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: [.Planton, S )(]. )IPCC(: 2013: . S.K. Allen M. Tignor G.-K. Plattner D. Qin T.F. Stocker] )(] P.M. Midgley V. Bex Y. Xia A. Nauels J. Boschung
/ .
186

.
.
)Abrupt climate change( ( )
. )Active layer(
. .Response time .Lifetime Adjustment time
)Advection( ) . (
. )Aerosols( ) )9-10( ( 10 ) )6-10(( . )Aerosol( . . : ) Aerosol-radiation interaction( )
.)Aerosol-cloud interaction
)Aerosol-cloud interaction( . .
) ( . ( ) )Radiative forcing )or effect( due to aero )RFaci )
) sol-cloud interactions )RFaci(( ( ( ) . )cloud Albedo(. .
. ) ( )Effective radiative forcing )or effect( )ERFaci( ))ERFaci( due to aerosol-cloud interactions ) ( . )Life time(
.

.aerosol-radiation interaction .)ERFari+aci( )Aerosol-radiation interaction( .
) ( : ( ) )Radiative forcing )or effect( due to aero )RFari ) ))RFari( sol-radiation interactions ) ( .
) ( . ( ) )Radiative forcing )or effect( due to )RFari( ( ) aerosol-radiation interactions )RFari(( . ) (
.
.aerosol-cloud interaction .)ERFari+aci( )Afforestation( . ) .)2000 )
.)2003
)Airborne fraction( ( )
. )Air mass( )1( )2(
.)AMS,2000( ][ )Albedo( . . . )Alkalinity( .
)Altimetry( )
(. Southern Annular Northern Annular Mode )NAM( Annular modes
Mode )SAM( )Anthropogenic( .
)AMO/AMV( / )Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation/Variability )AMO/AMV(( ) 65 75 (
187

1860 1880 1930 1960 1905 1925 1970 1990 0.4 . AMO 2.5. )Atmosphere( . ) 78.1 ( ) 20.9 ( ( 0.93 ) . ( 0.035 ) . 1
. Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model )AOGCM(
.Climate model )Atmospheric boundary layer( .)AMS,2000( 10( (
. Lifetime Atmospheric lifetime
Detection and attribution Attribution
)Autotrophic respiration( ) photosynthesis( ) (.
)Basal lubrication( . .
. / )Baseline/reference( ) ( . .
. )Bayesian method/approach( / )( . )( ) (. . . )Thomas Bayes( )1702-1761(
. )Biological pump( )DIC( .
.Solubility pump . )Biomass( .
. )Biome(
) (.
. )Biosphere )terrestrial and marine(( ) ) ) ( ( )
. ))Black carbon )BC(
.)soot( / . )Blocking( .
. - )Brewer-Dobson circulation( . -
. )Burden( .
13 )13C( C13 13 13C/12C .
. )14C( C14 14 14 5700 40000 .
.)Cosmogenic radioisotopes ( gla )Calving )
cier ice sheet ice shelf .
.)mass balance/budget )of glaciers or ice sheets . )Carbonaceous aerosol(
. )Carbon cycle( ) ( .
)1015 (. ))Carbon dioxide )CO2( ) (. .
1. )Carbon dioxide )CO2( fertilization(
. )Carbon Dioxide Removal )CDR((
188


)2( )1( . . . IPCC,2012(
.Solar Radiation Management )SRM( .)2
Halocarbons CFC
)Chaotic( ) ( .
. bio )Charcoal ) mass . )Chronology( . )Clathrate )methane(( ) )
. )Clausius-Clapeyron equation/ - / relationship( .
) ( . )Climate( . 30 )WMO(. .
. )Climate-carbon cycle feed – )back .
. )Climate change( ( ) / . . )UNFCCC( ‘ ’. .
.Detection and Attribution Climate change commitment
)Climate change commitment( . . . .
.Climate change . )Climate feedback( . . .
.Climate Feedback Parameter . )Climate Feedback Parameter( . . Λ = )ΔQ – ΔF( / ) :a( ΔT Q T F Δ
. Climate prediction Climate forecast
)Climate index( . .)NAO( - NAM ) SAM (. .2.5
.Climate pattern )Climate model )spectrum ) ) or hierarchy(( . . )AOGCMs( . . Earth-Sys Earth System Model .
Process Energy Balance Model tem Model of Intermediate Complexity .Semi-empirical model Based Model, Regional Climate Model
189

