIED GEOGRAPHY AND THE NEW GOALS OF GEOGRAPHY EDUCATION IN SLOVENIA 57Karmen KOLENC KOLNIK

LANDSLIDE GEOMORPHOLOGY – LANDSLIDES AS AN IMPORTANT MORPHOGENETIC FACTOR 58Blaž KOMAC, Matija ZORN

APPLICATIVE GEOGRAPHY CURRICULA IN SECONDARY EDUCATION IN SERBIA 59Đurđica KOMLENOVIĆ

APPLICATIVE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY IN GENERAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL IN SLOVENIA 60Eva KONEČNIK KOTNIK

MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE UNA-SANA CANTON RELIEF AS A FACTOR OF SPATIAL PLANNING 61Aida KORJENIĆ, Marija MISLIO

IDEAS FOR THE FUTURE OF SCATTERED FARMS IN HUNGARY 62András DONÁT KOVÁCS

GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF SPATIAL PLANNING FOR TOURISM 63Jasenka KRANJČEVIĆ, Izidora MARKOVIĆ

MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN SHKODRA REGION 64Ervis KRYMBI

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INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH IN ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY: APPLICATIVE VIEW 65Simon KUŠAR

GEOGRAPHICAL IDENTIFICATION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS 66

Barbara LAMPIČ, Irena MRAK, Dušan PLUT

INTERDISCIPLINARY METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE PROCESS OF BROWNFIELD REVITALISATION OF TRADITIONAL INDUSTRIAL AREAS 67

Lučka LORBER

PLANNING MORE HUMAN CITY: STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS CYCLING AND TRANSPORT IN ZAGREB 68Aleksandar LUKIĆ, Vedran PRELOGOVIĆ, Stanko RIHTAR

PROTECTED AREAS FOR CONSERVATION OR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? 69Peter MACKELWORTH, Jelena JOVANOVIĆ

CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOGNOMY AND AREA STRUCTURE OF SETTLEMENTS MEĐUGORJE – BIJAKOVIĆI (1981 - 2008) 70

Ivan MADŽAR

APPLIED GEOGRAPHY IN SPATIAL PLANNING – CROATIAN CASE 71Damir MAGAŠ

THE APPROACH TO THE CLIMATE INDICATORS IN THE SPATIAL PLANS OF THE COUNTIES IN CROATIA 72Mladen MARADIN

GEOGRAPHY IN REGIONAL PLANNING - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITIES 73Jure MARIĆ

SHRINKING REGIONS IN SERBIA – ZAPLANJE CASE STUDY 74Marija MARTINOVIĆ, Ivan RATKAJ

(RE)INTERPRETATIONS BY TEACHERS IN PORTUGAL OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM IN PRIMARY EDUCATION 75

Felisbela MARTINS, Carlinda LEITE

CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF 21 CENTURY - QUO VADIS? GEOGRAPHICAL CONSIDERATION BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE 76

Urszula MYGA-PIATEK

COMPOSITION OF EROSION, FLOOD AND AVALANCHE RISK MAPS FOR THE AREA OF TRžIČ MUNICIPALITY (SLOVENIA) AS THE BASIS OF THE NEW MUNICIPAL SPATIAL PLAN 77

Karel NATEK, Marko KREVS, Barbara LAMPIČ, Darko OGRIN, Irena MRAK, Blaž REPE, Uroš STEPIŠNIK

APPLIED RESEARCH IN POPULATION GEOGRAPHY 78Ivo NEJAŠMIĆ

TRANSPORT MOBILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY: RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON WOMEN IN RURAL ABERDEENSHIRE, SCOTLAND 79

Eva Maria NOACK, Holger BERGMANN

CLIMATE CHANGES AND WINTER TOURISM IN SLOVENIA 80Matej OGRIN, Nastja RODMAN, Matic MOČNIK, Rok VENGAR, Andraž SMOLEJ, Gregor BUNČIČ

THE CONCEPT PROPOSAL FOR THE STUDY OF THE SECOND HOME PHENOMENON IN THE RECEIVING SECOND HOME AREA 81

Vuk Tvrtko OPAČIĆ

APPLIED HYDROGEOGRAPHY – ITS PLACEMENT AND ROLE 82Danijel OREŠIĆ

WHICH STRATEGIES SHOULD BE ADOPTED TO PRESERVE AND ENHANCE THE DOURO REGION (NE PORTUGAL), A WORLD HERITAGE SITE? 83

Maria Helena Mesquita PINA

RESEARCHING IN GEOGRAPHY, IS IT POSSIBLE TO MATCH SCIENCE, THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT? 84

Maria PREZIOSO

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MONITORING OF SPELEOLOGICAL OBJECTS IN NATURE PARK BIOKOVO – BASEMENT FOR GOVERNMENT AND PROTECTION OF ENDOGENOUS KARST PHENOMENA IN PROTECTED AREAS 85

Ksenija PROTRKA, Roman OZIMEC

CLASSIFICATION METHODOLOGY OF BIOREGIONS WITH INITIAL PROPOSAL OF CROATIAN BIOREGIONS 86Jelena PUĐAK

ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS BETWEEN HABITATS OF THE VULNERABLE BIRD SPECIES AND POWER LINE NETWORK 87

Nika RAZPOTNIK VISKOVIĆ

APPLIED GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND URBAN PLANNING IN SLOVENIA 88Dejan REBERNIK

EUROPEAN IDENTITY IN SLOVENIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM THROUGH GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE 89Tatjana RESNIK PLANINC, Mojca ILC

THE GROWTH OF SECOND HOMES IN PORTUGAL: SPATIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY CONCERNS 90

Zoran ROCA, Maria DE NAZARÉ ROCA, José A. OLIVEIRA

SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE RIVER SYSTEM CHANGES IN DONJA KOLUBARA RIVER VALLEY 91Mirjana ROKSANDIĆ, Slavoljub DRAGIČEVIĆ, Nenad ŽIVKOVIĆ

REGIONAL AND SPATIAL PLANNING AS A CONTRIBUTION IN APPLIED GEOGRAPHY: THE CASE OF THE PERIURBAN AREA OF SHKODER CITY – ALBANIA 92

Dritan RUSTJA

STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE PERI-URBAN AGRICULTURE OF THE BELGRADE REGION 93Mikica SIBINOVIĆ, Ivan RATKAJ

URBAN QUALITY OF LIFE – CASE STUDY OF RIJEKA 94Lana SLAVUJ

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF BORDER REGIONS: FROM PERIPHERY TO DEVELOPMENTAL AXIS 95Darko STILINOVIĆ, Borna FUERST-BJELIŠ

LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT IN VOJVODINA AS A PREREQUISITE FOR ITS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 96Vladimir STOJANOVIĆ, Dragoslav PAVIĆ, Milana PAŠIĆ

EXPERIENCING A PLACE: KARLOVAC AS AN OLDER TEENAGERS’ DAILY ENVIRONMENT 97Laura ŠAKAJA, Svjetlana VIŠNIĆ

HISTORICAL AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE AS A SUBJECT OF LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH 98Jana ŠPULEROVÁ, František PETROVIČ

THE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVELOPING WINE TOURISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA 99

Milena TALESKA

HOME-TO-WORK COMMUTING AND REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION: WHAT ROLE CAN GEOGRAPHY PLAY? 100

Jacques TELLER, Sébastien DUJARDIN, François PIRART

LANDSLIDES CITY OF SARAJEVO-CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND SANATION 101Emir TEMIMOVIĆ, Haris JAHIĆ

SETTLEMENT AREA TYPE AS A FACTOR OF ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR 102 Jernej TIRAN

FOREST AT THE END OF THE CITY: DEFORESTATION AND URBANIZATION IN MEDVEDNICA PROTECTED AREA 103

Luka VALOŽIĆ, Marin CVITANOVIĆ

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION CHANGE IN ISTRIA COUNTY 104Luka VALOŽIĆ, Aleksandar TOSKIĆ, Dražen NJEGAČ

MEASURING PROGRESS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY: THE GEOGRAPHERS VIEW 105Katja VINTAR MALLY

EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF EIGHT-GRADE STUDENTS IN DOMAIN OF GENERAL GEOGRAPHY 106Biljana VRANKOVIĆ, Željka ŠILJKOVIĆ, Ružica VUK

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ACTION AS A MISSING LINK BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE OF GEOGRAPHY EDUCATION 107Clemens WIESER

MEASUREMENTS OF VARIOUS EROSION PROCESSES IN FLYSCH AND DOLOMITE REGIONS IN SLOVENIA 108

Matija ZORN, Blaž KOMAC

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WElCOME NOTE

IVO NEJAŠMIĆHead of the Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb

Ladies and gentlemen, distinguished colleagues,

In the name of the Department of Geography of the Faculty of Science at the University of Zagreb, I wish you a warm welcome. To all the colleagues who have travelled from other parts of Croatia and the world I wish a pleasant stay in Zagreb.

I would like to use this opportunity to thank the Organizing committee for a great effort they have put in organizing this conference. Also, our thanks go to the Ministry of Science, Education and Sport as well as the Faculty of Science for their financial support.

There were several reasons for organizing a scientific conference on applied geography, but the main reason arises from the fact that in today’s world we are faced with numerous challenges which require a quick reaction and a well-thought answer. We hope that this conference will give some of those answers we’re looking for.

Geography has evolved through time, just as other scientific disciplines have. It made the journey from an all-encompassing discipline (“everything is geography”) to being the basis for many advanced applications. A question one would naturally ask is: what is the connection between applied and basic research? A lot has been written on the topic, and it is one of the topics of our conference. For this occasion we shouldn’t give too much importance to the dichotomy between research in theory on one and applied geography on the other side. It is better to see them as two sides of the same medal. It is, as Michael Pacione once said, “… in fact, a dialectic relationship between the two“.

In the last few decades geography started losing ground in some European countries; in some extreme cases it was completely removed from the curricula of elementary and high schools. The fact that the application of geography is still mostly in the field of teaching gives this course of events an even greater importance. Human geography is being replaced by “social studies” while the same is happening to physical geography at the hands of “environmental sciences”. Such subjects, as valuable as they are, still don’t offer an integral approach, which is one of the main characteristics of good geography education. Initiatives like these exist in Croatia: those who favor them talk about the experience in other countries. So far, the initiative only got as far as testing the public’s opinion on the subject. Phasing out geography is detrimental on many levels:

a) the society is less and less informed about the important topics about the world we’re living in (from local to international level)

b) by weakening the position of geography as a teaching subject, the number of potential students interested in studying geography is decreasing and, consequently,

c) there are less and less geography experts which could take part in solving many social, economical and ecological problems we’re faced with.

On university level, the so called “Bologna process” has brought many changes, the new curriculum being one of them. Are new study programmes compatible with the labour market? Is traditional academic education being supplemented with new practical programmes? Are potential employers aware of geographers’ skills? These are just some of the questions waiting to be answered.

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Moreover, we’re witnessing a change in the way of financing of science and higher education. The trend is to reduce the financing from state budget and encourage institutions to find new sources of income on the market. How to compete with other scientific disciplines? In multidisciplinary research which combines interactive elements of natural and social environment, geography has a leading role (or, at least it should have). There are many areas of research, as well as a market niche, where geography and its sub disciplines are irreplaceable (or should be)!

The reality shows us, and many authors have already written on it, that geography is a powerful discipline with unfulfilled potentials in solving crucial societal and environmental problems. Thus, geography hasn’t been recognized in the field of applied research and we have to be ever more active in offering our products and services in order to change the public perception of geography. Many other disciplines are more successful than geography, especially when it comes to creating an image in the media. We should try and introduce “the outside world” to our abilities and capacities in solving the problems of our society. American geographer Richard Morrill once wrote: “The university need not be just an ivory tower, but a rather visible institution to which private and public entities really do look for advice and research“.

Changes do happen, albeit slowly. Bailly and Gibson said: “ Changes are going on in each country where geographers are honored and get high public positions, but moving at a pace that leaves the field open for predators“.

Another problem in Croatia is the fact that the labour market is not diverse enough. There are only a few market niches available to geographers, with other disciplines taking part in it (such as architects and urban planners in spatial planning, economists in regional planning etc). One should strive to strengthen geography and to dedicate it to the welfare of society, especially to everyday life of people in the local community.

I will conclude this speech with words written by British geographer Robert Saks in his book ‘Homo Geographicus’: „… we humans are geographical beings”. This interesting remark should help us to awake our self-esteem as one of the conditions for improving the position and importance of geography in the 21st century.

My dear colleagues,

I am certain that we share a common wish: that our scientific conference is successful and above all abounds in applicable results.

Thank you for your attention!

Prof. dr. sc. Ivo Nejašmić

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KEYNOTE lECTURES

AN EPISTEMOlOGY OF APPlIED GEOGRAPHY

Antoine BAILLY

University of Geneve, Switzerland([email protected])

The presentation is organized in 4 parts: A short history of applied geography; Applied geography in perspective; A translational science; The future of applied geography.

The purpose of the conference is to show that applied geography is rather weakly epistemologically grounded and then to offer some guidelines for the specific role of applied geography now and in the future. Applied geographers cannot work like technicians. Geography, a social science, is embedded in cultural and social practices. We must understand the subjectivity of our knowledge and the necessity of adopting a behavioural approach.

In the presentation we use the concept of “planning triangle” to illustrate the role of the people, the politicians and geographers in the decision process. We also use the approaches proposed by translational science to work in partnership with the local actors, so that the objects of decisions can be constructed in ways that are more in keeping with the views of people. We conclude on new fields and openings for applied geography.

APPlIED GEOGRAPHY: PRINCIPlES AND PRAXIS

Michael PACIONE

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom([email protected])

The relevance and value of applied geographical research has never been more apparent given the plethora of problem situations which confront modern societies. An applied geographical approach has the potential to illuminate the nature and causes of such problems and inform the formulation of appropriate responses. This paper demonstrates the fundamental principles and empirical praxis of applied geography. The discussion is organised in two main parts. Part I provides an overview of the principles and practice of applied geography. Consideration is given to the relationship between ‘pure’ and ‘applied’ research, and the particular concept of ‘useful knowledge’ is introduced. This conceptual discussion is complemented, in Part II, by empirical examples of applied research in the field of urban geography. Finally, a prospective perspective is adopted to consider the question of the value of applied geography for contemporary societies.

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lANDSCAPE’S EVOlUTION. GIS APPlICATION APPROACH

Madalina-Teodora ANDREI, Florin VARTOLOMEI

Faculty of Geography and Tourism Geography“Spiru Haret” University, Bucharest, Romania

([email protected])

If our environment and natural heritage are to be properly managed, decision-makers need to be provided with both an overview of existing knowledge, and information which is as complete and up-to-date as possible on changes in certain features of the biosphere.

Until recently, it was generally assumed that in the long term human activity had little lasting effect on the land thanks to nature’s ability to restore itself. This view remained prevalent for a long time despite the fact that farming practices have been causing irreversible damage in certain areas for centuries.

Over the last few decades, the effects of certain phenomena have shown that we do need to look after land cover and all its various components. These include:

• the gradual desertification of certain regions;

• the rapid disappearance of vast areas of forest;

• the wholesale of poor farmland;

• the gradual drying-up of wetlands;

• continuous urban development along coastlines.

Over the last decade, awareness of serious environmental problems has lent new urgency to the question of land cover inventories.

That for GIS has some application for mapping these spatial and temporal changes of landscape.

Landscape, land cover and land use are identified as important components of the agri-environmental indicators listed in the Commission’s Communication to the European Parliament ‘Statistical information needed for indicators to monitor the integration of environmental concerns into the common agricultural policy (COM (2001) 144).

Keywords: landscape, GIS, evolution

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COllAbORATIVE DEVElOPMENT OF THE WEb-bASED CROATIAN DEMOGRAPHIC ATlAS INFORMATION SYSTEM DACIS

Hartmut ASCHE1, Aleksandar TOSKIĆ2, Dubravka SPEVEC2, Rita ENGEMAIER1

1 Department of Geography, University of Potsdam, Germany2 Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

Demographic data are central to the development of any country. However, basic and up-to-date information on the population, economy or environment is often not readily available to the scientific community as well as the wider public. This is the current situation in Croatia, a candidate country about to join the European Union and a post-communist reform state. To help bridge the existing information gap a Croatian and German geoscientists of Zagreb and Potsdam universities have teamed up to develop and implement a web-based demographic atlas informa-tion system. This paper discusses the collaborative development of the Demographic Atlas of Croatia (DACIS) including the generation of a GIS-based atlas information system (AIS) and its population with demographic data and high quality maps.

Atlas and map format have purposely been chosen as a familiar and most effective means to communicate geographic information to a wide audience. DACIS, in particular, aims at dissemi-nating up-to-date demographic information in quality maps to educators and decision makers in politics and the economy, both in Croatia and abroad. Accordingly, DACIS will provide fundamental information on the structures, composition, distribution, natural and spatial developments and trends of the Croatian population, as well as regional case studies. To be able to reach the audience targeted the web AIS will be complemented by a conventional atlas book. The presentation details atlas content and visualisation concept, symbolisation, map types, and usability issues of database access, interactive map analysis and modification.

Development and implementation of DACIS is based on a collaborative approach. For that purpose a web-based production environment has been set up. Processes and work packages have been defined that are being executed by the Croation and German partners. The presentation highlights the current state of the AIS and discusses thematic, technical, organisational issues associated with the ongoing development of DACIS.

Keywords: atlas information system, demographic atlas, web mapping, electronic atlas

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DEVElOPING AN INTEGRATED GIS-VIS SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT FOR GIS-bASED qUAlITY MAP PRODUCTION

Hartmut ASCHE, Silvija STANKUTE, Markus WOLFF

Department of Geography, University of Potsdam, Germany([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

In the digital age it is generally accepted that about 80 percent of all digital data have a geographical reference. There is an ever-increasing demand for these geodata in research and develop-ment (R&D) as well as in the economy and administration. One relevant application is digital map production with geographic information systems (GIS) or Desktop Mapping visualisation systems (VIS), respectively. While the latter provide the full range of graphics functionality to construct quality maps in accordance with cartographic principles, GIS facilitate the generation of database-linked map presentations.

