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Car Clubs, Carbon and Air Quality

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Car Clubs, Carbon and Air Quality. The contribution car clubs can make to reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and particulates in the context of Air Quality Management Action Plans . With Contributions from Matthew Eastwood ( Carplus ) and Chris Endacott ( Gfleet ). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Car Clubs, Carbon and Air Quality

Car Clubs, Carbon and Air QualityThe contribution car clubs can make to reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and particulates in the context of Air Quality Management Action Plans. With Contributions from Matthew Eastwood (Carplus) and Chris Endacott (Gfleet)

Scottish Urban Car Club Forum

Scottish Urban Car Club Forum

Tailpipe EmissionsCar club cars in Scotland are 29% more fuel efficient than the average car on Scotlands roads. Average Car (unknown fuel) figure Defra/DECC GHG conversion factors for company reporting August 2011. Car club car figure based on manufacturer test cycle data incorporating 15% uplift to account for real world driving conditions in line with Defra reporting guidelines.2

Scottish Urban Car Club ForumCarbon Savings

Relative fuel efficiency amounts to a saving of 229 tonnes of CO2 a year assuming no overall reduction in mileage. There are approx. 6,300 car club members in Scotland. Assuming only half travel the an average of 765 miles a year by car club (Figure from Member Survey 2011-12), greater car club vehicle efficiency therefore saves 229 tonnes of CO2 per year in terms of fuel efficiency assuming no overall reduction in mileage.3

Scottish Urban Car Club ForumAverage Annual Household MileageCar club member households tend to have lower average annual car mileage than the national average. Car Club Household Mileage: 2,629 (Carplus Annual Survey 2011-12), Household Mileage: 9,688 (Scottish Households National Travel Survey 2010).

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Scottish Urban Car Club ForumCar Clubs and Travel Behaviour

Source: Carplus Annual Survey 2011-12. Average reduction of 831 miles or 272kg of CO2 per member per year or 856 tonnes a year, assuming only half of Scotlands 6,300 car club members are active. Based on Defra Average Car unknown fuel type.

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Scottish Urban Car Club ForumTransport Related CO2 SavingsBased on the assumptions and methodology outlined in the previous slides, Scottish car club contribution to transport related CO2 emission savings:229 tonnes a year in vehicle efficiency savings.856 tonnes a year in mileage reduction. A total saving of 1,085 Tonnes of CO2 per year.6Air Quality: The Other Problem!Air Quality Management Areas - AQMAs.Many AQMAs in the UK.200+ Councils with AQMAs.Typically cover urban centres.In the UK most due to NO2.In Scotland both NOX & PM10.Diesel engines major source.Access restrictions work!TfL has setup LEZ inside M25.Norwich & Oxford have LEZs.Only permit clean vehicles.CouncilNO2PM10SO2Perth & KinrossYYFifeYYDundeeYAberdeenYYMidlothianYEdinburghYWest LothianYYFalkirk CouncilYYYNorth LanarkshireYSouth LanarkshireYEast DunbartonshireYYGlasgow YYRenfrewshireY

Scottish Urban Car Club ForumAQMAs in Scotland

Scottish Urban Car Club ForumEurope Refuses UK Air Pollution Reprieve (BBC 27 June 2012)Government plans to delay air pollution improvements in 12 UK areas have been refused by the European Commission, which says air quality must improve.The UK may now face fines if it fails to improve air quality quickly.Air pollution reduces average life expectancy in the UK by up to eight months. Responsible for in excess of 20,000 premature deaths each year (estimates range from 12,000 to 50,000).The UK has been denied permission by the commission to delay air quality improvements in the following areas: Aberdeen and North-East Scotland. Belfast.Birkenhead, Brighton, Bristol, Liverpool, Preston, Sheffield, Tyneside, South-West England.Swansea, South Wales.

Scottish Urban Car Club ForumCleaner Engines ?

Scottish Urban Car Club Forum

The NOXic Test!Comparison of four Euro 5 cars on NOX:VW Polo Bluemotion (D) 148 mg/kmFiat 500 TwinAir (P) 34 mg/kmToyota Prius Mk III (PH) 6 mg/kmNissan Leaf (EV) 0 mg/km

Scottish Urban Car Club ForumPSVs Main Source of NOX?FactorEuro 5 BusNBfLLTI TX TaxiYear of manufacture2011/1220122007Seating68624Standing15250Capacity83874Unladen weight (kg)13,00011,8001,800Min average mpg1011.625.4Fuel type & drive trainDieselDE HybridDieselEuro StandardE5E6E3CO2 Emissions g/km720640243CO2 Emissions g/pkm (50%)1814121NOX emissions mg/km500-1000396772

Scottish Urban Car Club ForumEuro V and SCR PSVs

Kleinebraham (2008), Federal Environmental Agency, Germany.

Scottish Urban Car Club ForumImpact of Euro Standards on NOXNationally NOX levels not falling as expected.One problem is the rapid growth in diesel cars.Issue with urban performance of heavy diesel E5.At low-speed SCR may not be hot enough.If switched off NOX can be higher than Euro 3.Ideal urban car would be low or zero NOx.Only EVs are zero emission at point of use.Petrol and PE Hybrid best option after EV.

Scottish Urban Car Club ForumEVs and Other Alternatively Fuelled VehiclesAn overview of how car clubs operate petrol hybrid, electric and Hydrogen electric car club vehicles with possible contributions from Carplus and Co-wheels.