)Climate pattern( )( »« .
.Empirical Orthogonal Function )EOF( )Climate prediction( ( ) . . Model initialization Climate scenario Climate projection
.Predictability )Climate projection( . / /
.Climate scenario . )Climate regime( .
. Climate sensitivity Climate response
)Climate scenario( . .
.scenario Emission scenario . )Climate sensitivity( ) ( ( ) . . ) . (
. ( ) .
. ) ( 20 1 .
. climate sensitivity Climate sensitivity parameter
)Climate system( :
.
. )Climate variability( ) ( . ) ( Climate (. )
.change
)Cloud condensation nuclei )CCN(( .
. )Cloud feedback( . . Cloud radiative .
.effect
)Cloud radiative effect( . .
.Cloud feedback Equivalent carbon dioxide CO2-equivalent
)Cold days/cold nights( / 1961-1990. 2.4.
)Cold days/cold nights( .
: . )Confidence( ) ( . )Mastrandrea et al., 2010(. 1.11
.Uncertainty 1.1. )Convection( . .
. )Cosmogenic radioisotopes( .
190


.
)Cryosphere(
) (. )Dansgaard-Oeschger events( - . -
. )Deforestation( . )IPCC, 2000(.
.)IPCC, 2003( )Deglaciation/glacial termination( / ( )
. )Detection and attribution( . 10 .
.)Hegerl et al., 2010( )Diatoms( .
. .Aerosol-radiation interaction Direct )aerosol( effect
)Direct Air Capture(
. )Diurnal temperature range(
24 . )Dobson unit )DU(( ) (. 5-10 1013 0 . 2.69×1020 .
300 . )Downscaling( ) 10 100 ( . : / . / . /.
.
)Drought( . . ) ( (. ) . )megadrought(. .
2.4. )Dynamical system( . Non Chaotic Abrupt climate change .
.Predictability linearity
))Earth System Model )ESM( . )
.Climate model (. )Earth-System Model of Intermediate Complexity )EMIC((
. )Earth System sensitivity( – – – - . ) (
– . )Ecosystem( . : . . .
. .Climate sensitivity Effective climate sensitivity
.Radiative forcing Effective radiative forcing
radiative forcing )Efficacy( . .1.0
. )Ekman pumping( ( ) ) ( . . .
191

. .
)Ekman transport( .
.Ekman pumping )Electromagnetic spectrum( .
. )El Niño-Southern Oscillation ( ) ))ENSO( . . . – / . – . . . . –
La Niña. 2.5.
)Emission scenario( ) ( ) ( . . )IPCC( 1992 .1996 IS92. )2000 Nakienovi and Swart( SRES scenarios 9 11 2001 10 11 2007. .
.scenario Climate scenario )Energy balance( . . .
.Energy budget . ))Energy Balance Model )EBM( . .
.
.Climate model )( ))Energy budget )of the Earth( . . . . . 0.3 30 70 . ) ( . 15 )288 ( .
.Sensible heat flux Latent heat flux Energy balance
)Ensemble( .
. Equilibrium and transient( )climate experiment . . . .
.Climate projection
.Climate sensitivity Equilibrium climate sensitivity
)Equilibrium line( ) ( )
.)ELA( .) Equivalent carbon dioxide( )CO2( CO2( concentration(( . . .
. Equivalent carbon dioxide( ))CO2( emission . . .
. .
192

)Evapotranspiration( .
Representative Concentration Extended Concentration Pathways .Pathways
)External forcing( . .
. )Extratropical cyclone( ) 1000 ( .
. .Extreme weather event Extreme climate event
.Storm surge Extreme sea level
)Extreme weather event( . . .
) (. )Faculae( .
. .Climate feedback Feedback
)Fingerprint( / . ) ( .
. )Flux adjustment( ) ( .
. )Forest( . . ) 2000(. )
2003(. )Fossil fuel emissions( ( )
. United Nations Frame Framework Convention on Climate Change
.)work Convention on Climate Change )UNFCCC
)Free atmosphere( . )Frozen ground( . .
. )General circulation( .
. .Climate model )General Circulation Model )GCM
)Geoengineering( . : )1( )2( )Solar Radiation Management( Carbon( . .)Dioxide Removal ) ( / .
)IPCC, 2012 2(. )Geoid( ) W0( . . ) (
. )Geostrophic winds or currents( .
. Glacial-interglacial( cycles(
.Interglacials Ice age . )Glacial isostatic adjustment )GIA(( -
. )glacio-hydro isostasy(. )geoid(
. )Glacier( ) / . ( . / )ice sheet(. Mass balance/budget Equilibrium line .
) (. )Global dimming(
1961 1990.
193