This complementary situation is reflected in the map market. Recent times have seen a sharp decline of the demand for digital map graphics while the need for database-based map representations has been increasing. Producers of quality maps see their business go down since they cannot provide quality maps linked to a geodata base while GIS users are unable to deliver the cartographic quality required of any proper map that communicates geographic information. To help to overcome this division a R&D effort is being undertaken to develop and implement generic methods and techniques to produce and use data-based maps fully conforming with professional cartographic modelling standards.

The approach presented here aims to achieve just that in a three-step R&D process for which purpose geoinformation scientists and commercial map producers have joined forces. Starting with a software link between separate GIS and VIS components, both systems will be joined in a GIS+VIS environment with the VIS as a front-end and the GIS as the back-end. Eventually, both components will be fully integrated into a uniform GISVIS production environment allowing for professional quality map construction on the foundation of a geodatabase. Results expected will be professional digital maps combining quality map graphics with GIS functionality and an operational production process ready for implementation in cartographic SMEs.

Keywords: geoinformation system (GIS), visualisation system (VIS), GIS-VIS link, production workflow, GIS-based quality mapping

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TOWARDS bETTER FORECASTING OF bUSINESS SPATIAl DEMAND: PlANNING OF INDUSTRIAl ESTATES IN THE

NETHERlANDS bY AN ENHANCED MODElING APPROACH

Pascal BECKERS, Jan SCHUUR, Michel TRAA, Rob LOKE

Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), Den Hague, The Netherlands([email protected])

Industrial estates play an important role in the economic development of European countries as they accommodate a great share of economic activities and employment. In the case of the Netherlands, the share of employment located on industrial estates has been steadily increasing in recent years accounting for about one-third of total employment in 2006. Moreover, as employment growth on industrial estates is higher than at other locations, local policy makers see industrial estates as strategic assets to foster economic growth and prosperity (Weterings et al. 2008).

Given the strategic importance of industrial estates in the regional economic development, the Dutch government has traditionally played an active role in the planning and monitoring of these terrains. Furthermore, as many industrial estates have been, or will be subjected to drastic compositional changes in economic activities as a result of post-industrialization and also due to population decline in parts of the country, this implies that planning for business spatial demand will likely increase in importance in the future.

Acknowledging this future demand, the Dutch government decided to develop the BLM-model, which is an advanced and widely accepted national model to forecast long-term spatial demand of industrial estates. More specifically, the model, which is based on regional employment scenarios, yields long-term spatial forecasts for different regions of the country in order to support regional and local economic policy makers with regard to the planning of industrial estates.

Given the high valuation of the model, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency has recently decided to further improve the model to produce more reliable and useful forecasts. This paper discusses the BLM model and its recent innovations and offers new insight into future spatial demand of industrial estates in the Netherlands computed with the enhanced model. Given that many European countries are currently facing similar challenges relating to the spatial planning of industrial estates, this paper will likely trigger a stimulating international discussion on the theme.

Keywords: spatial planning, industrial estates, business spatial demand forecasting, econometric modeling, BLM-model

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THE INFlUENCE OF NATURAl HAZARD FOR TURISTIC DEVElOPMENT IN THE KVARNER AREA (NORTHEASTERN

ADRIATIC SEA)

Čedomir BENAC1, Rade KNEžEVIĆ2

1Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Rijeka, Croatia2Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Rijeka, Opatija, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected])

This paper will analyze the influence of natural hazard on the vulnerability of the area and assess the degree of potential risk in Kvarner as an important tourist region of Croatia. Liburnia and Vindol coast and the northern part of the island Krk are located in a seismically active area, where earthquakes have already occurred, so it can be expected they will repeat, although one can not predict when, where and with which intensity. Reducing risk from earthquake effects to an acceptable level can be successfully implemented by appropriate technical measures. Special attention should be paid to the phenomena of different types of hazards caused by climate change, which is already happening, and their acceleration on Kvarner region is assumed.

Raising and increased vigor and frequency of storms are expected as primary effects of climate change. These phenomena may occur independently or jointly. This paper will evaluate the primary, secondary and tertiary effects of different types of natural hazards such are the destruction of beaches, flooding of the coast, etc. The degree of vulnerability of the coastal area of Kvarner area with highest tourist capacity will be assessed as well as the degree of risk that can be caused by these phenomena.

Assessment of natural hazard and its management is a general and actual society need, particularly expressed in vulnerable areas such is the area of Kvarner. Current approach to the management of geological hazard in the area of Republic of Croatia is extremely fragmented and inefficient. Therefore, governing bodies are in dispose of unreliable basis for the management of space in terms of sustainable development.

Keywords: natural hazard, vulnerability, risk, coastal zone, tourism, Adriatic Sea

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THE IMPACT OF MIGRATION ON SOCIAl CAPITAl AND SOCIAl COHESION IN AbERDEEN AND AbERDEENSHIRE (SCOTlAND, UK)

Holger BERGMANN, Eva Maria NOACK

Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Germany([email protected], [email protected])

There has been enduring interest in demographic change both from academics and policy-makers on migration, quality of life as well as on “well-being” in remote rural regions. Research on potential reasons for migration between rural and urban areas in the UK has been extensive but not comprehensive as regards all dimensions of the role of “well-being”, “quality of life”, “social cohesion” and especially of “neighbourhood trust” in migration decisions.

Following suit Putnam’s approach to analyse groups and networks, this paper addresses the level of social cohesion and social capital in rural remote, rural and urban North-eastern Scotland and relates the results to migration processes/behaviour.

The research is based on a survey carried out in Aberdeen and Aberdeenshire at 6 poll stations during the 2007 national elections and yielded 332 representative questionnaires in urban Aberdeen and 345 in rural Aberdeenshire.

The sample was divided into three sub-groups: “stayers”, “in-migrants” and “potential out-migrants” in order to explore the influence of newcomers as well as residents’ inclination of leaving an area on the level of local social capital and cohesion.

The results reveal that larger proportions of in-migrants reduce the level of social capital as well as local social cohesion. Furthermore, the study indicates that even the predisposition to out-migrate (for different reasons, mainly because of better job and education opportunities) seems to decrease social cohesion. This paper discusses whether these results support “locals first” policies as they have been discussed with reference to the housing market in the Scottish Highlands. It weights possible implications of such policies against the economic and social well-known advantages that in-migrants bring along.

Keywords: social capital, migration, social cohesion, rural areas, Scotland

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HYbRID GEOGRAPHIES: NATURE AND/OR SOCIETY

Márton BERKI

Faculty of Science, Eötvös Loránd University of Budapest, Hungary([email protected])

Nature / society dichotomy is definitely one of the oldest but still very important traditions in the geographical discourse. As these two domains are highly interconnected, recent theorizing focusing on the relationship between the natural and the social suggests that their boundaries might be (and needed to be) transgressed. In this context, beyond the physical geography / human geography dualism, there is a third way of considering the discipline which is referred to as the “hybrid geographies”. Despite its growing popularity in recent (predominantly Western) geographical literature, the notion of “hybridity” is still not present in Hungary; neither in the undergraduate geographical curriculum, nor in current academic debates.

Within the confines of this paper, I attempt to provide a concise overview of this approach, based on a significant body of theoretical work and its philosophical underpinnings. We can confidently assert that a greater understanding of natural / social relations would be indispensable to dissolve many of modernism’s binary oppositions and re-consider the discipline of geography as a whole. This may lead to more efficient applied research as well, especially concerning topics that have previously been conceived as purely “natural” or “social” issues.

Keywords: hybridity, dualism, physical geography, human geography, science wars

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VAlUES OF GEOHERITAGE IN THE KARST UNDERGROUND OF CROATIA AND THEIR PROTECTION

Neven BOČIĆ

Division of Physical Geography, Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected])

Heritage, to put it simply, encloses a certain area’s natural and cultural values, which should be preserved for future generations. Its values include living and not living components. Unfortunately, the protection of not living natural values – geodiversity, is nowadays, as a social necessity, significantly less marked than the necessity of the living world protection – biodiversity.

Caves are the forms of the underground karst geomorphology. They have developed by specific processes in certain conditions of karst geomorphology and hydrogeology. They represent different, often interesting and rare forms which preserve the traces of natural conditions in the time of their development, and make an important component of geoheritage.

This paper deals with critical analysis of the protection of speleological phenomena in Croatia as a part of geoheritage in karst. At the moment, there are 42 protected speleological localities in the Republic of Croatia, among which geomorphologic monuments of nature account for the greatest part. Criteria of proclaiming caves and pits protected localities are the most disputable, because the analysis has shown that the caves and pits without necessary values are also among the protected localities, while on the other hand, the caves and pits of great value and high degree of threat are not protected at all. It was also determined that about 1800 speleological phenomena were protected in the framework of protected areas (national parks and parks of nature). It is pointed out that nowadays nature protection, especially that of caves is mainly directed to the protection of the living nature, i. e. the karst underground is being protected as a habitat, and not as a part of geoheritage. This has been confirmed by legal regulations.

This paper emphasizes various aspects of cave and pit values (intrinsic, scientific, aesthetic, educative and recreative). Geosciences aspects of cave and pit values are especially emphasized (geomorphological – macro, mezzo and micro, geological-petrographical, mineralogical, sedimentological, hydrographical-hydrogeological, climatological, paleontological, geoarheological, etc.). Totality of all natural and cultural values of caves and necessity of their protection has been pointed to. The main types (mechanic – destruction, mechanic – construction, chemical, physical and biological) and ways (direct and indirect) of cave threats have been presented, as well as their origins.

Some problems of karst and its underground protection are being pointed to, and recommendations for their more prestigious protection are given. The emphasis is on research, immediate recognition of values, inventory-making, evaluation and determination of protection priorities and levels. Cooperation among state institutions, speleologists, speleological and caving associations, scientific institutions and other experts is inevitable. In order to achieve a more prestigious protection some criteria for speleological phenomena evaluation from geoscientific point of view have been suggested: morphometrics, location and origin conditions; diversity, numerosity and rarity of speleothems and other geomorphologic and geologic indicators of geodiversity; level of potential and present threat; other geoscientific significance; geoaestetics; educative significance.

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FROM THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORlD TO THE UNESCO WORlD HERITAGE POlITICAl AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF

INSTITUTIONAlISED CUlTURAl PRESERVATION

Branka BUTINA

University Passau, Germany([email protected])

The protection of cultural heritage can be practised by way of national, supranational and individually initiated patterns of action. By providing examples, the paper points out transformations between these rivalling systems.

Up until the middle of the 20th century, the protection of cultural heritage was performed by single states as part of their sovereignty and hence was connected to their respective systems of government. The first classification of significant cultural objects, which Antipater of Sidon performed by describing the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was not yet universally acknowledged. Rather, it was a strongly regionalised selection of cultural heritage sites in the Eastern Mediterranean region that was exclusively tied to the criteria offered by the dominant Greek culture.

Only the concluding of contracts under international law enabled supra-regional and global strategies of protection. International agreements define the criteria for the protection of cultural heritage by ‘indeterminate legal concepts’. Whether a cultural monument is a ‘masterpiece’ or a ‘unique testimony’ depends on decisions taken by diplomats in UNESCO committees, who not only judge according to highly different standards due to divergent cultural backgrounds but also are subject to governmental directives. Consensus can only be achieved by conferring the decision-making authority on experts. Due to its global communicative reach, scholarship acts as a binding force. The primacy of politics becomes displaced by the primacy of scholarly and scientific expertise.

Apart from the internationally organised protection of cultural heritage, there is an increasing establishment of new trade systems on the basis of globally operating, national trusts. The example of the spectacular commitment by the US-American J. Paul Getty Trust to save the Buddhist Mogao caves – one of the most significant cultural monuments in China – shows how supranational and bilateral systems of preservation may complement each other. Yet in contrast to the UNESCO, such trusts do not act on the basis of received international law but are dependent on the cooperation of the benefitting states. In this way, the protection of cultural heritage is also applicable as a strategic foreign policy tool.

The example of a privately initiated internet poll (2000-2007), in which 60 million people voted for the ‘New Seven Wonders of the World’, shows in which way plebiscitary proceedings, with the help of state-of-the-art communication devices, can enter the supranational domain of cultural assessment and preservation, as well as trigger economic effects.

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APPlIED GEOECOlOGICAl RESEARCH OF SAMObOR KARST AREA

Nenad BUZJAK1, Mladen PAHERNIK2

1Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia2Croatian Military Academy “Petar Zrinski”, Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected])

Karst ecosystems, because of its complexity, in terms of geomorphological and hydrological characteristics are among the most vulnerable parts of ecosfere. Because of population growth, urbanization and earlier unresolved communal waste problem most of Samobor hills karst terrains in the immediate vicinity of Samobor city area are endangered by pollution and contamination. It is particularly observed in Samobor-Otruševec-Slavagora triangle area (Samobor karst), mainly composed of highly porous and karstified Neogene limestone and Upper Triassic dolomite beds with intense infiltration of rainwater and partially polluted surface streams. Because of intense urbanization there are intense changes in the primary and creation of secondary (anthropogenic) landscapes.

The aim of this study was to collect data about geomorphological and hydrological features and landscape types of Samobor Karst area, making of geodatabase and geoecological evaluation usable for adequate protection, spatial planning and tourist valorisation with respect to geographical components of the Karst landscape.

Keywords: karst, geodatabase, geoecological evaluation, Samobor

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THE CONTRIbUTION OF GEOGRAPHY IN lANDSCAPE PlANNING: AN EXPERIMENTAl APPROACH IN VENETO REGION (ITAlY)

Benedetta CASTIGLIONI, Viviana FERRARIO, Mauro VAROTTO

Department of Geography, University of Padova, Italy([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

In the frame of the experimental phase of large scale landscape planning occurred in the last years in Veneto region, the Department of Geography of the University of Padova co-operated with the Regional Administration in proposing an interdisciplinary approach and testing methodologies. The geographers’ contribution concerned three main fields of interest (geomorphological characters, land use change and landscape social perception) and deepened landscape analysis in a hilly area named “Valsana” in the province of Treviso. This area is well known due to the production of “Prosecco” wine; for this reason the “landscape of vineyard” has been mainly considered.

In addition, the research group – considering landscape as a synthesis arising from the dialogue among different approaches – discussed a method to identify in the given study case some “landscape units”. These are considered as a useful tool in order to: i. keep together and propose interactions among different landscape aspects, in an analysis-synthesis interdisciplinary approach; ii. take into account the relations among the processes (natural and human, economic and social, etc.) that are driving landscape change; iii. identify suitable landscape quality objectives, considered as the junction between the analysis and the planning processes. The main criteria for the definition of landscape units are morphology, land use and “identity”, that is the possibility of easy “identifying” the unit itself.

This last criterion was directly linked to the analysis of social perception of landscape. The adopted methodology provided interviews with the local majors, presenting them both the landscape units map and the map of “tendency landscapes”; this last map has been built to represent changes that are occurring at present, on the basis of direct observation of clues, traces and evidences, and on the analysis of different kinds of current representations of landscape.

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GEOGRAPHICAl CONCEPTS IN REGIONAl AND SPATIAl PlANNING

Andrej ČERNE

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia([email protected])

The article outlines our understanding of geographical concept in the context of and in relation to regional and spatial planning. Through the case studies we would like to analyse the content of the regional and spatial planning documents, exploring which elements and categories of space have been articulated and presented, drawing out the potential tensions and synergies between geographical concepts. The aim of the article is to find out how geographical concept have been deployed analytically to understand change in regional and spatial development and within this to determine the extent to which elements of geographical concept is reflected in the content and production of regional and spatial planning documents.

Keywords: geographical concepts, the system of regional and spatial planning

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NATURAl RISK AND COHESION

Maria CORONATO

Department of Economics and Territory, Faculty of Economics, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy

([email protected])

This paper analyses the issue of cohesion as a political and territorial basis for natural risk management and reduction. Taking a literature review and results obtained from measuring the Italian territorial cohesion (2008) as a starting point, this research investigates whether and to what extent the territorial vulnerability is correlated with the achieved level of territorial, economic, environmental and political cohesion. For this purpose an efficient system of indicators, collected and organized according to the STeMA method (Sustainable Territorial environmental/economic Management Approach, Prezioso 2003-2009), is realized. STeMA permits to assess cohesion and its qualitative-quantitative effects with regard to the national and regional political choices by means of a Territorial Impact Assessment tool. The analysis highlights the environmental risks to which the examined territories are potentially more exposed as well as the actions accomplished by those territories to comply with the 2007/2013 European Framework cohesion objective. By means of indicators defining the satisfying level of STeMA’s appropriate level, i.e. Environmental Quality, Life Quality, Government Quality and Social and Cohesion Quality indicators (ESPON 3.3 project 2006; Italian National Cohesion Report 2006; French Green Paper, 2008), it is possible to calculate the ex ante and ex post level of cohesion in a defined region, as well as the quali-quantitative incidence value of Environmental Quality indicators (Municipal Waste Generation, Hazardous Waste Generation, Recycled Municipal Waste, Degree of vulnerability in Europe, Total greenhouse emissions, Total gross freshwater abstraction, CO2 emissions) on the cohesion level. Comparing the results, the incidence of each typology on cohesion can be worked out, in order to identify the weak points of the territorial regional system. As a result, policy makers can intervene with ad hoc actions, so as to improve territorial cohesion and reduce territorial system gaps regarding natural risks. Finally, once the final cohesion level reached by each region is determined, it is demonstrated that, being the natural risks equal, the social and economic damages as a consequence of a disastrous event are lower in more cohesive regions.