Scottish Urban Car Club Forum

Chart1203.32144.095

Average CarAverage Car Club Car

Carbon calculationScottish Car Clubs CO2 Emissions for DCCS ReportingCar Clubs In ScotlandNumber of MembersNumber of carsFintry82Dunbar292Anstruther202Mallaig and Small Isles232Bute11Edinburgh495295Glasgow61619Aberdeen00Total5649123Tailpipe EmissionsgCO2/km%Average Car203.3100Car Club Car125.361.6Car Club Car including uplift144.09570.9Average car club mileage in 2010275Comparitive Vehicle Car Club CO2 Emission SavingsVehiclegCO2/kmMileageAnnual kg CO2 per memberMembersTotal kg CO2Average Car203.327589.9832510725649508315.385305728(508.3 tonnes CO2)Car Club Car144.09527563.7720665125649360248.403726288(360.2 Tonnes CO2)A saving of 148.1 Tonnes of CO2 per year in terms of vehicle efficiency across the car club fleet.

Matthew Eastwood:Source City Car Club Scottish fleet emissions data from Keith Stark 05/10/2011Matthew Eastwood:Average Car (unknown fuel) figure Defra/DECC GHG conversion factors for company reporting August 2011Matthew Eastwood:Average mileage driven by a Scottish City Car Club members (Edinburgh and Glasgow) in car club vehicle per year (excluding those who had not yet driven). Provided by Keith Stark 05/10/2011.Matthew Eastwood:Car club car figure incorporating 15% uplift to account for real world driving conditions in line with Defra reporting guidelines.meastwood:Calculated based on direct emissions from combustion of fuel based on estimated distance travelled using UK average emission factors and data from City Car Club as it makes up 98.5% of members and 92.68% vehicles.meastwood:In summary: There are currently 5,649 car club members in Scotland using 123 car club vehicles. Scottish car club vehicles are on average 29% more fuel efficient than the average car and therefore save 148 tonnes of CO2 per year in terms of fuel efficiency alone.

Energy CalculationEnergy saving derived from carbon emissionsTonnesKgDiesel Co2 kgPetrol Co2 kgDiesel kg C02/kWhPetrol kg C02/kWhDiesel kWhPetrol kWhTotal KWH148.1148100111075370250.250.2427768.75888636654.75

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Urban Forum PresentationTailpipe EmissionsgCO2/km%Average Car203.3100Average Car Club Car144.170.9Car Club Car excluding uplift125.361.6

Matthew Eastwood:Average Car (unknown fuel) figure Defra/DECC GHG conversion factors for company reporting August 2011Matthew Eastwood:Source City Car Club Scottish fleet emissions data from Keith Stark 05/10/2011Matthew Eastwood:Car club car figure incorporating 15% uplift to account for real world driving conditions in line with Defra reporting guidelines.

Urban Forum Presentation

Average CarAverage Car Club CarTailpipe Emissions

Chart1788559

Average CarCar Club Car788559

Carbon calculationScottish Car Clubs CO2 Emissions for DCCS ReportingCar Clubs In ScotlandNumber of MembersNumber of carsFintry82Dunbar292Anstruther202Mallaig and Small Isles232Bute11Edinburgh495295Glasgow61619Aberdeen00Total5649123Tailpipe EmissionsgCO2/km%Average Car203.3100Car Club Car125.361.6Car Club Car including uplift144.09570.9Average car club mileage in 2010275Comparitive Vehicle Car Club CO2 Emission SavingsVehiclegCO2/kmMileageAnnual kg CO2 per memberMembersTotal kg CO2Average Car203.327589.9832510726300566894.4817536(566.8 tonnes CO2)Car Club Car144.09527563.7720665126300401764.0190256(401.7 Tonnes CO2)A saving of 148.1 Tonnes of CO2 per year in terms of vehicle efficiency across the car club fleet.

Matthew Eastwood:Source City Car Club Scottish fleet emissions data from Keith Stark 05/10/2011Matthew Eastwood:Average Car (unknown fuel) figure Defra/DECC GHG conversion factors for company reporting August 2011Matthew Eastwood:Average mileage driven by a Scottish City Car Club members (Edinburgh and Glasgow) in car club vehicle per year (excluding those who had not yet driven). Provided by Keith Stark 05/10/2011.Matthew Eastwood:Car club car figure incorporating 15% uplift to account for real world driving conditions in line with Defra reporting guidelines.meastwood:Calculated based on direct emissions from combustion of fuel based on estimated distance travelled using UK average emission factors and data from City Car Club as it makes up 98.5% of members and 92.68% vehicles.meastwood:In summary: There are currently 6,300 car club members in Scotland using 123 car club vehicles. Scottish car club vehicles are on average 29% more fuel efficient than the average car and therefore save 165.1 tonnes of CO2 per year in terms of fuel efficiency alone.

Energy CalculationEnergy saving derived from carbon emissionsTonnesKgDiesel Co2 kgPetrol Co2 kgDiesel kg C02/kWhPetrol kg C02/kWhDiesel kWhPetrol kWhTotal KWH148.1148100111075370250.250.2427768.75888636654.75

Urban Forum PresentationTailpipe EmissionsgCO2/km%Average Car203.3100A

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