)Global mean surface tempera . ture(
. )Global Warming Potential )GWP(( . .
100 . )Greenhouse effect( . ) ( . . . . ))Greenhouse gas )GHG( . . )CO2( )H2O( )N2O( )CH4( )O3(. . .
.A.1.2 )Gross Primary Production )GPP(( ) (. )Grounding line( .
. )Gyre( ) 100-200 ( .
. )Hadley Circulation(
. )Halocarbons(
)HCFCs( )CFCs( . )HFCs( .
. )Halocline( . . .
.Thermocline
.Halocarbons HCFC
)Heat wave( . .Warm spell
)Heterotrophic respiration( .
.Halocarbons HFC
)Hindcast or retrospective forecast( / .
. )Holocene( 11.65 1950 . MIS( 1(
. )Hydroclimate(
. )Hydrological cycle( .
. )( )Hydrosphere(
. )Hypsometry(
. )Ice age(
. – )Ice-albedo feedback( )( . 0.8( ) ) 0.3(.
. )Ice core(
. )Ice sheet(
194


) / (. . . .
. )Ice shelf( ( ) . .
. )Ice stream( .
.Outlet glacier . .Insolation Incoming solar radiation
))Indian Ocean Dipole )IOD( . .
.Aerosol-cloud interaction Indirect aerosol effect
)Industrial Revolution( . . .
1750 . .Terrestrial radiation Infrared radiation
)Insolation( .)Wm–2( . Total .
.Solar Irradiance
)Interglacials or interglaciations( . . 129 )1950 ) 116 . . )Holocene( 11.65
7000 . .Climate variability Internal variability
)Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone )ITCZ(( . . )Iron fertilization(
.
)Irreversibility( . .
.Tipping point )Isostatic or Isostasy( . . .)Glacial Isostatic Adjustment )GIA . )Isotopes( . ( ) (. ) . .
. )Kyoto Protocol( )UNFCCC( 1997. .)UNFCCC( ) ( ) ( 5 1990 2008 2012. 16
/ 2005. )Land surface air temperature(
1.5 . )Land use and Land use change( ) (. ) (. . / . . )
2000(. )Land water sotage( ) (.
. .El Niño-Southern Oscillation La Niña
)Lapse rate( .
. ))Last Glacial Maximum )LGM(
195

21 . .
.Interglacials Last Interglacial )LIG( )Latent heat flux(
. )Lifetime( .
: )Turnover time )T( )T(( ) ( M ) T=M/S. ( )S( : .
. )Adjustment time or response )Ta( time )Ta(( . . .
. .
: T = Ta. CFC-11
. T = Ta. . 4 . . . . CH4(( OH )CH4(.
.M S )Likelihood( . Confidence 1-1.
.Uncertainty )Lithosphere( . .
.Isostatic ))Little Ice Age )LIA( . . 1400 1900 .
1450 1850 . .Terrestrial radiation Longwave radiation
)Madden-Julian Oscillation )MJO(( - ) m s-1 5 30 90 ( . . . - 30 60
30 60 .
)Marine-based ice )sheet .
. )Mass ( ) / balance/budget )of glaciers or ice sheets(( ) )( ( . .
. : )Accumulation( . .
. )Ablation( . sublimation
. / )Discharge/outflow( .
. )Mean sea level( .
. .Medieval Warm Period )Medieval Climate Anomaly )MCA
))Medieval Warm Period )MWP( . . 1400 . 900 950 1250 . 20.
. )Merid
))ional Overturning Circulation )MOC ( ) ) ( . ) (
196