Keywords: cohesion, natural risk, governance, vulnerability, sustainability

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GEOGRAPHY AND ENCYClOPAEDIAS

Ivana CRLJENKO, Mladen KLEMENČIĆ The Miroslav Krleža Lexicographic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected])

Encyclopaedias as compendiums of knowledge, consisting of information condensed in thousands of entries usually organized and presented in alphabetical order, tend to include many information on geographical features, both physical as well as human and political. Due to wide circulation of encyclopaedias, geographical information included in them are exposed to a widest possible use and public attention.

In Croatia encyclopaedias are most often compiled and published by the specialized scientific institution – the Miroslav Krleža Lexicographic Institute based in Zagreb. Geographical information has traditionally been well represented in Institute’s publication, which is illustrated in the paper primarily on the case of recent edition of general encyclopaedia. Consequently, geoghraphers have been continuously present among Institute’s staff since its foundation.

Transfer of geographical information and knowledge on geographical features into the framework of encyclopaedias raises several issues, like use of specific geographical terminology or use of toponyms, which are widely elaborated and discussed by the authors of the paper.

Keywords: geography, encyclopaedias, geographical terminology, toponyms

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SPORTS-RECREATION TURISM AS COMPONENT OF THE GENERAl TURISTIC DEVElOPMENT - CYClING TRACK IN TRNOVO MUNICIPAlITY

Nusret DREŠKOVIĆ1, Alma POBRIĆ1, Samir ĐUG2

1Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

([email protected])

Sports-recreation turism assume notable role within general turistic development mountain-valley territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Trnovo municipality has very favourable natural-geographic predispositions for the development of sports-recreation cycling. In this way the particular Project of the regulation of cycling tracks for hill-country cycling in Trnovo has been done. This priject is based on the application of the GIS techniques and models for routing and modeling of the trak. Beside turistic development of Trnovo municipality one of the aims of the Project is intention to contribute to reduction of the depopulation in municipality and to sustainable development of the population.

Keywords: Trnovo municipality, sports-recreation tourism, cycling tracks, GIS, sustainable development

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A CONTRIbUTION TO RESEARCH IN lANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION METHODOlOGY ON EXAMPlE OF THE

STRATEGY FOR lANDSCAPE CHARACTER PROTECTION OF THE CITY OF ZAGREb

Biserka DUMBOVIĆ BILUŠIĆ1, Vesna KOŠČAK MIOČIĆ-STOŠIĆ2, Vladimir KUŠAN

1Directorate for Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Culture, Zagreb, Croatia2Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected])

Main focus of this paper is methodology research in the field of landscape characterization which has been implemented on the territory of the city of Zagreb in recent study: Strategy for Landscape Character Protection of the City of Zagreb. Main goal is to signify the diversity and values of Zagreb’s general landscape types and develop strategic guidelines for each of them. This should enable Zagrebplan – City development strategy to develop methodologies for landscape character protection within the process of city planning and management.

Analyzing recent landscape characterization methodologies we have developed and within study implemented specific methodology based on Landscapes of Europe (LANMAP2) methodology and English approach in Landscape Character Assessment, Historic Landscape Characterization and Urban Characterization. It has been adjusted and modified according to specific planning area, limitations, purpose and goal of the Study and also expected future use of results.

Based on available data about climatology, topography, geology, pedology, vegetation and built up area characteristics, present land use and their interactions, using GIS technology, we have determined areas with distinct common characteristics as a basis for general landscape typology.

Characterizing landscapes types (areas of distinct and uniform character) of the Zagreb city area we have produced map of the general landscape types which were identified on the basis of natural and anthropogenic elements, taking into account data about built up areas characteristics, agricultural typology, historical importance etc. Areas of common characteristics for natural, semi-natural, agricultural and built up landscapes (urban, semi-urban and rural features) were determined. General landscape types are classified and described on the basis of their essential features and specific characteristics. Within the area of the City of Zagreb we have determined six general landscape types: mountain upland forest landscape, upland hilly mixed landscape, lowland urban landscape, lowland river mixed landscape, lowland rural landscape and hilly rural landscape. Determined landscape types and areas were analyzed and evaluated by: key characteristics, visual, historical and ecological character, visual and landscape sensitivity, landscape character strength and development pressures, which formed the basis for development of guidelines for planning and management strategy.

Keywords: landscape, characterization, landscape type, landscape area, planning and management strategy

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VUlNERAbIlITY OF WESTERN ISTRIAN COAST TO SEA-lEVEl RISE

Sanja FAIVRE1, Mladen PAHERNIK2

1Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia2Croatian Military Academy “Petar Zrinski”, Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected])

The number of papers dealing with sea level rise, and particularly those dealing with its acceleration due to global warming along the shores of the Earth, has rapidly increased in the last decades. Knowing the complexity of local climatic, geologic and tectonic phenomena it is necessary to consider separately and precisely different sections of the coast. This paper aims to define the GIS-based potentially endangered areas along the western Istrian coast, to create risk-of-sea flooding map for the next hundred years period, based on the past 2 ka relative movements.

Geoarchaeological findings are particularly important because they directly show how the coastal region has already changed during the last 2000 years. Fortunately, the west coast of Istria abounds of archaeological vestiges. Some of them are under the sea today, like piers, quays, fish tanks, and quarries. They have been, and still are, the object of numerous archaeological and geoarchaeological studies. Those data were compared with predictions derived from glacio-hydro-isostatic models. The comparison of the sea level data with the predicted sea level curves allows the calculation of tectonic rates since Roman times that range between 0.63 and -0.89 mm/year (Antonioli et al. 2007, Florido et al, in press). The latest research based on sedimentological, radiocarbon and geomorphological analyses (Faivre et al., in press) shows, as well, that in the same time period, and even longer (5 ka), the coast of Istria has been exposed to a probably continuous lowering (-0.45 and -1.92 ± 0.2 mm/year). These movements still do not have a precise explanation, although they are particularly important for a better evaluation of the vulnerability and risks of the Istrian coast.

The Croatian coast is principally rocky with one large and several small deltas. Even if the Croatian coastal area, generally appear to have a low vulnerability to changes in sea level (Barić et al. 2008; Juračić et al. 2009), as well as the Istrian one, the precise analysis should be carried out in order to plan human activities in the future. Therefore, this paper, which represents the first phase of investigation, aims to set up a interpolated digital elevation model (DEM) to make a first order approximation of the coastal vulnerable cites along the western Istrain coast. The DEM is based on the vector data of 1 m equidistance contour lines, elevation and trigonometrical points of the altitudes obtained from the Basic Croatian Map (HOK) on the scale 1:5 000. The zone of 1 000 m from the coast have been vectorised. Inside the extension 3D Analyst of the ESRI Arc GIS program package the TIN relief model have been interpolated which was converted into the raster GRID format with the cell size 1x1 m. This DEM was used for the identification of the vulnerable areas selecting the raster cells with relative heights from 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 m. The selected zones of the altitude classes represent values of the potential sea level rise according to which surfaces of the potentially flooded categories have been calculated. In this phase of the study the most vulnerable areas have been obtained which should be precisely studied later. The terrestrial geodetic survey has to be done, in order to increase the density of the altitudinal data to create a more precise DEM of the selected areas, along with precise geomorphological maps. The obtained results assume significance not only from a geomorphological point of view but also from a coastal management perspective.

Key words: sea-level change, vulnerability assessment, inundation, Adriatic Sea, Croatia

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FROM ASSUMPTIONS TO FACTS – A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR SUSTAINAblE DEVElOPMENT OF RURAl AREAS

Explained by the Results of a Case-Study Relating to Attitudes of Young Women for Staying in or rather leaving Rural Areas of Styria (Austria)

Tatjana FISCHER

Institute of Spatial Planning and Rural Development, Department of Spatial, Landscape and Infrastructure Sciences, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences,

Vienna, Austria([email protected])

In 2007 the statistical department of the Styrian government pointed out that meanwhile within the majority of the Styrian districts significantly fewer women at the age of 20 to 29 years live than men of the same age. This disproportion is particularly pronounced in the sex distribution in the economically underdeveloped districts of Upper-Styria.

It can be assumed that this fact will induce long-ranged consequences for the future of these rural areas. This becomes clear when looking at the spectrum at tasks, which comes to young women: Besides their meaning for the stabilization of the population structure and their value as „social cement”, at the local and regional level young women are often seen as “hope carriers” for the future of rural areas.

That is why the Styrian government funded a study (Weber, G., Fischer, T. 2010) to follow the question about the motives for the migration and staying behaviour of young women in ten selected rural Styrian municipalities.

Succeeded in gaining 18% of all young women aged 20 to 29 years who are primary dwellers of the selected municipalities for a standardised written questioning, this study allows an insight into the circumstances of everyday rural life from the point of view from the young women themselves. Selected key persons in politics and administration as well as of experts (e. g. midwifes) express their assumptions and experiences relating to the subject.

The results derived from this study help to explain and understand success and failure of measures already set to protect or rather improve the quality of life of young women in rural areas.

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FROM CURRICUlAR THEORY TO PRACTICAl IMPlEMENTATION: IN-DEPTH INSIGHT INTO UNICA EUROMASTER IN URbAN STUDIES

(4CITIES)

Yvonne FRANZ

Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna, Austria([email protected])

Based on the statements of Bologna process, future European education should be enhanced by international cooperation, academic exchange and greater comparability in order to create a European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

Facing these aims, the 4Cities Master perfectly meets the requirements of Bologna process in terms of joint degrees, interdisciplinarity and mobility. Within this two year joint master programme which involves six universities in four cities (Brussels, Vienna, Copenhagen and Madrid), knowledge from all fields of Urban Studies (e.g. Urban Sociology/Geography/Economics/Politics/Planning etc.) is combined amongst both students and academic staff. Students’ mobility between the four collaborating universities can be ensured by ERASMUS, the mobility of the involved researchers is supported by ERASMUS Staff Exchange.

Besides the experiences with the conceptual and administrative framework conditions, first experiences in terms of implementation of curricular specifications could be gained, too: The 2nd cohort of 4Cities students recently started its summer term in Vienna and stimulates the ongoing process of adjustments and improvements concerning curricular and teaching issues. Within this paper, the author will explain the objectives, challenges and lessons-learned of applied teaching within the 4Cities Master. Her personal experiences as programme coordinator and lecturer of “Urban Analysis”, as well as the results of a mid-term evaluation will serve as a basis to provide a comprehensive insight into the discrepancy between theory and practice. The focus of this paper will be on the highly applied approach of the author’s engagement in the course “Urban Analysis”, which combines teaching and application of quantitative and qualitative methods, analyzing current urban issues, as well as interaction with various urban experts. Finally, it should be answered if a multidisciplinary approach within a two year master programme is feasible, in order to prepare students for a highly competitive and steadily changing labour market.

Keywords: Bologna process, joint master, interdisciplinarity, applied urban studies, urban analysis

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CUlTURAl HERITAGE ASSESSMENT IN THE lANDSCAPE OF THE TIERMES COMbE (SORIA, SPAIN)

Alfonso GARCÍA DE LA VEGA

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain([email protected])

On the southern edge of the Tiermes Combe, two travertine formations have been discovered, which correspond to the Late Pleistocene, according to thermoluminescence (TL) date measurement results. Such deposits, located on the fault border of a karstic massif are linked to the aquifer functioning. In a nearby valley, up to three tuff formation phases have been identified, though date results refer to evolution from Pleistocene to Holocene and to the first half of Holocene. Therefore, these records reveal new data on the climatic phases during Quaternary in the central area of the Iberian Peninsula.

In the rock shelters of the Combe’s Triassic sandstone ridges, there appeared some remains of the fist human settlements during the Neolithic. In this respect, the first settlements of the Celtiberian and Roman cultures in this area are closely linked to the water resources of this calcareous massif. The geoarchaeological traces left are merely simple buildings dug out of the sandstones, such as the Celtiberian houses and the necropolis. Even more outstanding are the hydraulic engineering works of the Romans. The construction of an aqueduct in the Roman era proves their interest in spatial planning. However, the decline of this civilisation would lead to building desertion in the coming centuries.

The landscape element analysis provides enough data for natural heritage assessment. The whole of the geoarchaeological remains confirms the close relationship between man and territory, with the anthropized features present in the environment. Precisely, the connection between natural and anthropic elements yields an integral assessment of them all. As a consequence, the geographic analysis of those elements resulting from the interaction between man and nature implies the protection of the cultural heritage in a landscape such as the Tiermes Combe.

Keywords: Tiermes Combe, settlements, climatic phases, quaternary, landscape

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ACqUISITION OF KEY COMPETENCES IN GEOGRAPHY THROUGH PROblEM-bASED lEARNING

Alfonso GARCÍA DE LA VEGA

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain([email protected])

The Problem-Based Learning is a methodological approach with a long teaching tradition behind, linked to a professional profile in the disciplinary domain, and whose significant applicability is a definite advantage in the teaching praxis. It is worth pointing out that learning Geography, as focused on from the multidisciplinary viewpoint of the Social Sciences, involves knowledge acquisition, skills mastery and management of profile-oriented applied tools.

This paper should prove that the subject-matter of Geography is suitable for the development of such an approach, since the application of the Problem-Based Learning method requires a strict procedure in order to figure out the geographical elements of the setting under analysis. However, should this procedure entail accuracy, there are countless possibilities of finding out a creative solution close to the real world. The grouping dynamics, the classroom follow-up and the conflict solving on the one hand, and the achievement of certain abilities related to both the student’s own work and to the group work, on the other, determine to what extent obstacles may be surmounted towards possible solution finding. In this respect, the role played by the teacher as a facilitator becomes essential in their attaining particular goals.

In the last decade, there have appeared the novel and controversial Key Competences in the curriculum of Higher Education. They aim at long-life learning and goal definition through the formulation of specific objectives. In the case of Geography, the key competences provide a frame of reference for working out solutions to real geographical settings, such as spatial planning and natural risk management, as well as or for devising an alternative to the consequences deriving from the social imbalance in the cities. Problem-Based Learning develops skills in geographical analysis leading to generating real solutions and alternatives in multidisciplinary classroom teams.

Keywords: key competences, problem-based learning, geography

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GEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEVElOPMENT OF TOURISM IN THE MIDDlE DAlMATIAN ISlANDS AT THE END OF

THE 20TH AND THE bEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY

Nikola GLAMUZINA

Faculty of Philosophy, University of Split, Croatia([email protected])

In this paper the author researches the possible application of statistical-mathematical indicators such as the regional factor, index of specialization and centre of mass – indicators which are not usually applied in research in the field of tourism geography. These indicators are applied in an analysis of the basic data of tourism development: number of tourist arrivals, number of international tourist arrivals by country of origin and number of tourist beds. This methodological approach is applied in an analysis of the geographic characteristics of the most important Middle Dalmatian islands: Brač, Hvar, Šolta and Vis. The comparison of this tourist development data has been made for 1988 and 2008, the final points of the period during which Croatian tourism, including the Middle Dalmatian islands, had experienced significant changes. This paper also presents the dynamics of tourism development during the same period, as along with the processes of polarization in tourism development of the four islands. An analysis of the processes of concentration, centralization, decentralization and policentric tourism development is also provided.

Keywords: Middle Dalmatian islands, tourism geography, regional factor, index of specialization, center of mass

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COASTAl TOURISM IN MONTENEGRO – ECONOMIC DYNAMICS, SPATIAl DEVElOPMENTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

Daniel GÖLER, Matthias BICKERT, Holger LEHMEIER

Institute of Geography, University of Bamberg, Germany([email protected], [email protected],

[email protected])

“Tourism is our future” – this statement was made by a representative of a tourism organization in Montenegro in one of our interviews in June 2009. This is not a singular opinion, similar predictions can be found in virtually every comment on the future perspectives of this young state. And there are good reasons for that: Montenegro was considered to be the fastest growing tourism market worldwide in 2007. Notwithstanding a slight decrease during the last years, tourism is still seen as a crucial factor for the future economic development. This seems to be a viable option if we consider Montenegro’s natural potential, the beneficiary position at the Adriatic coastline and the experience in tourism gained in many years since the 1970s.

These dynamic developments were motivation enough to explore tourism in Montenegro in a research project with strong empirical evidence, organized as cooperation between Universities from Germany, Albania, Montenegro and Serbia. Our empirical approach included semi-structured, flexible interviews with different types of stakeholders. Since tourism in Montenegro is still almost entirely limited to the coast, we chose three coastal hot-spots in tourism, namely Kotor, Budva and Ulcinj.

Our results show that the current development in tourism can surely be considered as progressive and dynamic. But it is also strongly affected by multiple polarizations and divergent trends. There is a need for infrastructural upgrades in the mass tourism sector, which is for the most parts a low budget market with very difficult future perspectives. At the same time, there is a small but growing number of very exclusive offers, often seen as the vanguard of Montenegro’s future as an upper class tourists’ destination. All in all, the economic bias on coastal tourism involves the risk of an increase of the already strong spatial disparities, leaving behind a mountainous hinterland with shrinking economy and population.

Keywords: Montenegro, regional analysis, economic development, tourism, spatial disparities

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lANDSlIDE DATAbASE AND ITS APPlICAbIlITY: THE CASE OF RIJEKA AREA

Renata GRBAC žIKOVIĆ1, Petra RADELJAK2, Sanja FAIVRE2

1Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Rijeka, Opatija, Croatia2Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

The wider area of Rijeka is characterised by occurrence of landslides due to natural triggering factors and human activities destabilising slopes. Landslides are one of the main issues in defining land-use, namely their spatial and temporal distribution, causative factors and possible impact on human activities. The goal of this research was creating database for the area of Rijeka by incorporating available records of landslide activity from several sources, including past research, cartographic sources and additional field mapping. Wherever possible, details of each landslide were noted. Data collected on the causative factors included lithology, slope inclination, human induced factors and other. The research included both presently active landslides in the area, and analysis of sites with the evidence of previous landslide activity. Further on, GIS techniques for analysis of spatial and temporal perspective of landslides in the Rijeka area were used, with the purpose of identifying landslide types and areas at risk. The resulting landslide database and maps for the wider Rijeka area are applicable in spatial management and land-use planning, primarily by regional and local government institutions.

