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An upward trend (a rising trend). a downward trend (a falling trend)

Date post:17-Dec-2015
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  • Slide 1
  • an upward trend (a rising trend)
  • Slide 2
  • a downward trend (a falling trend)
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  • to skyrocket
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  • to surge
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  • to soar
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  • to jump
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  • to peak/reach a peak
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  • to drop
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  • to plummet
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  • to crash
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  • to tumble
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  • CHANGING DIRECTION - to bottom out
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  • to recover
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  • to rebound
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  • Change of direction to bottom out to recover to rebound to revive
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  • to hit a record low
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  • to hit a record high
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  • to remain stable to remain stable
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  • to remain constant
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  • NO CHANGE to remain stable to level off/out to stay at the same level to remain constant to stagnate to stabilize
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  • to stabilise
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  • a dramatic fall
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  • a substantial increase
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  • Slide 25
  • The amount of INCREASE can also be indicated using these verbs: to halve (1/2) a decrease to double (x2) to triple/to treble (x3) quadruple (x4) to increase tenfold (x10) to increase twelve times (x12)
  • Slide 26
  • Peaks and troughs levels off/outremains steadystableIf a figure rises to a level and then stops rising, remaining at that level, it levels off/out and remains steady or stable. peakpeaksIf a figure reaches its highest level a peak and then goes down, it peaks at that level. trough bottoms outIf it reaches its lowest level a trough and then bottoms out, it falls to that level and then starts rising again.
  • Slide 27
  • Boom and bust boomA boom is when there is rising demand, and other indicators are strong. StagnationStagnation is when the economy is growing slowly, or not at all. StagflationStagflation is when slow growth is combined with prices that are increasing fast. Recessionnegative growth slump depressionRecession is a period when there is negative growth, a period when the economy is producing less. A slump is a very bad recession. A depression is a very bad slump.
  • Slide 28
  • A dramatic fallto fall An abrupt riseto rise .. A sudden declineto decline A moderate growto grow A slight increaseto increase .. A rapid dropto drop A gradual declineto decline A steady recoverto recover Erratic salesto sell .. A constant levelling offto level off Adjectives can be used to describe the degree or speed of change. Do you know the corresponding adverbs ?
  • Slide 29
  • Complete the paragraph with these prepositions: OF, TO, BY, AT, UNDER, FROM At the end of April, sales stood ____ $150m, having risen ____ a previous low point ____ just ____ $100m. Over the next couple of months they rose steadily to reach a peak ____ $190m. They then fell sharply ____ $35m towards the end of July, but crept up again in August ____ $160m. AT OF FROM UNDER OF BY TO
  • Slide 30
  • No change in Eurozone rates Read the newspaper extract. Fill in the blanks with IN or OF. The European Central Bank has left interest rates unchanged despite worries over the German economy. The last time there was a fall ___ interest rates was on 10 May, when the bank announced a cut ___ 0.25%, bringing the key interest rate for the Eurozone countries to 4.5%. The decision came hours after official figures showed a surprising increase ___ employment in Germany. Analysts had been forecasting a rise ___ 55,000 but the official figures reported an increase ___ 18,000, taking the total to just under four million. The ECB is also facing the problem of a sharp increase ___ Eurozone inflation. The increase ___ 0.3% has pushed the annual rate to 2.9%, compared with a target ___ 2%. IN OF IN OF IN OF
  • Slide 31
  • Choose the correct words. 1.There was a slightly/slight rise in profits last month. 2.We rose/increased our profits slightly/slight last month. 3.There was a sharp fall in/of our sales last quarter. 4.Our sales fell by/of 6% last quarter. 5.We fell/recovered our market share last quarter. 6.Our share price hit/beat a low/down last month, but it has since recuperated/recovered and now stands at/in $3.89.
  • Slide 32
  • 1.Our share price reached/met a top/peak in May, but its fallen back since then. 2.Inflation is increasing slow/slowly at the moment, in/by about 1% a year. 3.There is a slow/slowly increase in/of the rate of inflation, of/by about 1% a year. 4.Operating profits went from $2.5m to/until $3.1m. 5.Dividends paid to shareholders raised/rose by 6%. Last year they fell/cut. 6.This year we raised/rose dividends to shareholders. Last year we fell/cut them.
  • Slide 33
  • Decide whether the underlined words indicate an upward movement ( ), a downward movement ( ), or no movement at all ( ): 1.Shares have been stagnant recently. 2.There has been a collapse in the number of orders. 3.Imports have plunged recently. 4.Home sales have skyrocketed. 5.Imports have slipped again. 6.Prices soared in the previous quarter.
  • Slide 34
  • UK SALES When demand decreased at the start of the year, UK sales fell sharply. They remained steady until April, then rose again dramatically in the second quarter when the market improved. OUTPUT The decrease in overseas sales caused a dramatic drop in output at the Birmingham plant in the first quarter. There was a steady increase in the second when domestic sales improved. STOCK LEVELS There was a steady decrease in stock levels at the Headingley plant in the first quarter due to the introduction of a new inventory control system. The slight increase in the second quarter was due to the rise in output. PROFITS The profits of the plastics division have fallen steadily over the last five months due to the fall in demand and increases in production costs. The slight rise in profits last month was due to the recent price increases. PROFIT MARGIN A sudden jump in the production costs of the Sarander caused a drop in the profit margin in the first quarter. The margin remained the same in the second, due to a sharp fall in the costs of components. graph no.3 graph no. 5 graph no. 1 graph no. 4 graph no. 2
  • Slide 35
  • Put the following words in the correct place below: a.spiralc. stabilisee. back on course b.plummetedd. crashf. regain control Financial institutions around the world are panicking after yesterdays _________ on Wall Street. Share prices ___________ as banks and lending institutions struggled to __________________ of the downward ______________. At the close of trading, the President announced that measures were being taken to _____________ the situation and get the economy ________________. crash plummeted regain control spiral stabilise back on course
  • Slide 36
  • Choose the best way to complete these sentences: 1.Good news for investors. Interest rates are stabilising / going through the roof. 2.Bad news for borrowers. Interest rates are plunging / going through the roof. 3.Good news for industry. Interest rates are plummeting / soaring. 4.The rescue plan never really soared / got off the ground. 5.We are trying to get the economy on collision course / back on course. 6.Industry is finally climbing into / out of recession.
  • Slide 37
  • DRAW GRAPHS USING THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: After a sharp rise, sales levelled off during the period September-November, when they plunged again at the end of the year. Despite a rise in May the situation worsened again in June and prices slumped once more to another all- time low at the end of July. Prices went up steadily during the period September- November, before plunging yet again at the end of the year. After a three-year period of stability, the level of investment rose suddenly. Since the late 1990s, immigration has been rising in most OECD countries. This followed a sharp downturn from the start of the decade. In 2001 sales in our region reached a peak of 24,000 units after which they slumped suddenly to 9,000 in the following year.
  • Slide 38
  • DRAW GRAPHS USING THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: At the end of June, sales stood at $ 76m, having fallen from a previous all-time high of $136m in May. After a sharp drop in 2000, orders recovered for twelve months and then plummeted again in 2002. Prices started to bottom out in March and crept up until the end of April when they plummeted again. Prices remained stable in July and August and even went up steadily during the period September- November before plunging yet again at the end of the year. The share price reached a peak before falling a little and then maintaining the same level. Euro-Disney shares have slipped back to 113p.
  • Slide 39
  • Sales crashed last week following a slight rise. After being stagnant for two years, share prices reached a peak in 2003 after which they plummeted quite unexpectedly.
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