. )(
. )Metadata(
. )Methane )CH4(( )CH4(
. )Metric( .
. )Microwave Sounding Unit )MSU(( )NOAA( 60 . 1978. 1998
.)AMSUs( )Mineralization/Remineraliza /
)tion . ) NH4( .
( )NH3( )+ )Mitigation(
. .Mole fraction Mixing ratio
)Model drift( “” .
. Model hierarchy Climate model ) (.
)Model initialization( . «« . .
.Climate model . )Model spread( .)Coupled Model Intercomparison Project )CMIP5(( .
. )Mode of climate variability( – . .
)Mole fraction( . . μmol mol–1 ) ) nmol mol–1 )PPM .)PPt : ) )PPb : . ppmv
.)Schwartz and Warneck, 1995( )Monsoon( .
. )Montreal Protocol( 1987 )1995( )1992( )1990( )1997( )1999(. –
. )Near-surface permafrost( (. 3.5 ) 30 20 . .
. )Near-term climate forcers ))NTCF( . . . .
. )Nitrogen deposition(
. ))Nitrous oxide )N2O( . ) ( .
. )Nonlinearity( . Cha . .
.Predictability otic

)North Atlantic Oscillation )NAO(( .
. NAO 2.5. )Northern Annular Mode )NAM(( . . .
NAM 2.5. )Ocean acidification( pH .
.)IPCC, 2011, p. 37( pH
)Ocean heat uptake efficiency( )W m–2 °C–1( . .
. )Organic aerosol(
.Carbonaceous aerosol . )Outgoing longwave radiation(
.Terrestrial radiation . )Outlet glacier( .Ice stream .
)Ozone( . ) [+](. . .)O2( .
. .Ozone layer Ozone hole
)Ozone layer( . 12 40 . 20 25 . . .
.Montreal Protocol . )Pacific Decadal Oscillation )PDO(( 20 . . .
.Pacific Decadal Variability
)Pacific decadal variability( . . – . )PDO( )NPI( )IPO(
2.5. )Pacific-North American )PNA( pattern( PNA .
pattern index 2.5.
)Paleoclimate(
. )Parametrization( ) (
. )Percentiles(
. )Permafrost( ) (
. . )pH( ) ( )H+(. pH pH .)+pH = –log10)H
10 H+ . )Photosynthesis( ) ( . Carbon dioxide .
.fertilization
)Plankton( .
. )Pleistocene( )( Ma 2.59
.ka 11.65 )Pliocene( 5.33
2.59 . )Pollen analysis(
.Proxy . )Precipitable water( .
.

)Precursors(
. )Predictability( . .
.)AMS, 2000( )Prediction quality/skill( / . . .
.Climate prediction .Industrial Revolution Pre-industrial
))Probability Density Function )PDF( . . .
. )Process Based Model(
.Climate model . )Projection( . Climate predic .
.Climate projection tion
)Proxy( - . . .
. )Quasi-Biennal ( ) Oscillation )QBO(( 28 .
. )Quaternary( ) 65 ( 2.59
. )Radiative effect( ) ( . .
. )
( . )Radiative forcing( ) /2( . . . . . 1750 .
. )Rapid adjustment( . . ) (. .
7.1 8.1. .Abrupt climate change Rapid climate change
)Rapid dynamical ) ) ))change )of glaciers or ice sheets . . Mass .
.)balance/budget )of glaciers or ice sheets
)Reanalysis( . .
. )Rebound effect( .
. ) ( ))Reconstruction )of climate variable( .
199

. :
. )Reforestation( . )IPCC, 2000(.
.)IPCC, 2003( . )Region(
.Teleconnection . )Regional Climate Model )RCM(( .
. )Relative humidity(
.Specific humidity . )Relative sea level( Mean sea .
.Sea level change level
)Representative Concentration Pathways ))RCPs( .)Moss et al., 2008( / .
.)Moss et al., 2010( 2100 . 2500 2100
.
11 14: )RCP2.6( 2.6 3 /2 ECP 2100 )
2100( RCP4.5( 6.0 4.5 )and RCP6.0 ) 2100 /2 6 /2 4.5
2150(. RCP8.5( 8.5( 8.5 /2 2100 )
2100 2250(.
1.1. )Reservoir( . . ) (.
. )Resolution( ) ( .
. )Respiration(
. )Response time( . . . : . – ( ) . . life(
.)time
)Return period( ( )
.Return value (. ( )Return value( ) ( ) 10
.Return period (. .Streamflow River discharge
)Runoff( .
.Hydrological cycle )Scenario( . ( ) Emission sce Climate scenario .
.SRES scenarios Representative Concentration Pathways nario
)Sea ice( ) . ( ) ( (. ) . .
. )Sea level change( ’1‘ : ‘2’ . ‘3’
200