Keywords: landslides, slope movement, landslide database, Rijeka, Croatia

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ANAlYSIS OF ACCESSIbIlITY PATTERNS IN CZECHIA FROM 1921 TO 2020

Tomas HUDECEK

Department of Applied Geoinformatics and Cartography, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic

([email protected])

The article deals with accessibility development in Czechia since the setting up of Czechoslovakia in 1918 till the year of completing main motorways and train corridors in 2020. One hundred years is a sufficiently long period to understand many of geographical processes related to accessibility patterns.

The research is supported by the Czech Science Foundation and is divided into three parts. The first part follows up author´s long-term research and experience in the field of accessibility. The main goal is to digitalize transport networks for every ten years (dates of Census) and build accessibility models with average speeds, times for changing between trains and waiting times on stations, etc. All kinds of transport modes are represented but emphasis will only be put on road transport and trains.

The second part of the project (GIS) is focused on calculating accessibility and making isochrone maps. ArcGIS 9.3 with its extensions Network Analysis and Geostatistical analysis will be used. The results will show the exact time period since which the road transportation overtook trains in time accessibility or vice versa.

The third part of the project (Cartography) deals with a thematic cartography method – radial anamorphosis – as an ideal method for visualization of isochrone surfaces. A script for the ArcGIS software was created which deals with the transformation of geographical area around only one center, resulting in a map in which all isochrones are shown as circles.

Even though accessibility is investigated in relation to the capital of Czech Republic – Prague – the methodology could be used for any other place in the country.

Keywords: accessibility, GIS, transport, historical development, radial anamorphosis

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THE ROlE OF APPlIED SPATIAl SCIENCE IN A COMPlEX MUlTI-lEVEl AND MUlTI-ACTOR SYSTEM – EU REGIONAl POlICY

AND THE ESPON PROGRAMME

Alois HUMER

Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna, Austria([email protected])

Spatial planning in Europe tends towards integrative, cooperative, strategic, monitored, evidence based and future oriented planning. The European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) 1999, European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) within EU Regional Policy in 2007-2013, the Territorial Agenda from 2007 and Territorial Cohesion as a 3rd pillar in EU policy since the Treaty of Lisbon enhance this development. Following the today’s understanding, planning is a multi-level and multi-actor policy where applied spatial science – also applied geography – plays its own role.

With this contribution, the author will give an insight into strategic concepts of spatial development on European level, how they get transformed into operation (via programmes and funding) and set into practice on various tiers and will show in which way an applied spatial science like geography takes part in this complex process. As outlined above, the focus will be given to EU Regional Policy. Concretely, the ETC network programme ESPON 2013 will be analysed as an example, where strategic thinking and operative action, scientific output and policy demand on various scales of time and space interact. The programme is set up to bring academic and private scientific institutions together for creating interoperable datasets and producing shared knowledge on an international and though regionalized scale. Financed by EU structural funds, steered by public decision makers and translated for practitioners, this complex arrangement offers opportunities for fruitful development but also malfunctions in the same way.

The author will discuss mentioned issues from different perspectives and with the background of direct experiences, as he was and is actor within ESPON in different roles (contact point, project partner and user of results).

Keywords: applied spatial science, strategic planning, public decision makers, EU Regional Policy, ESPON

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APPlICATION OF INTERPOlATED SURFACE MODElS ON HUNGARIAN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA

Ákos JAKOBI

Department of Regional Science, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary([email protected])

By the appreciation and the increasing dispersion of computer-based applications the implementation of procedures with formerly long lasting calculations became available also for spatial research of the economy and the society. This opportunity brought new directions of researches along with completely new scientific results. There exists a lot of method in spatial-social examinations, which got acknowledgement in geography just by means of computerized applications.

Surfaces and GIS-based interpolated models in social geography, together with the simplifying 2D or 3D cartographic models of sketching out the spatial pattern of social phenomena may spectacularly represent the spatial relations of social features. Additionally this method – and numerous variants of it – regarding its results and outputs can be interpreted as an other useful tool in the toolset of regional researches and in understanding spatial configuration of socio-economic processes. Although surface-generation is a favoured and accepted method of physical- and environmental geography already for long, its connections to social geography are forming only just recently.

This paper beyond the interpretation of different methods of surface creation (such as kriging or polynomial regression techniques) primarily aims at formulating the prospects of application in geographical analyses by the introduction of Hungarian empirical examinations. The methods of socio-geographic surfaces can be used for example in spatial examinations of island-like, trend-like or dynamically changing social phenomena, by aiding exceptionally the possibility of visual interpretation. Especially exciting results can be achieved by combining this method with other types of processes (e.g. spatial regression models). Interpolated surface models of income or unemployment disparities may have the benefit to better understand neighbourhood relations and spatial trends in Hungary.

Keywords: spatial interpolation, social surface model, trend surface model, Hungary

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GEOGRAPHY OF lEISURE – HOW TO CHOOSE YOUR FAVORITE SHOPPING CENTRE

Martina JAKOVČIĆ

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia([email protected])

Free time or leisure activities are usually perceived as topic of tourism geography. However, all the economic activities that occur during a regular visit to the shopping center, as one of the most popular places for spending free time, bring it to the scope of retail and thereby economic geography as well. Sociologists claim that shopping centers have replaced parks and free time activities. Parents mostly welcome them because they offer some kind of safe and controlled environment. Wondering around shopping centre is becoming more and more popular among young Croatians as well. So far, in foreign literature, different models and frameworks for understanding mall experience have been presented. This paper presents framework or model for choosing a favorite shopping centre. In development of the model survey among 250 students was conducted followed by the in-depth interviews with 20 students. At the end analysis of factors relevant for young people in making their choice was given. With the trend of vast opening of shopping centers this model could become useful to shopping centre managements in development of shopping centers and their fight for customers.

Keywords: Croatia, free time, leisure, shopping centre, young

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PROGRESS IN ADMINISTRATIVE DECENTRAlISATION IN TRANSFORMATION COUNTRIES – A COMPARATIVE SURVEY

Peter JORDAN

Institute of Urban and Regional Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria ([email protected])

Decentralisation has an important meaning in the context of European integration, since a Europe composed of subsidiary spatial units is to be constructed and a “Europe of regions” is on the agenda of many political discussions. From the early 1990s, the European Communities, later the European Union, promoted the idea of administrative decentralisation also in transformation countries. For EU accession decentralisation was made one of the prerequisites. But it met centralistic traditions originating not only in the Communist era and could partly be enforced only with considerable difficulties.

The paper investigates in a comparative way into the efforts made and the results achieved so far in East-Central and Southeast European countries to establish local as well as regional self-government. A special focus is laid on the regional level, to which administrative powers have been devolved only later and partly insufficiently. It will also be interesting to observe to which extent administrative regionalisation has respected historical regional and cultural identities which are strong and vivid in many countries, but had been covered by Communist administrative systems. The paper will be illustrated by map sections from the Atlas of Eastern and Southeastern Europe.

Keywords: political geography, decentralisation, regional identities, regionalisation

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GIS ANAlYSIS OF THE TRADE DEVElOPMENT INDICATORS IN REPUblIC OF SERbIA

Verka JOVANOVIĆ1, Olgica BOŠKOVIĆ2, Emilija MANIĆ2

1Faculty of Informatics and Management, University Singidunum, Belgrade, Serbia2Faculty of Economics, University of Belgrade, Serbia

([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

Trade is considered to be one of development level indicators as well as one of the economic instruments for diminishing uneven development. In Serbia, where the regional differences are very much emphasized, spatial analysis of trade activities could be of great help in understanding the trade spatial diffusion and the mechanism of creating and maintaining spatial differences in the Republic.

This paper will briefly discuss the current situation regarding the changes in Serbian trade using different statistical indicators of trade development at the municipal or regional level. The class determination, which is going to be given through GIS analysis, will be defined according to the trade statistical methodology monitoring in the last five years. Considering the methodology change in the trade statistics in the period 2005 – 2009, trade spatial analysis will be given through different indicators of trade development: the basic elements of space and natural conditions (area of territorial units, the homogeneity of spatial units, etc..), dynamical statistical analysis of demographic factors (number and density of population, depopulation) and economic categories (income, retail sales). GIS analysis parameters will be the basis for cartographic output displayed on a series of thematic maps and the results of trade analysis will be used to implement the visualisation on the considered territories of municipalities and regions. The representative alphanumeric data and graphic outputs are becoming useful inputs in the models application of the regional development as well as for decision making in the commercial activities planning and overall regional development of Serbia.

Keywords: GIS analysis, trade development, trade geo-spatial indicators, regional differences

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APPlIED GEOGRAPHY AND THE NEW GOAlS OF GEOGRAPHY EDUCATION IN SlOVENIA

Karmen KOLENC KOLNIK

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Maribor, Slovenia([email protected])

The ESD Toolkit (2005) emphasised that learning based solely on adapting to previous experiences and learning from mistakes would no longer suffice. Passive adaptation to new conditions will no longer enable preservation of the quality of life and in the long term not even survival. It is time for more applied knowledge and it is necessary to develop skill in intelligent anticipation of problems that are evolving, in forming a vision and various solution strategies. Geography can play an important applicative – educational role.

Among common starting-points in forming modern European curricula, we can state that geography is defined as a school subject that educates in an interdisciplinary manner through natural and social science content. These common comprehensions can be a valuable guide for youth in managing and directing future development on the local, regional and global levels, as well as in transferring knowledge from the educational – theoretical arena to practical applications.

They can be combined in six groups of geographical educational potential, which we will present in the article, as well as eight groups of competences that should be included in geography curricula in Slovenia in order for them to stimulate modern geographical knowledge and abilities.

Keywords: geography, education, competences, curricula, Slovenia

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lANDSlIDE GEOMORPHOlOGY – lANDSlIDES AS AN IMPORTANT MORPHOGENETIC FACTOR

Blaž KOMAC, Matija ZORN

Anton Melik Geographical Institute of Scientific Research Centre of the SlovenianAcademy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana, Slovenia

([email protected], [email protected])

Are landslides an important factor in landform evolution? If the answer is positive than landslide geomorphology should be put next to fluvial, tectonic, karst, coast and slope geomorphology. Current investigation on landslides is usually oriented towards specific phenomenon or towards regional analysis; most often they do not apply to morphogenesis, which is typical for all other listed geomorphological areas. Crozier (2009) states that landslides have been recognized variously as hazardous phenomena, sources of sediment, transportation agents, as well as manifestations of land degradation and environmental change.

While they have been seen as significant hillslope processes capable of carrying out quanta of work, their role in governing the style and pace of landform evolution has been neglected until recently.

In Slovenia, only few geomorphologists wrote about this problem, e.g. A. Melik (1957), D. Radinja (1974; 1983), K. Natek (1989; 1990) and B. Komac & M. Zorn (2007; 2008; 2009). The first author studied the relation between landslides and geomorphic development in the Slovenske gorice hills (NE Slovenia), while the second and the third determined the geomorphic effect of landslides in relief development in the Haloze, Voglajna and Sotla hills (E Slovenia). The last mentioned authors reflected on the problem of landslide geomorphology on the case of Goriška brda hills (W Slovenia) and the Mura region (NE Slovenia).

In this work we present the so called relative landslide rate (Cendrero and Dramis 1996) which was used to quantify the relative role of landslides for recent relief development in comparison to other fluvial-denudational or erosion processes. We found that the geomorphic role of landslides is relatively important which has already been confirmed by other authors (Glade and Crozier 2009). This fact makes landslides geomorphology an important element in spatial planning, for example in elaborating municipal spatial plans that are required by law in many European countries.

Keywords: geomorphology, morphogenesis, geomorphic processes, landslide geomorphology, landslides, Slovenia

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APPlICATIVE GEOGRAPHY CURRICUlA IN SECONDARY EDUCATION IN SERbIA

Đurđica KOMLENOVIĆ

Institute for Educational Research, Belgrade, Serbia([email protected])

The paper deals with organisation of applicative geography curricula that comprise an integral part of experimental programs in vocational secondary schools in Serbia. The experimental program is oriented towards acquiring students’ professional competences that are necessary for involvement in the more and more demanding world of labour, for further learning and professional improvement. The paper is organised in two parts. The first part of the paper provides an overview of experimental programs, the structure of the curricula in Geography which is present in the group of general education, vocational and elective courses. Experimental programs in Geography are devised in keeping with the goals of the experiment which are pointed in two directions, towards (1) introducing curriculum novelties, and towards (2) introducing organisational novelties. Professional demands and needs of educational profiles were the starting point in devising applicative geography curricula. Curricula are accomplished through modules as basic program and organisational units. The second part of the paper presents the results of the research conducted with the aim of testing the concept of applicative curricula. In addition to this, we studied the students’ opinion on: (1) curriculum novelties of the experiment; (2) organisation of geography instruction in their school. The research was conducted in 2010, on a representative sample of students of secondary schools included in the experimental program. Research results will be used in the process of diversification of geography curricula in secondary schools in Serbia.

Keywords: applicative geography, vocational secondary school, experimental program

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APPlICATIVE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY IN GENERAl GRAMMAR SCHOOl IN SlOVENIA

Eva KONEČNIK KOTNIK

Faculty of Arts, University of Maribor, Department for Geography, Slovenia([email protected])

Within the contribution »Applicative economic geography in general grammar school in Slovenia« the selection of learning objectives in the syllabus for geography in general grammar school in Slovenia will be presented. The selection of objectives relate to economic geography. The contribution will present the results of generic comparative analysis of learning objectives within the framework of the quoted substantive area of syllabi, which were issued during the period from the emergence of Slovenia as an independent state (1992, 1998 and 2008).

The results of the evaluation of quoted learning objectives from the viewpoint of social needs respectively the applicability of quoted learning objectives, as well as the results of the evaluation of current learning objectives from the viewpoint of teaching practice in the general grammar school or teachers of geography in the general grammar school will be exposed.

Keywords: applicative economic geography, general grammar school, Slovenia

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MORPHOlOGICAl FEATURES OF THE UNA-SANA CANTON RElIEF AS A FACTOR OF SPATIAl PlANNING

Aida KORJENIĆ, Marija MISLIO

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina([email protected], [email protected])

In preparation of spatial plans a significant place belongs to geomorphologic characteristics of the given area. With analysis of general geomorphologic characteristics, the particular relief units and their elements are distinguished, by which global and specific characteristics of relief may be noticed. This reflects on the level of complexity of the analysis of the geomorphologic features in the spatial plan, and with proper evaluation of macro-relief characteristics of the observed area, a high level of valorization of their values is achieved.

For the purpose of analysis of morphological features of the Una-Sana Canton relief, the following quantitative geomorphologic methods are applied: analysis of hypsometric relations, analysis of slopes, analysis of vertical diversity of relief and analysis of expositions. Results of the analysis indicate to a high level of dependence of distribution of settlements and economic activities on morphologic features of relief, as well as on further opportunities of the spatial development of the Canton.

Keywords: morphologic features of relief, The Una-Sana Canton, spatial planning

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IDEAS FOR THE FUTURE OF SCATTERED FARMS IN HUNGARY

András DONÁT KOVÁCS

Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Regional Studies Great Plain Institute, Kecskemét, Hungary

([email protected])

Scattered farms are special and characteristic settlement-types in Hungary, which historical background goes back to centuries. Most of the farms are sutiated in „Kiskunság” - area, between Danube and Tisza Rivers. Nowadays this rural region can be described with complex and serious settlement-environmental problems. We have been a witnesses to the homogenisation of local landscapes, degradation of soils and the regress of ecological diversification for decades. The traditional built-environment has lost its fascination, because of low level of infrastructure and the bad competitive power. We have several sorrowful databases about the high rate of unemployment, lack of organised institutional services and demographic crisis. This processes acclerated in the last decade and it caused many environmental, economical and social conflicts. The local society of scattered farm-regions suffer from multiple disadvantageous and exhibit the symptoms of being on the inner-peripheries.

After all – on the score of our latest and recent spatial researches – we think that these rural areas have a future in the Great Hungarian Plain. Scattered farms are one of the most important elements of the agriculture, of the rural/eco or green-tourism and of the whole environmental system at the same time, so they have huge impact in local and regional sustainability. They are part of the landscape (many of them are situated in the Kiskunság National Park), and they have several unique production, and of course they are home for thousands of people.

We have been examining several scattered farms and rural settlements in „Kiskunság” area since years. In our latest research we aimed to discover the opportunities of local societies and formulate sustainable development-alternatives for scattered farms.

By right of the surveys we assume that the region can only proceed towards sustainability through the closing-up of the scattered farms. Auspicious living conditions and a live economy could be created for the inhabitants partly by relying on the natural potentials, traditions and local knowledge and partly by exploiting the EU support systems through the modernisation of the inner resources of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve. This calls for the support of the full construction of the environmental infrastructures, the spread of the environment-conform solutions in the agriculture, the harmonisation of nature conservation and tourism and the creation of an environment-conscious behaviour on all levels.

Keywords: scattered farms, complex settlement-environmental conflicts, rural development, spatial research

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GEOGRAPHICAl ASPECTS OF SPATIAl PlANNING FOR TOURISM

Jasenka KRANJČEVIĆ, Izidora MARKOVIĆ

Institute for Tourism, Zagreb, Croatia([email protected], [email protected])

Today the space is less considered and planned as space in which the geographical factors are important (climate, water, arable land, etc.) and it is rather percived and planned through the prism of economic value, physical crosslinking, competition, infrastructure accessibility, etc. As a result of the globalization process spatial planning is often profit oriented to bring a certain area to its planned purpose quickly.

Due to the development of modern technology, the man thinks he can controle nature, thus the spatial planning often neglectes natural geographic component of the area, which leads to inappropriate land use (more expensive construction, destruction of natural resources, etc.). For instance during the zoning for the golf courses areas, geomorphological and ecological characteristics of space are ignored, which leads to devastation and endangering the stability of the natural area.

By creating artificial environments for tourism the climate, relief, hydrology, soil and environmental components of the area are not taken into account, which leads to a reduction of the potential for tourism development.

Today the planning process of the tourism and recreation areas is mainly based on experience (faster, higher, stronger) in artificial environments that do not depend on external natural influences of the space aiming the greatest possible profit.

Can the use of modern tehnology, mobility and networking replace the natural geographical elements of space? Does the spatial planning take into account the geographical aspects sufficiently?

If we really want to change the attitude to spatial planning, it is necessary to understand the space as a resource which has social, economic, cultural, ecological and geographical values. If we neglect any of these components, planning leads to reduction of the value of the space. From the geographical point of view, for purposes of spatial planning it is necessary to develop adequate methods of evaluating the space to reflect geographical and geological characteristics of the area.

It is therefore important to apply interdisciplinary approach during the spatial planning process which should not ignore the geographical and geological characteristics of the space.

Keywords: geography, space, spatial planning, tourism

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MANAGEMENT OF NATURAl RESOURCES IN SHKODRA REGION

Ervis KRYMBI

Departament of Geography, Faculty of Human Science, University of Shkodra “Luigj Gurakuqi”, Albania

([email protected])

Shkodra region includes the three local districts: Shkodër, Malësi e Madhe and Pukë. The territory that is covered by Shkodra and Malësi e Madhe extends to the northern Albania, mainly the Albanian Alps (north, east), to the Western Lowlands (west, south) and to the Central Mountainous Region (southeast of the territory). Its surface area is about 2.528 km2. The relief is mainly mountainous, partly with hills and fields. But in this region we face some environmental difficulties that need a detailed scientific analysis in order to make evident the causes and the factors that have influenced and to use profilactic precarious in the creation of scientific policies to protect it from the occurent environmental problems. The Shkodra Lake has unique assets of significant conservation value, which also represent an important resource for the local population. The need to treat these with special care is also underlined by the recent enlargement of protected areas around the lake. However, this needs to be address also when development opportunities are being exploited for the benefits of the local population. There are several environmental problems, and pressures from human activities, which represent a threat to values of the region, and if not addressed well and in time, they could become real obstacles for the sustainable development of the area. Shkodra region is distinguished for the annual heavy rains round 1500 mm. These high values influence the increasing of the volume of the water rivers increasing their capacity of flouring in the river Buna, Drin and Kiri. These increases expressed during winter are accompanied with floods of the territories near these rivers. This is more evident in Dajci and Obot village where flows the Buna river destroyes the shores. Also Kiri river causes problem in the suburbial territories of the Shkodra city and Mesi village.

Keywords: Shkodra region, resource, management, environmental, protection

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INSTITUTIONAl APPROACH IN ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY: APPlICATIVE VIEW

Simon KUŠAR

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia([email protected])

Institutional approach in economic geography developed as a part of a broader cultural turn in economic geography in the 1990ies. Since institutional turn in economic geography highlights the importance of formal and informal institutions, technology, institutional embeddedness, historical lock-in and time dimension of the development it can be very useful in explaining the dynamics of regional development. Institutional approach in economic geography helps also to understand the spatial pattern of the economy, because its theoretical concepts complete traditional economic geographic approaches by highlighting the role of institutional factors.

The applicative role of institutional approach in economic geography in the field of regional planning is studied theoretically by using a number of different written sources. The applicative role of institutional approach in economic geography at fostering regional development is presented also practically through case study of the green-field investment of Carthago company in Odranci near Murska Sobota (Pomurska development region – north-eastern part of Slovenia). In that case it was found out that without understanding institutional dimensions and institutional factors economic geography wouldn’t be able to explain location of Carthago in Odranci properly. Lack of knowledge on institutional dimensions and factors can therefore cause potential problems in creating and implementing regional development policies. Findings from the Carthago case study help us to answer on some of the theoretical issues regarding applicative strengths of institutional approach in economic geography that were raised in the literature as well.

Keywords: economic geography, institutional approach, regional planning, location of manufacturing, green-field investments

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GEOGRAPHICAl IDENTIFICATION OF DEVElOPMENT POTENTIAl FOR THE SUSTAINAblE DEVElOPMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS

Barbara LAMPIČ, Irena MRAK, Dušan PLUT

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

The purpose of protected areas (protected areas, areas of special ecological significance, areas included in the Natura 2000 network) is the conservation of nature through the adoption of measures to preserve biotic diversity and a system of natural values. They should be treated as priority areas for nature conservation as well as specific development areas. The principles of sustainable development for protected areas give priority to environmental aims (environmental protection and nature conservation), but not exclusively: economic and social aims also have an important role in development. A geographically holistic recognition of the need to respect the protective dimensions of development potential (capital) requires an integrated, adapted, and environmentally friendly typology. A typology of environmental potential based on eco-centric ethics and stronger sustainability emphasizes the need for a four-way basic typology of development potential, i.e. environmental (including ecosystem services and biotic diversity), cultural, social, and human. Geographers justifiably caution that development up until now has focused on types of capital which have had a direct applied value while development potential with indirect applied value or considered of no use (for example, services provided by ecosystems) have been overlooked.

The management of protected areas based on the principles of both conservation and development, in Slovenia and elsewhere where protected areas are extensive and may take different forms, is of crucial strategic importance. In Slovenia such protected areas represent more than half of the country’s territory; almost 36% of them are in Natura 2000, 48% are ecologically special areas, 12% are protected areas. Management planned in this way enables the protective-developmental management of protected areas which simultaneously enables both the preservation of biotic diversity as well as the conservation of the cultural landscape and settlement. Depopulation and the associated overgrowth of the mosaic cultural landscape in Slovenia, which is already heavily forested (over 60% of the country’s territory), also means a reduction of landscape, ecosystem, habitat, and species diversity.

A version of regional development of protected areas in various landscape-ecological and settlement areas which has a strong conservation component to it is attainable only through a plan based on sustainability and the responsible, multilevel activation of endogenous development potential. Only in this way is it possible to implement the necessary but demanding transition from passive to active protection of the environment and conservation of nature.

Keywords: protected areas, development potential, management of protected areas, sustainable development, Slovenia

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INTERDISCIPlINARY METHODOlOGICAl APPROACH TO THE PROCESS OF bROWNFIElD REVITAlISATION OF TRADITIONAl

INDUSTRIAl AREAS

Lučka LORBER

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Maribor, Slovenia([email protected])

Traditional industrial regions in the South-East Europe (SEE) represent an underexplored economic value. Revitalisation is delayed and hindered because of legal, financial, environmental and image problems. This weakens competitive investment position for cities and for SEE as a European region.

This paper aims at presenting interdisciplinary methodological approach used in a brownfield revitalisation research project. The research work methodology applies the endogenous approach (“bottom up”) on a basis of newly defined land use category of brownfields by the local community. Geography science enjoys an advantage of complexity of understanding spatial issues. This enables geographers to coordinate and harmonize interests between the owners, stakeholders, legislation and human resources. In addition to geographical areas (economic, traffic, demographic, environmental and regional geography) directly involved in the project applicative research, this also includes collaboration of architects, lawyers and economists.

The form of applicative research work presented is being developed within the international Revitalisation of Traditional Industrial Areas in South-East Europe (ReTInA) project. The project is funded in the context of the SEE European Transnational Cooperation Programme 2009/12, involving ten partners from seven countries. The main result of the project will be the new methodology and tools to boost brownfield revitalisation in the municipalities and in old industrial areas of SEE region.

Keywords: applied geography, interdisciplinary methodological approach, endogenous approach, practice tools, brownfield revitalisation

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PlANNING MORE HUMAN CITY: STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS CYClING AND TRANSPORT IN ZAGREb

Aleksandar LUKIĆ1, Vedran PRELOGOVIĆ1, Stanko RIHTAR2

1Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia2Institut of Social Sciences “Ivo Pilar”, Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

Bicycling is on the rise again in the cities around the world. Besides societal trends, it is the result of the increased public and government awareness of the benefits of cycling like: the improved mobility and traffic safety, more daily physical activity, reduced environmental pollution and traffic congestion (less car on streets and parking needs). The city of Zagreb has also invested substantial effort to make the city more bike-friendly during the last few years. The opening of numerous bike paths along the new or reconstructed roads is the most visible results of such actions. Participation in Europe wide PRESTO project, promotion of cycling among the students and increasing the cooperation with NGO’s are important additional steps in that direction. However, the effects of those numerous actions are still largely unknown.

There are no figures on bicycle modal share in Croatia because those data have not been collected in population census. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there is no published research dealing with the measures of increasing bicycle usage in Zagreb or Croatia. The same applies for the evaluation of effects of above-mentioned activities of City of Zagreb. One can also argue, based on observation, that although bicycle infrastructure has been improved, it was not done in the most appropriate way. In addition to that, increasing bicycle modal share in student population presumes numerous different measures in combination with improving the bicycle infrastructure, reflecting influence of various (sub)cultures and lifestyles.

This research is based primarily on questionnaire survey of student population in Zagreb and aims to address those issues. The goal of the survey was to ascertain the scope and magnitude of bicycle activity and the students’ behavior and attitudes regarding bicycling in the city. It has been done using the representative sample of students enrolled at University of Zagreb (N=600). Innovative in this research was crafting the questionnaire to reflect both the views of regular users of bicycles, for whom it was supposed to have more personal experiences and attitudes towards cycling, and more occasional users or students that do not use bicycles. Results show that increasing bicycle modal share among students requires, besides improving bicycle infrastructure, various coordinated measures that are sensitive both to gender and previous experience in using the bicycle for personal transport.

Keywords: applied geography, bicycle modal share, bicycling, urban planning, students, Zagreb, PRESTO

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PROTECTED AREAS FOR CONSERVATION OR SUSTAINAblE DEVElOPMENT?

Peter MACKELWORTH, Jelena JOVANOVIĆ

Blue World Institute of Marine Research and Conservation,Veli Lošinj, Croatia

([email protected])

Originally protected areas were created for the conservation of biological diversity excluding local communities. Changes to the protected area paradigm have seen the dilution of conservation aims towards the development of sustainable resource use. The question is: how far can these aims be weakened before a ‘protected area’ becomes synonymous with the domesticated world. International environmental conventions recognise the need to include the local community in the development of protected areas provided they do not undermine conservation aims. The dilution of biodiversity aims has been highlighted in the development of the Cres-Lošinj marine protected area (CLMPA). This area has been proposed for protection since 1992 based on the presence of bottlenose dolphins. In July 2006 the area was granted three year preventive protection as a Special Nature Reserve by the Croatian Ministry of Culture. However, the lack of communication with the local community created resistance, based on mainly on hearsay and misinformation, to the CLMPA. This led the Ministry suspending its limited stakeholder negotiations rather than opening up the discussion to the wider public. Instead of problems disappearing they festered and tensions rose. The Ministry solution was to lower the category of the protected area to Regional Park, and to alter the boundaries according to minor economic requirements. These changes were proposed without reference to the original aim of the protected area, conserving the dolphin population. Yet, as Croatia approaches accession to the European Union it is required to harmonise environmental law with the Habitats Directive, which expressly forbids the alteration of protected areas, unless for over-riding public interest. The conflict between local interests and nature conservation remains an unresolved issue that requires the Ministry to either fully engage with the local community, or face serious conflicts at local level and censure at international level.

Keywords: conservation, sustainable development, marine protected area

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CHANGES IN THE PHYSIOGNOMY AND AREA STRUCTURE OF SETTlEMENTS MEĐUGORJE - bIJAKOVIĆI (1981 - 2008)

Ivan MADžAR

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science and Education, University of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

([email protected])

In this article changes in the physiognomy and area structure , characteristics and construction of settlements were discussed under the influence of religious tourism. This article seeks to answer the question to what extent altered the physiognomy of the location and characteristics of the village of Međugorje - Bijakovići. Methodological work is based on interpretation of available statistical data, but also a variety of field research. The intensity of changes caused by rapid tourism development was seen at two territorial units (village of Međugorje and Bijakovići) located within the same local government (municipality Čitluk).

The expansion of settlements taking place in and near the main road approach “Spiritual Zone”. Most intense period of construction takes place in two periods: since 1984. until 1989. and since 1997. to 2008. The exception is the appearance of the last period was construction of buildings for the purpose of joint residence.

More than noticeable was expansion of construction multistory buildings in the monitored period. A noticeable decrease was in surface objects while share of buildings with 3 or more floors was in the total number of constructed buildings over half. Although the number of buildings built on two floors have been constantly increasing, their share in the total number of objects is in the expansion of higher modes. This process is certainly influenced with decreasing of building land especially near the central zone, which have resulted in increasing the height dimensions of objects.

Also inevitable is the perception of pressure on the environment caused by the increased number and size of the facilities especially in central “spiritual” sanctuary zones. Growth problems of tourism in this region, except the pressure on limited water and other natural resources, initiates a series of adverse environmental implications (such as traffic congestion, power system loads, problem of waste water).

Keywords: transformation of area, religious tourism

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APPlIED GEOGRAPHY IN SPATIAl PlANNING – CROATIAN CASE

Damir MAGAŠ

Department of Geography, University of Zadar, Croatia([email protected])

First spatial planning and urban geographic issues in Croatian geographic theory, more than in practice, could already be found in Croatian geographers’ activities as early as the period between beginning of 20th c. and World War II. In the second half of the 20th C. spatial planning approaches started by intensive engagement of architects followed partly by economists, particularly during the first stages of regional planning and spatial regulation development up to the sixties. Only then a smaller group of geographers, employed in spatial planning institutions, mainly urban planning institutes and bureaus in Croatia, especially in Zagreb, Split and Zadar, started intensively its activity in contemporary spatial planning frames giving a visible contribution to its development. It refers particularly to the period of 70 is and 80ies of the 20th C. They have mainly completed geographical college education in Zagreb – teaching vocation - or in combination with other teaching subjects, but the knowledge they gained enabled them to win recognition, as applied geographers in their working ambience. A certain part of younger participants completed the study of applied geography (study that existed in Zagreb for a certain time), or won their master’s or doctor’s degree in related problem area. In independent Croatia, closing or diminishing of activities of former institutes and bureaus, with gradually strengthening of counties’ spatial planning institutes, as well as different private initiatives through a number of new small spatial planning companies, stimulates also some geographers, to fight for their working places in the labour market conditions and confront the application of the geographic knowledge and competence in modern practical work. That is also contributed by existing studies of geography in the country, as well as some postgraduate studies.

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THE APPROACH TO THE ClIMATE INDICATORS IN THE SPATIAl PlANS OF THE COUNTIES IN CROATIA

Mladen MARADIN

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia([email protected])

Climate is an important element of environment and must be taken into consideration in the process of spatial planning. Climate impacts are most evident in the case of extreme climate events, but the spatial planning should also take into account the average state of the atmosphere. This is especially important in the areas where climate impacts are of great importance for land use (touristic and agricultural regions, areas of hydrotechnical works...). It is, therefore, necessary that the climate data are accurate and updated, especially of those climatic elements that are essential for the area, given its purpose. The study deals with the climate data and its application in the spatial plans of the counties in Croatia. Spatial plans are analysed according to whether they use only the basic data or more complex climatic indicators (bioclimatic indices, climate classification). The study analyses the number of climate and meteorological stations by each county and the period for which data relate. Some of the data presented in spatial plans were compared with the averages for a standard period (1961-90).

Keywords: climate, spatial plan, counties, Croatia

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GEOGRAPHY IN REGIONAl PlANNING - CONDITIONS AND POSSIbIlITIES

Jure MARIĆ

Institut IGH d.d., Department for Planning, Studies and Environmental Protection, Urban planning division, Dubrovnik, Croatia

([email protected])

Geography as a science, particularly if observed as a ‘’bridge science’’ between nature and society, plays an especially important role in physical planning or at least it should. The analysis of the educational structure of people employed in county, city or municipal institutes and departments for regional planning, especially the ones in private sector, shows a concerning result of the absolute prevalence of architects, while the share of other professions in regional planning is extremely low or non-existing. This reality is contrasted with the ever-present emphasis on multidisciplinarity in regional planning and the need for common effort of experts from various fields, and represents a common problem for geography within regional planning practice in Croatia.

Regional planning, especially its urban segment, represents a type of balancing between the possibilities of the observed area, the requirements of the holder of drafting (i.e. the local authority), the affinities and the intentions of the potential investors, the legislative boundaries, as well as the attempt to establish at least a minimal level of sustainable development in an area.

The implementation of a level of sustainable development should actually represent one of the major tasks of geographers in the processes of planning and decision-making, as well as creating the planning documents and the associated studies.

The most important segments of the above mentioned process where geographers are ‘’a necessity’’ are following:

• analysis and valorization of natural and social background of the observed area,

• a complete demographic analysis with projections of current conditions, trends and possibilities,

• an assessment of the existing and planned economic perspectives (with the inclusion of projections of the demographic factors),

• coordination of various categories of protections and limits in exploitation of the area in order to obtain the most effective zones and locations for defined purposes,

• usage of GIS technology in processing data and visualizing the mentioned processes, which should be an advantage of geography in comparison to other professions.

It is also necessary to include the Geographic department in to the market, since a range of specialized studies ‘’bridging’’ the gap between the natural and social backgrounds are needed to make a planning document, which is exactly where geography could excel (e.g. the Requirements for assessing the influence of interventions in the environment are currently provided by the Faculty of engineering and shipbuilding).

That is why it is necessary to obtain an approach which would, for a start, reduce the ongoing alienation between theory and practice and would include all the possibilities and potentials, especially in the context of new information technologies, in order for geography to enter the applicative segment of planning.