. )SLE(. . . Relative .
.Thermal expansion Sea Level
)Sea level equivalent )SLE(( ) ( 1000 3.625 ´ 1014 2 362.5 1 .Sea level change .
.Frozen ground Seasonally frozen ground
))Sea surface temperature )SST( . . ) (
. .Aerosol-radiation interaction Semi-direct )aerosol( effect
)Semi-empirical model( ) (.
. )Sensible heat flux(
. .Uptake Sequestration
.Solar radiation Shortwave radiation
)Significant wave height( ) (
. )Sink(
. )Slab-ocean model( 50 100 . Equilibrium and transient climate .
.experiment
)Snow cover extent( .
))Snow water equivalent )SWE( .
)Soil moisture( .
)Soil temperature( .
)Solar activity( ] [ ) ( ) (. .
.Solar cycle )11 ( )Solar )‘11 year’( cycle( 8 14 . )Solar radiation( 5770 . . Total solar Insolation .
.)irradiance )TSI
)Solar Radiation Management )SRM(( ) (. . ( ) . IPCC, 2012,( )Carbon Dioxide Removal )CDR Solar radiation .)p.2
.Geoengineering )Solubility pump( . .
.Biological pump . )Source(
. ))Southern Annular Mode )SAM( . SAM
.2.5
.El Niño-Southern Oscillation )ENSO( Southern Oscillation
)South Pacific Convergence Zone )SPCZ(( .
)ITCZ( . )Spatial and temporal scales( . ) 100000 2( )100000 10 2(. 100 10 ) 2(
) (. )Specific humidity(
.Relative humidity . )SRES scenarios( )2000(
201

11 9 )2001( 10 11 )2007( .
: )Scenario family( . A2 A1 :
.B2 B1
)Illustrative Scenario( )2000(. B1 A2 A1B
.A1T A1F1 B2 .
)Marker Scenario( )SRES( . . . . )2000( .
. ) )Storyline( (
. .Reservoir Steric
.Sea level change Stock
)Storm surge( / ) (.
.
)Storm tracks(
)( ) (. )Stratosphere( 9 10 )
16 ( 50 . )Streamflow(
. . )Subduction( .
. )Sunspots( . 1500
. .Atmospheric boundary layer Surface layer
Land Global mean surface temperature Surface temperature .Sea surface temperature surface air temperature
)Talik( .
)Teleconnection( . - .Teleconnection pattern .
)Teleconnection pattern( . .
.Teleconnection . )Terrestrial radiation( . . )( .
.Outgoing longwave radiation - . )Thermal expansion( ) ( .
.Sea level change . )Thermocline( . ) . (
. )Thermohaline circulation )THC(( . . / .
. / )Thermokarst(
. .Sea level change Thermosteric
)Tide gauge( .
. )Tipping point( . .
.Irreversibility
202


))Total solar irradiance )TSI(
. 1978 . 1368 /2 0.2 . 2008 360.8 ± 0.5 /2. . )AMS,2000(. 0.1 ) (.
.Insolation
.Climate sensitivity Transient climate response
)Transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions )TCRE(( 1000 . ) (
. )Tree rings( .
.Proxy . )Trend(
. )Tropopause( .
)Troposphere( 10 ) ( 16 9 .
.Stratosphere . .Lifetime Turnover time
)Uncertainty( . ) . Moss and ( ) ( ) Schneider, 2000 Manning et al., 2004 Mastrandrea et al., 2010(.
.Likelihood Confidence )United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change )UNFCCC(( 9 / 1992 . 150 1992 ‘ . ’. ) (
2000. 1990 / 1994. 1997
. . )Uptake(
)(. )Urban heat island )UHI((
. Ventilation AMS,(
2000( .
)Volatile Organic Compounds )VOC(( . ) . (
. )Walker Circulation(
. / )Warm days/warm nights( 90
1961-1990. 2.4. )Warm spell( .
.Heat wave 2.4. .Hydrological cycle Water cycle
)Water mass( ) ( . .
. / )Weathering( . ) (.
) (. .Greenhouse gas Well-mixed greenhouse gas
)Younger Dryas( 12.85 11.65 ) 1950(
.
203

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