Keywords: regional planning, urbanism, regional plan, the Law on regional planning and construction

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SHRINKING REGIONS IN SERbIA – ZAPlANJE CASE STUDY

Marija MARTINOVIĆ, Ivan RATKAJ

Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, Serbia([email protected])

During the period of intense socialist industrialization and accompanying hyper-urbanization, certain areas of Serbia suffered from economic decline and depopulation. One representative area is the Zaplanje region in Southeastern Serbia, where a continuous decline in the total population, caused by declining reproduction and mass emigration, ranked Zaplanje in the group of the most depopulated areas with the oldest population in Serbia. The spatial-demographic misbalance started with the massive wave of emigration in 1960s, when most of Zaplanje’s labor force moved to Niš and its suburbs, while the remainder moved to the functional centers of Zaplanje. According to field and census data, this has resulted in the eviction or closure of over two thousand houses, reducing the total population by more than 50% until the census in 2002 (since the 2002 census – for additional 15%) as well as in expression of the process of demographic aging of settlements (97.3% of settlements are in phase of the deepest demographic ageing). These shifts in population were accompanied by the disturbance of the relative socio-economic balance, classifying this area to the group of least developed ones in Serbia, with big obstacles for future development and the possible revitalization of certain settlements. The pattern of settlements by population size shows a concentration in the center of the municipality (“growth center”) and the discharge of other settlements in Zaplanje. Such spatial-demographic differentiation, a problem accentuated by the existence of a large number of the small villages with a high participation of old people as well as by the absence of non-agricultural activities, was achieved in conditions of poor development of secondary and tertiary activities in the centers of the first and second order.

Keywords: shrinking region, depopulation, demographic aging, spatial demographic and economic imbalance

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(RE)INTERPRETATIONS bY TEACHERS IN PORTUGAl OF THE NATIONAl GEOGRAPHY CURRICUlUM IN PRIMARY EDUCATION

Felisbela MARTINS, Carlinda LEITE

The Geography Department, Faculty of Arts, University of Porto, Portugal([email protected])

The curriculum in Portugal was traditionally characterized by centralization, i.e., the Ministry of Education was in charge of defining what should be taught, the teaching-learning objectives and even, in some cases, the strategies to be followed to achieve those objectives. At the beginning of this century, the Curricular Reorganization of Primary Education established that the curriculum prescribed at national level was a project which had to be adjusted at local level. In other words, it gives schools and teachers an active role in organizing the schools’ and classes’ curricular projects. At the same time, it was determined that those curricular projects should be organized based on general competencies and specific competencies for each disciplinary area, and that the students and school context where the curriculum is built and developed should be taken into account.

At the same time as this process to implement a new concept of curriculum was taking place, efforts were being made to contribute to a new perspective of the management of the Geography curriculum, at the level of the initial training of teachers, at the Geography Department of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the University of Porto. To this end, texts and working documents were produced which reflect an interpretation of the guidelines issued by the Ministry.

This production of knowledge was intended to contribute to preparing future teachers who, apart from being specialists in Geography, should also be capable of designing and managing the curriculum.

Almost a decade after this process was implemented, we ask ourselves: how have Geography teachers appropriated the concepts underlying the Official Guidelines and the documents produced during initial training?; What meanings and implications are incorporated in terms of practices?

This paper aims to explore this matter, particularly the (re)interpretations carried out by the Geography Department of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the University of Porto, as well as those operating in the practices of teachers trained at this institution.

Keywords: curriculum, teaching of geography, curricular interpretation

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CUlTURAl lANDSCAPE OF 21 CENTURY - qUO VADIS?

GEOGRAPHICAl CONSIDERATION bETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

Urszula MYGA-PIATEK

Faculty of Earth Siensces, University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, Poland([email protected])

The simplest definition of landscape describes it as the physiognomy of the geographical environment. The notion cultural landscape refers to landscape which has been transformed by the man as the result of the civilizational development. It is an evolutionary consequence of primary landscapes (natural landscapes – differing in zones and ranges) which existed on Earth until the Neolithic times. Cultural landscapes developed along with the expansion of the ecumene. At each stage of its development, cultural landscape reflected the intellectual potential and essential values of the community which created it. It is thus regarded as both the result and the background of the history which has been mapped in the matrix of the natural environment. Besides the material layer, landscape also has multisensory properties and represents a unique set of symbols and meanings which result from the cultural communication between the man and the nature.

By design, cultural landscapes are extremely dynamic and ephemeral systems. Currently, we are witnessing dramatic transformation of the landscape. Never before in the history of human civilization have human activities happened at such a fast pace or caused so dramatic and enormous, in terms of space, changes. The processes of consumption and globalization of the landscape are happening at a mass scale in the 21st century. Many of the factors which cause these rapid changes are within the scope of interest of geography; these include analyses of the impact on the environment of mass tourism, transport, fragmentation of the space resulting from growing areas of settlements and service sites, restructuring of the industry, etc. That reason is sufficient for geographers to increase their activities in that regard, concerning the application and implementation stage (reaching outside the stage of theoretical considerations).

The issues discussed in the paper include: stages of evolution of cultural landscape as seen in the European cultural circle, factors of landscape transformation, diversification of European landscapes in selected regions and assessment of their condition. Also, modern threats to the quality of European landscapes and directions of their transformation will be analyzed. The above issues will be discussed with reference to the policy of sustainable development (European Landscape Convention).

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COMPOSITION OF EROSION, FlOOD AND AVAlANCHE RISK MAPS FOR THE AREA OF TRžIč MUNICIPAlITY (SlOVENIA) AS

THE bASIS OF THE NEW MUNICIPAl SPATIAl PlAN

Karel NATEK, Marko KREVS, Barbara LAMPIČ, Darko OGRIN, Irena MRAK, Blaž REPE, Uroš STEPIŠNIK

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia([email protected], [email protected], [email protected],

[email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

According to the spatial legislation in Slovenia, the composition of new municipal spatial plans in Slovenia require the thematic maps of natural hazards which represent one of the most important inputs in spatial planning decision making, especially in the segment of potential settlement enlargements as well as with other planned spatial activities.

Thematic maps of erosion and floods, landslides and avalanches for the area of Tržič municipality required development of special methodological approach based on different geographic data, available for a specific and relatively small area of Slovenia. The usually used raw data such as relief information (heights, inclination, slope orientation, land use, lithology, climate parameters, natural values, water resources, protected areas etc.) were upgraded by the field work and detailed mapping as well as in some cases with the expert assessments. The composed maps representing the natural hazards (erosion, floods, land sliding, avalanches) were additionally confronted by the human dimension in terms of population density as well as the data on buildings and infrastructure, cultural heritage and economic activities.

The results used for the spatial plan are maps as well as the detailed description of the natural threats from the spatial planning point of view. Each thematic map represents a layer used in the newly developing spatial plan of Tržič municipality (scale 1 : 10 000) while the description serves as the basis for the strategic part of the document. The methodology and the major outcomes of this case study analysis are presented in the paper.

Keywords: natural hazards, thematic maps, spatial planning, Tržič municipality, Slovenia

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APPlIED RESEARCH IN POPUlATION GEOGRAPHY

Ivo NEJAŠMIĆ

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia([email protected])

Applied researches use existing geographic theory and techniques to understand and solve specific empirical problems. Applied research in population geography, specifically, deals with all relevant population processes and phenomena that are being studied from geographical aspect. Less specifically, application of population geography knowledge and skills include resolving complex social, economic and environmental problems, on both local and global levels. Since certain population geography studies are characterised as more useful than the other, some essential questions arise: Who are they useful for? Who decides what is useful and based on what criteria?

An understanding of dynamic population components and its time and space dependence, as well as population distribution, composition, and change is essential for making decisions in both private and public sectors. Future school enrolments depend critically upon the expected size and age composition of future populations. The size and location of new parks, the location of new economic activities, the planning of transportation networks, as well as the design of sewage treatment facilities, all require a thorough knowledge of how population is expected to change.

Data source and development of demographic information system (DIS) is of crucial importance for applied population geography studies. The lack of population register in Croatia is one of the main problems for applied population geography studies. To avoid dependence on only census data, it is very important to establish continuous data source. Such changes in data collection methodology should revolutionise the business of “demographics” and use of population data at the local scale.

Population analysis may be carried out at many geographic scales. Methods used on one level cannot be automatically used on the other, as well as the data available, for example, on local level cannot be available on higher level and vice versa. Population analyses, in many ways, are much more difficult and challenging at the local scale from the ones at any other scale. In past decade we have chosen to focus upon smaller geographic scales. Geographic perspectives on demographic analysis at the local level seem destined to flourish. That fact encourages the employment of population geographers and opens the question of their university education and training.

Keywords: applied research, population geography, data resources, population geographers’ training

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TRANSPORT MObIlITY AND ACCESSIbIlITY: RESUlTS OF RESEARCH ON WOMEN IN RURAl AbERDEENSHIRE, SCOTlAND

Eva Maria NOACK, Holger BERGMANN

Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Germany([email protected], [email protected])

In our contemporary society, movement is indispensable for social and economic live; being geographically mobile is as one of the central aspects of human welfare, well-being and social inclusion. In rural areas, transport is a key element in the ability of rural dwellers to access work, education, health care, shopping and leisure activities.

This paper explores rural women’s mobility opportunities and travel behaviour and the corresponding reasons, based on empirical research in Aberdeenshire. Aberdeenshire in Northeast Scotland is a ‘booming’ rural area reporting positive net-migration rates and a rather young, growing population. Job commuting is common. Especially newcomers tend to travel over large distances to urban centres. Linking the rural economy to nearby cities, this pattern of mobility behaviour weakens the rural infrastructure. High car ownership rates suggest high car dependency that is interrelated with low supply with local quality services and insufficient public transport provision.

Using in-depth interviews, rural women’s geographic mobility and their respective needs and wants are explored and compared to the reality they face. Focusing on public and private transport, the study reveals that women’s journey decisions and travel patterns derive from traditional gender roles. Particular needs and wants arise from women’s responsibilities; these should be taken into account in future transport policy and practise in order to effectively face (im)mobility-related problems in rural communities.

Moreover, the investigation highlights the car dependency among rural households, partly because of insufficient public transport but mainly due to the unsurpassed level of mobility, flexibility and comfort private cars provide. In this context, the paper discusses whether the nature of demand for public transport by rural residents might alter in the near future for economic, environmental or demographic changes.

Keywords: public transport, car dependency, accessibility, rural Scotland, gender

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ClIMATE CHANGES AND WINTER TOURISM IN SlOVENIA

Matej OGRIN, Nastja RODMAN, Matic MOČNIK, Rok VENGAR, Andraž SMOLEJ, Gregor BUNČIČ

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia([email protected])

Climate changes affect many activities, and one of most dependent activities is winter alpine tourism. After »green« winters in 1988/89 and 1989/90 all major Slovenian winter tourist centres gradually decided for investments in artificial snow infrastructure. But is this enough? In Slovenia winter tourism has a long tradition, however most of ski centres lie on low elevations. Only ski centre Kanin lies on elevation above 2000 m and only three more (Krvavec, Vogel and Zelenica) have ski slopes at elevation above 1600 m. In fact, the most known winter resort Kranjska Gora lies at elevation only 800 m, with most of its ski slopes at elevation under 1200 m.

In last 20 years most of winter ski resorts in Slovenia, due to their low elevations faced unpredictable snow conditions in winter time, many winters were mild with often rainy instead snowy weather, which caused further investments in winter tourism very risky and profits much lower than they were predicted. The raise of temperatures causes longer melting period, more rain precipitation and can in some cases prevents snow guns to produce enough artificial snow. The article shows us climate trends in Slovenian Alpine space in last 30 years and points out possible solutions for winter tourism as endangered activity.

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THE CONCEPT PROPOSAl FOR THE STUDY OF THE SECOND HOME PHENOMENON IN THE RECEIVING SECOND HOME AREA

Vuk Tvrtko OPAČIĆ

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia([email protected])

Despite the overall growth of the second home phenomenon in Croatia and worldwide, this phenomenon is still one of the less researched forms of leisure related ways of mobility. Such unwarranted neglect of the research into the nature of the secondary dwelling and its implications infrequently leads to mistakes in physical planning which result in incorrigible consequences. Only after numerous mistakes which occurred during the increase in the number of individual second homes (1970s and 1980s) and intensive apartmentisation (1990s and 2000s), and with the opening of the real estate market to the EU nationals, did the Croatian scientific circles and wider public show a slightly greater interest in this issue. Since secondary recreational dwelling is significant for Croatia, particularly for its littoral, it is mandatory to study it from multidisciplinary perspectives in order to propose appropriate measures and legal solutions which will ensure the future development of the Croatian littoral on the premises of sustainable development. The purpose of the paper is to propose the outline of the study of the second home phenomenon in the receiving area and provide guidelines for its future direction in local communities. It encompasses the following stages: the observation of the recreational attractions of the region, an outline of the developmental dynamics to date as well as spatial distribution and basic characteristics of the second home phenomenon, the study of the motivation of the present and potential second home owners, an analysis of the second home mobilities, the establishment of the shape of the second home phenomenon concentration in the given geographical location, an analysis of geographical, economic and socio-cultural influences and consequences of the second home phenomenon as a basis for establishing the impact of the phenomenon in the regional development as a whole, and the evaluation of the present regulations pertaining to physical planning. The results of all these stages of research will serve as a basis for a proposal for future solutions which will lead towards an optimal direction of the second home phenomenon in the receiving second home areas.

Keywords: second home phenomenon, receiving second home area, physical planning

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APPlIED HYDROGEOGRAPHY – ITS PlACEMENT AND ROlE

Danijel OREŠIĆ

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia([email protected])

In the indroductory part of the paper there is a discussion about the placement, name, definition and object of the hydrogeography as a geographic discipline. Different geographic institutions have different names for the geographic discipline dealing with water, and up to a point there is also a difference refering to the kinds of water researched. In Croatia the term hydrogeography is being used and as a discipline nad it deals with surrface waters on land, while marine geography is a separate discipline as recomended by IGU. Through hydrogeography, geography has a certain position in hydrology as a multidisciplinary and interdisiplinary research field dealing with water.

The second part of the paper starts with possible divisions of hydrogeography itself. A basic division into general, systematic, regional and applied hydrogeography is presented. The definition and the role of applied hydrogeography is further discussed. The systematic and ecologic aspects of applied hidrogeographic research are stressed as important. The basic role of a geographer is to define the area, the condition and the stability of a gien hydrogeographic system, to single out the changes introduced by the society (or naturaly occuring) affecting the system and to try to predict the future impact of the changes in focus on the stability and the future state of the given system. Geoecologic aspect is present through suporting those changes (solutions) which are in corcodance with the principles of sustainable development.

At the end of the paper there is a case study of an applied hydrogeographic research in Northeastern Syria presented, conducted by the author and it’s doctorate candidate.

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WHICH STRATEGIES SHOUlD bE ADOPTED TO PRESERVE AND ENHANCE THE DOURO REGION (NE PORTUGAl), A WORlD

HERITAGE SITE?

Maria Helena Mesquita PINA

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Porto, Portugal([email protected])

The Douro Demarcated Region (DDR) is not only a privileged area where a diversity of high-quality wines are produced, among which Port wine naturally stands out, but it is also a multifaceted landscape comprising a valuable history. Throughout its 250.000 hectares, terraces laden with vines rise up the slopes of the Douro River and its main tributaries, resulting in a very attractive landscape, classified as World Heritage in December 2001.

Having always the Douro River as its structuring element, the DDR does however reveal a high degree of heterogeneity, by which reason it is divided into three sub-regions: the “Baixo Corgo” to the west, followed by the “Cima Corgo” and, to the east, on the border with Spain, the “Douro Superior”.

Although extremely appealing, the region is strife with diverse problems, among which a deficient agricultural land structure, closely associated with an ageing population in recession. In fact, although there are a few large business enterprises, it is the small family-based holdings that dominate the landscape. This situation is particularly widespread in the “Baixo Corgo”, the “cradle” sub-region of Douro viticulture, where Cambres is located, a parish which clearly illustrates this scenario.

This parish in the Lamego municipality is characterized by the high degree of parcelling of its agricultural holdings and an aged populated. It is also, however, home to extensive landscape, architectural, cultural and even religious heritage. In this setting, which strategies should be followed to ensure its preservation? At a time when tourism is increasingly pointed out as one of the dynamics to bolster, how can rural spatial planning be fostered without underestimating the multiple local potentialities? How can local and regional competitiveness be boosted and, at the same time, increase the sustainability of these landscapes and their heritage values? The case under analysis is enlightening.

Keywords: rural development, viticulture, tourism in rural areas, sustainability, landscape heritage

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RESEARCHING IN GEOGRAPHY, IS IT POSSIblE TO MATCH SCIENCE, THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE TERRITORIAl

DEVElOPMENT?

Maria PREZIOSO

Department of Economics and Territory, Faculty of Economics, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy

([email protected])

By the access of new countries, European policies and directives are increased as well as national and regional ones, influencing territorial and spatial planning and modifing it for including common priority objective as cohesion, sustainability, competiveness, polycentrism, etc.

From 1995 to 2003, the Italian geographical research has developed a new methodological theory able to assess the territorial sensitivity of policies and programmes; and since 2004 it includes the competitiveness and cohesion assessment (Prezioso, 1995; 2003; 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009, 2010).

After an experimental period of texiting and critical review, this theoretical approach, called

Sustainable Territorial environmental/economic Management Methodological Approach (STeMA), and its tool GIS, were discussed for supporting several European applied researches onto LIFE, ESPON, CADSIS, Cohesion, Lipsia Chart programmes.

The paper goes back over the STeMA theoretical questions, focusing on scientific questions relative to the Territorial Impact Aassessment (TIA) and the Strategy Environmental Assessment (SEA) of regional policy making and European policy inclusion in planning choices for obtaining a cohesive and competitive development in sustainability in different target areas individuated at NUTs 1, 2, 3. In order to define this IV generation methodological protocol and its selected use of common scientific indicators, some words will be spent looking at the territorial diversity and testing it from the territorial point of view. The latter can be considered as the initial territorial capital or capacity building or sensitivity by which assessing impacts and effects (positive or negative) of integrated EU policies, to do endogenous corrections.

Finally, in order to reduce these risks, the paper arrange those rules (governance) and those procedures/lows (compliance) to which the territorial government is due to, transferring new geographical address in planning culture, making subsidiary orientations, procedures, standards; they transform interests of investors, enterprise systems, interest-taken, citizen and citizenships on the “best practise” way.

Keywords: geographical methodology, sustainability, competiveness, cohesion, Territorial Impact Assessment, planning

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MONITORING OF SPElEOlOGICAl ObJECTS IN NATURE PARK bIOKOVO – bASEMENT FOR GOVERNMENT AND PROTECTION OF

ENDOGENOUS KARST PHENOMENA IN PROTECTED AREAS

Ksenija PROTRKA1, Roman OZIMEC2

1Nature Park Biokovo, Makarska, Croatia2Croatian Biospeleological Society (CBSS), Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected])

Endogenous karst phenomena, caves and pits, belong to most important natural values of Nature Park Biokovo and represented important elements of geological and geomorphological heritage, but also unique underground habitats with rare and endemic, frequently still undescribed cave fauna, same as paleontological, archeological and cultural localities.

Due to systematically implementation of biospeleological researches of Nature Park Biokovo (2002-2006) beside findings of many cave taxa, new for Biokovo, but also for science, many new, till than not explored caves, with interesting findings (new paleontological and archaeological localities, bats colonies). After synthesis of results, published in final Elaborate in 2008, necessary needs for monitoring of most valuable caves occurred. Selection for monitoring is based on several criteria: geomorphological values exist of paleontological and archaeological findings, expressed biodiversity, caves from which cave taxa have been described (locus typicus), important bats habitats, but also touristic potential caves are included. After criteria of endangerment, ten caves have been selected for monitoring in 2009 Year.

In frame of systematically monitoring, has been performed as follow: preview of general status of caves, status of cave findings and habitats, analyses of ecology and microclimate factors, same as analyses of populations of cave fauna selected taxa. On the basis of monitoring, expert Elaborate have been work out including: expert suggestions for activities necessary for caves protection, same as necessary of further researches, recommendations for microclimate measurement instruments placement, same as sampling for water analyses. Further, measures for conservation and protection of cave habitats, same as cave taxa are recommended and finally, possibility of using caves for educative and touristic purposes together with elements for caves promotion. Without systematically monitoring of caves it is impossible to perform quality management, protection and promotion of endogenous Karst phenomena in Nature Park Biokovo, same as other protected areas in Croatian Karst.

Keywords: karst, speleology, biospeleology, caves, survey

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ClASSIFICATION METHODOlOGY OF bIOREGIONS WITH INITIAl PROPOSAl OF CROATIAN bIOREGIONS

Jelena PUĐAK

Institute of social sciencies ‘’Ivo Pilar’’, Zagreb, Croatia([email protected])

Bioregionalism is a political, cultural and ecologycal system that is based on naturaly-defined territorial units called bioregions.

In one of its forms regionalism appears as ‘’a cooperation movenment of regional district governmental apparatus across state boundaries’’ (Lübbe, u Milardović ur., 1995), with goal of resolving problems that even in technical way are crossing state boundaries.

Bioregionalism can be seen as a type of regionalism, but while the boundaries of regions are in general determined by administrative criteria, the boundaries of bioregions are determined according to the natural limits of ecosystems.

Inhabiting bioregion is applied on creating human communities that fallow unique characteristics of climate, geomorphology, and biology of particular place.

Just like in ecosystems, bioregional boundaries are not clear, thin lines on map – it is more often the case that one bioregion si overlapping with, and gradually traverse in another.

We will present classification methodology of bioregions, substantive components of bioregions, criterions for defining bioregional boundaries, and bioregional scale classification that was set up by Kirkpatick Sale.

We will show an example of primary division of Croatian territory on broadly defined ecoregion, and narrowly defined bioregions.

On this occasion we’ll maintain inside the state boundaries of RC, although it is important mentioning that some of proposed bioregions and all of ecoregions are crossing those state boundaries, which is in accordance with criterions of bioregional classification.

Keywords: bioregionalism, bioregions, ecosystem, sustainability, community

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ENVIRONMENTAl CONFlICTS bETWEEN HAbITATS OF THE VUlNERAblE bIRD SPECIES AND POWER lINE NETWORK

Nika RAZPOTNIK VISKOVIĆ

Anton Melik Geographical Institute of Scientific Research Centre of the SlovenianAcademy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana, Slovenia

([email protected])

Power-line network is a linear landscape element. It provides households and other human activities with electricity. Power lines have significant impact on environment which is caused by their presence and function. Among the other consequences they affect birds and their habitats. Each intervention and change in habitat means change of living conditions for all organisms that depend on it.

Power-line infrastructure affects birds directly and indirectly, in positive and negative way. The most concerning are negative direct impacts: bird electrocutions on the poles and collisions with wires. They depend on several biological, meteorological, topographic and technical factors. Indirect impacts refer to habitats, where birds nest, breed and hunt. Power poles can also be used as nesting base for birds, especially in the treeless areas. Since the wires and poles are lifted above the surface, they are very convenient for perching and safe gathering of bird flocks. In this case the environmental impact of power poles is positive.

This paper presents a model which can be used for identifying dangerous power-line corridors, where the possibility of electrocution of eagle owl Bubo bubo is the highest. Model is based on available data for the area of Kras, Podgorski Kras, Čičarija and Podgrajsko podolje. This region is the largest nesting and hunting area of eagle owls in Slovenia. The main criteria used for identification of dangerous power-line sections are living habits of eagle owls, current land use and existing power-line network in chosen area.

Keywords: geography, biogeography, environmental protection, ornithology, habitats

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APPlIED GEOGRAPHICAl RESEARCH OF URbAN DEVElOPMENT AND URbAN PlANNING IN SlOVENIA

Dejan REBERNIK

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia([email protected])

In Slovenia applied geography and geographical research is well established in different fields, among them urban, regional and spatial planning are very important. Geographical research and analysis of spatial trends and processes in urban, suburban and rural areas are used as a basis for the preparation of different documents and planning acts on national and local level. Geographers are very active as members of teams of urban and regional planners. In the paper examples of applied geographical research in the field of urban development will be presented. In the last 10 years different applied research projects in the field of urban and regional planning were carried out by the members of the Department of Geography at Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana (Urban ecosystems, Linking policies and criterias for achieving the sustainable spatial development of towns and other settlements in functional urban areas, Characteristics of regional development and regional potentials of Spodnje Podravje Region). In the paper the methodology, the main research results and application of those research projects will be presented and evaluated. Results of those research projects were or will be used for the preparation of policies in the filed of spatial and regional development.

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EUROPEAN IDENTITY IN SlOVENIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM THROUGH GEOGRAPHICAl PERSPECTIVE

Tatjana RESNIK PLANINC, Mojca ILC

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia([email protected], [email protected])

In order to achieve the European Union goals of effective integration in a wide range of economic and political domains including those of social, environmental, foreign-policy, cultural and educational character, there is a need to reflect upon the common sense of European identity. The authors tried to identify perceptions/understandings, attitudes/attachments and ways of articulating/experiencing the idea of European identity among Slovenian youth with the help of curricula analyses and a survey among 12-18 year old pupils/students in Slovenia. The aim of the study is to identify to what extent content on ‘Europe’, ‘European dimension’ and ‘European identity and citizenship’ exists in the Slovenian national school curricula and how it is represented and constructed. Upon the gathered data authors through geographical perspective discus a connection between actual teaching of European issues in the classroom and syllabi goals, asking themselves if it possible to achieve integration in terms of collective identity.

Keywords: curriculum, European Union, European identity, education system, geographical education, syllabus.

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THE GROWTH OF SECOND HOMES IN PORTUGAl: SPATIAl PlANNING AND DEVElOPMENT POlICY CONCERNS

Zoran ROCA1, Maria DE NAZARÉ ROCA2, José A. OLIVEIRA1

1TERCUD – Territory, Culture and Development Research Centre, Universidade Lusófona, Lisbon, Portugal

2e-GEO - Geographical and Regional Planning Research Centre, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal

([email protected])

The growing omnipresence of second homes in all parts of Portugal and the environmental, economic, cultural and other change this phenomenon induces in land use and local development have become frequent discussion topic among policy- and opinion-makers. However, this phenomenon has not yet become part of the national research agenda in Portugal. The recent spatial and sectorial development policy agendas in Portugal have been marked by the importance given to second homes in national tourism, but the impacts of second home expansion have been perceived quite differently. For example, in the National Strategic Plan for Tourism, residential tourism is considered as one of the top-ten priorities to be promoted, while in the National Programme for Spatial Planning Policy it is recommended to control its expansion because of the effects it can have on the sustainability and management of land use and landscapes. Clearly, effective management of the existing and future impacts of second homes expansion is hardly possible without grasping with the specificities of their spatially diverse origins and character.

This paper presents findings from a currently ongoing major pioneer research project - on the effects of the second homes phenomenon as a constitutive element of post-productivist land-use patterns in Portugal, designed and being carried out by a team of geographers, specialists spatial planning, territorial development and public policy research. First, a spatial typology of second homes at the national level will be brought forward, which largely confirms the literature on major areas of second home expansion in other countries of Europe and beyond, such as the rural-urban fringe, vacation resorts and the natural and cultural amenity rich countryside. Second, it will be pointed out to what way and extent positive and negative impacts of second homes expansion on land use and local/regional development and related planning issues are perceived by local development agents in a regional case-study area selected for this research project.

Keywords: second homes, residential tourism, spatial organization, development planning, Portugal

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SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE RIVER SYSTEM CHANGES IN DONJA KOlUbARA RIVER VAllEY

Mirjana ROKSANDIĆ, Slavoljub DRAGIČEVIĆ, Nenad žIVKOVIĆ

Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, Serbia([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

Human impact on a river system and fluvial erosion are often followed by changes in landscape morphology, as well as demographic and socio-economic effects. In order to open a new mine for lignite exploitation, one part of the river Kolubara was diverted into Pestan River in 1976. Pestan riverbed was not predisposed for kinetic energy of a stronger flow which caused more intensive fluvial erosion by digging the riverbanks and higher amounts of silt. Widening of the concave Pestan riverbanks, today’s Kolubara riverbanks, caused loss of land along the parcels which have been exposed to more intensive erosion. The amount of the lost arable land was estimated on the base of comparative analysis of cadastral maps of this area from 1967 and orthophoto images of the actual state of the Kolubara river course. These landscape modifications caused changes in the allocation of land use (former arable land became fallow land), amount of agricultural production and demographic and land property structure. This paper presents an analysis of the effects of human impact and fluvial erosion in the river system.

Keywords: changes in Kolubara river system, Pestan river, land loss, social and economic effects

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REGIONAl AND SPATIAl PlANNING AS A CONTRIbUTION IN APPlIED GEOGRAPHY: THE CASE OF THE PERIURbAN AREA OF

SHKODER CITY – AlbANIA

Dritan RUSTJA

Geography Department, Shkodra University, Albania([email protected])

This paper attempts to analyze the spatial transformations occurred in the periurban area of Shkoder city after 1990. More specifically, it has been taken under study “Rrethinat” commune, which surrounds the largest northern city of Albania and can so be identified with its periurban territory. It is this commune, along with Shkodra city itself that has experienced the most dramatic social, economic and land use transformations in Shkodra region during this period. These transformations took place as a result of the internal demographic migration which placed large numbers of people from the rural and mountainous areas into the suburbs of Shkoder city. This paper examines the causes, the dynamics and the impact of these transformations over the community and land use. While using a problem-resolving (applied) approach, the study finds out that the most immediate problems that need to be addressed are: the lack of an administrative identity for this area, the high degree of economic, demographic and settlement informality and the lack of an adequate public infrastructure. It concludes on emphasizing the necessity to develop and carry out a master plan for this territory as the final solution for all the above mentioned problems and as a way to achieve the sustainable development.

Keywords: spatial transformation, periurban area, Shkoder city, informality, master plan

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STRUCTURAl CHANGES IN THE PERI-URbAN AGRICUlTURE OF THE bElGRADE REGION

Mikica SIBINOVIĆ, Ivan RATKAJ

Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, Serbia([email protected])

The Belgrade region is comprised of 17 municipalities with a total of 162 settlements and with about 1.5 million inhabitants. Peri-urban agricultural production is organized to meet the needs of the population.

Over time the agricultural system in the rural areas of the Belgrade has transformed from traditional agriculture to the agricultural production for the market. Standardization, vertical integration, and globalization have resulted in changes in the agricultural system. In suburban areas these changes are most pronounced because of the pressure of urbanization and rural-urban conflicts. The development, distribution and structure of agricultural production depends on environmental and social conditions. Social factors are strongly reflected by the agricultural population, agricultural structure, the achieved level of agricultural technology, access to markets and the industrialization of agricultural. The needs of Belgrade influences agricultural production in the suburban areas. This research investigates the nature and intensity of this relationship in terms of the functional aspects of agricultural production, rural-urban conflicts, and future trajectories of agriculture. Results suggest possible directions for the sustainable development of agriculture in the Belgrade region.

Keywords: Belgrade, peri-urban agriculture, sustainable development, rural-urban conflicts

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URbAN qUAlITY OF lIFE – CASE STUDY OF RIJEKA

Lana SLAVUJ

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia([email protected])

Quality of life is a multidimensional concept. It is usually measured by using indicators, which can be either objective or subjective. Objective indicators are statistical information about the external condition of the environment within which people live, such as average number of persons per room, unemployment, lack of basic house facilities etc. Objective indicators thus represent the objective quality of life. The second type of indicators, the subjective indicators, measure individual satisfaction with life or subjective quality of life.

This paper represents a study of quality of life in the City of Rijeka. The research has been done in two stages. First of all, an analysis of the city space based upon objective data has been performed. Then, five neighbourhoods have been selected for a survey research of the perception of quality of life. Neighbourhood satisfaction was used as an indicator of the quality of life in the neighbourhood.

Keywords: urban quality of life, objective indicators, subjective indicators, neighbourhood satisfaction, City of Rijeka

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REGIONAl DEVElOPMENT OF bORDER REGIONS: FROM PERIPHERY TO DEVElOPMENTAl AXIS

Darko STILINOVIĆ1, Borna FUERST-BJELIŠ2

1Ministry of Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management, Zagreb, Croatia2Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected], [email protected])

Cross border regional cooperation issues are of particular importance for Croatia due to its wider position, shape and consequently to the total length of the state border and the share of the border regions in the state territory. Among 21 Croatian counties, 18 of them are directly bordering the neighbouring state regions and are active in some cross border activities.

Cross border cooperation by implementation of EU funded projects represents main source of self financing for regional stakeholders in Croatia. Croatian regions are therefore in the position to be less dependent from the state budget. Using the bottom up approach, development options are easier to be chosen as corrective measures to the existing non-flexible development plans. Cross border and peripheral regions by joint cooperation i. e. by realisation of joint cross border projects are bringing closer development scenarios of their respective neighbouring countries. In this way neighbouring interstate regions are exchanging best practices in the frame of predefined sectors of cooperation.

Joint projects contribute to the revitalisation of derelict and abandoned areas. Common identity of these regions is being gradually rebuilt while borders and border regions instead of peripheries are becoming developmental axis. The research is questioning the role of the peripheral position of border regions in the new conditions of cross border cooperation projects compared to the previous developmental patterns, i.e. the new quality of the periphery. These questions include issues of regional identity as well; the relation of the old and new one, or its (re)creation.

Key words: border regions, regional development, cross border cooperation, EU funds, Croatia

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lANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT IN VOJVODINA AS A PREREqUISITE FOR ITS SUSTAINAblE DEVElOPMENT

Vladimir STOJANOVIĆ, Dragoslav PAVIĆ, Milana PAŠIĆ

Department of Geography, Tourism & Hotel Services, University of Novi Sad, Serbia([email protected])

In achieving objectives of sustainable development, based on the harmony between the preservation of nature resources and meeting the needs of society – landscape research, protection and management have important roles. Landscape is important in the fields of ecology, local culture and economic development. Furthermore, landscape is an important element in people’s lives, no matter if it is natural, rural or urban landscape.

Specific regional characteristics of Vojvodina call for a more thorough analysis of its landscape. Because this landscape is valued as highly homogenous, its adequate study and connection to local cultures are often neglected. The development of landscape management systems of Vojvodina through determining the policy of planning and protection could contribute to more rational use of all the resources in Vojvodina. The management systems would be shaped in accordance with modern social changes. In view of turbulent transition trends, this process would give a multiple contribution to the preservation of relevant natural and social characteristics of the landscape in Vojvodina. Finally, getting to know the issues of landscape management contributes to a better standard of local communities, which is more than necessary in a society destabilized by economic turbulences.

Keywords: landscape, landscape management, sustainable development, Vojvodina

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EXPERIENCING A PlACE: KARlOVAC AS AN OlDER TEENAGERS’ DAIlY ENVIRONMENT

Laura ŠAKAJA1, Svjetlana VIŠNIĆ2

1Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia2Student, Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia

([email protected])

Major studies carried out in 1970s, including pioneering works by Kevin Lynch (Growing Up in Cities, 1977) and Roger Hart (Children’s Experience of Place, 1979) were followed up by developing research interest in young people’s perception and experience of their local environment, urban and rural. Few geographical studies, however, until recently have explicitly examined the place use and place behavior of older teenagers. Moreover, older adolescents tend to be excluded not only from research on environmental preferences and use of public space but also from much of the planning process and decisions having to do with their everyday environments. This study aims to present place preferences, place use and place behavior of 15 to 17-year-old residents of Karlovac – a middle-size city in Croatia. To develop friendlier urban-design policies directed at young people that reinforce both well-being and place attachment, it is necessary to understand their environmental experiences and aspirations. The study sets out to investigate how 15-17 years-olds know, perceive and value their city. The other aim of the study was to examine the topology of teenagers’ daily environments consisting of important landmarks, frequently used, preferred and avoided places. The research enabled us to define distinct types of places teenagers value or disregard; places where they feel good or uncomfortable.

The complexity of the research task, including exploration of physical settings, activities and meanings, required mixing quantitative and qualitative methods. A pilot study provided valuable information to design a case specific questionnaire which was administered to secondary schools students. The questionnaire consisted of structural and open-ended questions as well as a request for students to draw a sketch map of the central parts of the city. The administering of the questionnaire was followed by focus groups and informal behavior observation at selected places with the aim of checking and developing the general findings from the survey analyses.

When discussing the results, we draw upon previous research to provide additional insights into teenagers’ mental maps and use of public space.

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HISTORICAl AGRICUlTURAl lANDSCAPE AS A SUbJECT OF lANDSCAPE ECOlOGICAl RESEARCH

Jana ŠPULEROVÁ1, František PETROVIČ2

1Institute of Landscape Ecology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia2Department of Ecology and Environmentalist, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Constantine The

Philosopher University Nitra, Slovakia([email protected], [email protected])

The present cultural landscape is the result of an interaction between man and nature continuing for several thousand years. The most significant interventions in the landscape in former communist countries started in the second half of the 20th century and were linked with the intensification of agriculture. The original and preserved agricultural landscapes, where human activities through history consciously transformed the environment, can be described as historical agricultural landscapes. Historical structures of agricultural landscapes (HSAL) are a type of cultural landscape that contains, within a geographic area, both natural and manmade features that typify connected activities, and a cultural expression baring on past events or patterns of physical development. They are now becoming rare, however, making them even more valuable on a European scale. Contribution is focused on HSAL in Slovakia, which have been preserved and have irreplaceable ecological, cultural and historical value. Article presents overview of the research activities focused on historical agricultural landscape and point out on different type of historical agricultural landscape, as viticulture landscape, mountain grassland-arable landscape, agricultural landscape with dispersed settlements etc. The research was aimed on land-use changes, driving forces, threats and trends relating to historical agricultural landscape in Slovakia.

Keywords: historical agricultural landscape, dispersed settlement, viticulture landscape, driving forces

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THE CHAllENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF DEVElOPING WINE TOURISM IN THE REPUblIC OF MACEDONIA

Milena TALESKA

Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University - Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

([email protected])

Wine tourism, or tourism focused on wine as a product – wine tasting and visits to vineyards, wineries, wine festivals and wine producing regions, is one of the fastest growing industries in Europe and in the world. Although there are a lot of regions that have all the necessary potential for developing wine tourism in the Republic of Macedonia this form of tourism product is still at its early stages of recognition and development of its potential.

Republic of Macedonia is a country with very long wine-growing tradition. Archaeological findings confirm that these activities date back at least four thousand years ago.

Wine roads in Macedonia are an essential part of the Povardarie region. The region of Tikves, is one of the most famous wine producing regions in Macedonia and is the initiator in introducing wine tourism.

Wine tourism, for this part and the whole region of Povardarie can be a particularly important stimulant for economic and socio – cultural development. Wine roads would help establish a creative and quick revival as well as enhancement of tourist offer of Macedonia

Through investments in tourism, Macedonian viticulture and wine making can establish Macedonian wine as a well known brand in the world, thus creating real prerequisites for the development of Macedonian wine industry.

Keywords: wine tourism, Macedonia, vineyards, wine, vine cellars

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HOME-TO-WORK COMMUTING AND REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION: WHAT ROlE CAN GEOGRAPHY PlAY?

A MULTI-SCALAR ANALYSIS OF WALLONIA, BELGIUM

Jacques TELLER, Sébastien DUJARDIN, François PIRART

Research Centre on Territorial, Urban and Rural Sciences (Lepur), University of Liège, Belgium([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

Considering the need to address the sustainability of transportation in developed countries, this paper discusses the potential of geography in analysing how to reduce energy consumption of home-to-work travel through spatial planning.

Over the past two decades, there has been a considerable amount of academic work from various fields of study focusing on the relationships between urban form and the use of non renewable energy, CO2 emissions, and environmental degradation. Since the early stage of the debate, geographers made their contribution owing to their multidisciplinary approach, and their capacity to tackle nature-society interactions through a spatial perspective. Amongst the techniques used were multi-variate analysis, regression models, and spatial econometrics. However, scholars did not address the issue of scale underlying their investigations.

This paper addresses bias which may emerge while implementing spatial analysis for modelling human behaviours. A multi-scalar approach incorporating both local and regional scales of analysis is presented. Based on Boussauw and Witlox’s (2009) commuting-energy performance index, it evaluates variations of energy-efficiency of home-to-work journeys throughout the Walloon Region (Belgium) under the lens of three different scales (Municipality, former Municipality, and census block) and several urban types.

Results show that depending on the scale of analysis, contradictory understandings of the Walloon spatial structure and its impact on energy consumption may emerge. Energy-efficient neighbourhoods are ignored when the scale of analysis is too large. This minimises the potential contribution of spatial planning in reducing energy consumptions overall and tends to highlight major towns as the most sustainable urban form. In addition, multi-scalar analyses shed light on a great variation inside urban areas as well as rural areas. A simple dichotomy between urban and rural areas is thus no longer relevant to tackle increasingly widespread travel patterns of home-to-work commuters.

Finally, caution is made about dynamics that geographical analyses may underplay.

Keywords: spatial planning, CO2 emissions, commuting-energy performance index, multi-scalar analysis, Wallonia, Belgium

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lANDSlIDES CITY OF SARAJEVO-CAUSES, CONSEqUENCES AND SANATION

Emir TEMIMOVIĆ, Haris JAHIĆ

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina([email protected], [email protected] )

This paper deals with the problem of landslides in the City of Sarajevo. Researching area consists of four municipalities (Stari Grad, Centar, Novo Sarajevo and Novi Grad) with the total area of 141.5 km². City of Sarajevo is a political-administrative, economic, cultural, historic and scientific-educational center of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The authorities of City of Sarajevo in the future will have to devote much more time and space and finances for the study and sanation of landslides. There is 506 landslides, mostly situated on the slope areas of the City of Sarajevo. These slope areas are the most vulnerable areas and its only a matter of time before there will be a much bigger financial losses and human casualties. The main cause of formation of such a large number of landslides is usually the human factor, mostly the illegal housing construction on these slope areas. An additional problem is the decision of the city government for the subsequent legalization of such facilities. By analyzing the physical-geographical and socio-geographic components of the study area, there is certainly big risk of the possibility of forming a landslide in Sarajevo, which confirms the current situation on the ground.

Keywords: Bosnia and Herzegovina, landslides, sanation, Sarajevo

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SETTlEMENT AREA TYPE AS A FACTOR OF ElECTORAl bEHAVIOR

Jernej TIRAN

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia([email protected])

Some political scientists believe that a new form of political cleavage has arisen in Slovenia over the past few years, which runs along the axis »urban« and »rural«, that is, the city and the countryside. This hypothesis is somewhat surprising, since the differences and tensions between the city and the countryside are diminishing; in addition, we are witnessing ever smaller differences between the programs and paradigms of Slovenian political parties. In our dissertation, we observed the association between the settlement area type according to the level of urbanization and the electoral results of the parliamentary elections from 1996 to 2008. Our research strategy was based on comparing the electoral results from their respective polls and a suitable typification of settlements. We concluded that the differences between the electoral results of most of the political parties are statistically distinctive according to the settlement type area. When compared to those in 1996, we noticed that the degree of association between the settlement area type and the election results decreased in 2000 and 2004, whereas it increased considerably in the 2008 parliamentary elections, both on the national and regional level. In 2008, the differences in electoral results in the city and in the provincial areas also increased. Based on the analysis of the electoral results, we may safely confirm the hypothesis on the newly founded political cleavage between the city and the countryside.

Keywords: geography of elections, electoral behavior, urbanization, Slovenia

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FOREST AT THE END OF THE CITY: DEFORESTATION AND URbANIZATION IN MEDVEDNICA PROTECTED AREA

Luka VALOžIĆ, Marin CVITANOVIĆ

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia([email protected], [email protected])

Medvednica Nature Park was created in 1981. Its main phenomena are well preserved forests and forest communities which spread over 64% of the area. The Park is located in proximity to Zagreb, the largest city in Croatia which has been characterized by a substantial growth in size and population in the last few decades. This article reconstructs the environmental history of Medvednica with a special emphasis on the period after 1981, in order to understand how social and economic events and policy changes affected the Park’s condition. The study combines interpretation of remote sensing imagery, cartographic, textual and photo analysis as well as extensive field surveys with intention to provide a clear insight into the deforestation and reforestation proportions and patterns across the entire area of the Park as well as to assess the positive and negative effects of Zagreb’s proximity. Considering the fact that forests were the main reason for the creation of Medvednica protected area, the primary focus of the research are the changes in forest cover, but the changes in population and settlement morphology are also analyzed. Results indicate that population growth and settlement expansion on the edges of the Park are the primary force behind the process of its degradation, but not the only one, and that the recent legal documents have recognized the problem but are not directed towards solving it. As a result of these combined factors, the total area of Medvednica Nature Park has reduced almost 22% since its creation in 1981.

Keywords: environmental history, forest cover, deforestation, park management, Medvednica protected area

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POPUlATION DISTRIbUTION CHANGE IN ISTRIA COUNTY

Luka VALOžIĆ, Aleksandar TOSKIĆ, Dražen NJEGAČ

Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

This work deals with the analysis and visualization of the population distribution change in, what is present day Croatia’s Istria county, in the time period from the 1948 census until the 2001 census. Spatial data processing and visualization methods are mostly based on ArcGIS Info software and its extensions. The article focuses on temporal and spatial characteristics of Istria’s population absolute number and relative density changes. Because of the very dynamic nature of the analyzed region’s demographics and many changes made in its outer and inner boundaries, problems will emerge during data pre-processing and the spatial analyses themselves. All the analyses will be done in the recent 2001 population census’ administrative division. Presence of strong polarization effect as well as more intense urbanization processes in the coastal buffer zone are confirmed by the analyses presented in this work.

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MEASURING PROGRESS TOWARDS SUSTAINAbIlITY: THE GEOGRAPHERS VIEW

Katja VINTAR MALLY

Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia([email protected])

Numerous contemporary geographical researches are focusing on the interactions between human society and environment. Geography as a complex scientific discipline has a lot to offer to the understanding of sustainable development as an overarching developmental paradigm. Its implementation requires a profound understanding of natural environment (as traditionally studied by physical geography) and an extensive knowledge about human activities and interactions (as traditionally studied by human geography). Adapting human activities to the carrying capacities of the environment is the basic requirement of the sustainable development concept. In order to achieve this, i.e. to decouple environmental degradation and resource consumption from socio-economic development, all the available geographical knowledge has to be combined.

In the past two decades, many researchers (among them also geographers) focused their work on measuring and monitoring the progress made towards sustainability goals. As a result, several hundred sustainable development indicator initiatives have been proposed worldwide. We intend to present only some of them, focusing on aggregate measures of different aspects of sustainability. Following the idea that measurement of overall progress towards sustainability should include not only social and economic benefits, but also their accompanying environmental costs, we have also developed a new alternative measure – the development balance index. This index upgrades the human development index, a prominent socio-economic measure, by the environmental dimension as encompassed by the ecological footprint. In comparison to usual development measures (such as GDP per capita) the calculations of development balance index display a different image of general well-being and development in the world and European countries. In developed countries, current state and trends are unsustainable and unjust, especially from the viewpoint of developing countries and future generations. In general, the questions of balanced social, economic and environmental development at different spatial levels worldwide are probably the greatest professional challenge for geographers in 21st century.

Keywords: sustainable development, methods, geography, development balance index

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EXTERNAl EVAlUATION OF EIGHT-GRADE STUDENTS IN DOMAIN OF GENERAl GEOGRAPHY

Biljana VRANKOVIĆ1, željka ŠILJKOVIĆ2, Ružica VUK3

1National Centre for External Evaluation of Education, Zagreb, Croatia2Department of Geography, University of Zadar, Croatia

3Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia([email protected], [email protected], [email protected])

This paper analyzes the eighth grade students achievement in external evaluation exam in school year 2007/2008 in domain of General Geography. The goal of this paper is to determine the level of achievement in basic geography knowledge and skills at the end of regular education. Objectives are also, comparison of General Geography domain with Geography of Europe and Geography of Croatia domains, qualitative analysis of all answers and content analysis of incorrect answers in General Geography domain with results interpretation. Qualitative analysis was conducted on a sample of 500 students and results were compared with results of population which attended external evaluation exam (21.485 eight grade pupils of elementary school). The results are expressed through average solvability of General Geography domain and individual items in that content area. It was found that average solvability of General Geography domain is 38% which is for 4 percentage points less than achievement in Geography of Europe and by 11 percentage points less than the achievement in Geography of Croatia. The analysis identified significant differences between the achievements of individual items, depending on the type and difficulties of items, types of knowledge and cognitive dimensions. Qualitative analysis of open items detected the need for changes in teaching and learning strategies. The level of achievement in this domain of General Geography is not satisfying. Achieved results have demonstrated the absence of the priority and news effect and cumulative effect of learning and teaching was not noticed.

Keywords: external evaluation, geography, general geography domain, type of knowledge, cognitive dimensions

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ACTION AS A MISSING lINK bETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE OF GEOGRAPHY EDUCATION

CONCEPTUAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A THEORY OF PRACTICE OF GEOGRAPHY TEACHING

Clemens WIESER

Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna, Austria([email protected])

The relationship between teaching and learning is commonly regarded as being uncomplicated. This persistent myth has been exposed to public debate through studies like the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The PISA outcomes stirred up debate within educational research, leading to the conclusion that successful acquisition of knowledge is not necessarily a consequence of appropriate impartation. A review of theories of teaching indicates that the missing link between appropriate impartation and successful acquisition lies in how these theories comprehend action in the practice of teaching. The missing comprehension of action also highlights the gap between theory and practice of teaching.

Geography as an academic discipline thrives on geography as a school subject. Many students start to study geography because they become interested in the subject in secondary school. This is why concepts for teaching geography have to be improved. Educational theory points out that acquisition of knowledge inevitably relies on the subject. Geography as a subject deals with a specific class of objects of reality. The specific configuration of the subject, representing the specific configuration of the respective objects of reality, leads to specific ways of acquisition and impartation of knowledge. Consequently, the mode of learning and teaching geography is specific to geography as a subject. This argument highlights the need for a theory of practice of geography teaching that reflects the specifics of the subject. The lecture will highlight challenges in developing such a theory. It will conclude with the prospect of a research project designed to be a first step for the development of a theory of practice of geography teaching.

Keywords: geography teaching, theory of practice, geography in secondary school, educational research, action theory

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MEASUREMENTS OF VARIOUS EROSION PROCESSES IN FlYSCH AND DOlOMITE REGIONS IN SlOVENIA

Matija ZORN, Blaž KOMAC

Anton Melik Geographical Institute of Scientific Research Centre of the SlovenianAcademy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana, Slovenia

([email protected], [email protected])

In Slovenia, measurements of different erosional-denudational processes were conducted in the last decade on flysch relief. Measurements of (1) interrill soil erosion on three different land uses, (2) rockwall retreat on steep flysch slopes, (3) movements of debris in through erosion gully, and (4) chemical denudation in the river basin were conducted in the Dragonja River Basin (SW Slovenia) between February 2005 and May 2006.

Interrill soil erosion was measured weekly on eight 1-m2 erosion plots. The measurements showed interrill soil erosion of 90 t/ha on bare soil in the olive grove with a slope of 5.5°; 1.68 t/ha in the overgrown meadow with a slope of 9.4°; 3.91 t/ha in the forest with a slope of 7.8°; and 4.15 t/ha in the forest with a slope of 21.4°.

The fastest measured erosion process on flysch relief was rockwall retreat in badlands, with a specific erosion rate of 85 kg/m² per year, or almost 3.5 to 5 cm per year of rockwall retreat.

In the badlands we also measured movements of debris through an erosion gully. A gully with a catchment area of approximately 1,000 m2 and with an average slope of 46° was dammed. Almost 19 t of flysch material was accumulated behind the dam in twelve months. In the Polhov Gradec dolomite hills measurements of erosion in the gullies have shown that slopes are transformed by intensive gully erosion reaching almost the intensity 100 tons per hectare. In wet conditions sediments are transported to lower parts of the gullies in the form of small debris flows.

Measurements of chemical denudation in the Dragonja River Basin were conducted monthly and showed a chemical denudation rate of 0.066 mm per year. Chemical denudation rate on a dolomite area in the Žibrše hills was higher (0.014 mm per year). This is due to high fracturedness of dolomite influencing the specific surface of exposed areas and prolonged water accumulation in weathered material in the bottom of the dells.

The measurements bring new light in understanding the processes which affect society in hilly and mountainous regions. On one hand, erosion on slopes increases sediment delivery and is therefore one of key factors in water management. Soil erosion on the other hand affects farming. Especially on fragmented land soil erosion is hard to notice and quantify without constant measurements, and therefore its effects are often underestimated. This may be one of the reasons why the ‘United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Slovenia’ does not see soil erosion as a problem.

Keywords: geomorphology, geomorphic processes, erosion processes, dolomite, flysch, Slovenia

International Scientific Conference - APPLIED GEOGRAPHY IN THEORY AND PRACTICE

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