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…continuation of Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solutions

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…continuation of Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solutions. The oxidation numbers of elements in their compounds. 4.4. Oxidation numbers of all the elements in the following ?. IF 7. F = -1. 7x( -1 ) + ? = 0. I = +7. K 2 Cr 2 O 7. NaIO 3. O = -2. K = +1. O = -2. Na = +1. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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…continuation of Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous Solutions
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continuation of Chapter 4: Reaction in Aqueous SolutionsThe oxidation numbers of elements in their compounds4.4

NaIO3Na = +1O = -23x(-2) + 1 + ? = 0I = +5IF7F = -17x(-1) + ? = 0I = +7K2Cr2O7O = -2K = +17x(-2) + 2x(+1) + 2x(?) = 0Cr = +6Oxidation numbers of all the elements in the following ?

4.4Types of Oxidation-Reduction ReactionsCombination ReactionA + B C2Al + 3Br2 2AlBr3Decomposition Reaction2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2C A + B00+3-1+1+5-2+1-104.4

Types of Oxidation-Reduction ReactionsCombustion ReactionA + O2 BS + O2 SO200+4-24.4

2Mg + O2 2MgO00+2-2

Displacement ReactionA + BC AC + BSr + 2H2O Sr(OH)2 + H2TiCl4 + 2Mg Ti + 2MgCl2Cl2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br2Hydrogen DisplacementMetal DisplacementHalogen DisplacementTypes of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions4.40+1+200+40+20-1-10The Activity Series for HalogensHalogen Displacement Reaction4.4Cl2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br20-1-10F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2I2 + 2KBr 2KI + Br2

Disproportionation ReactionCl2 + 2OH- ClO- + Cl- + H2OElement is simultaneously oxidized and reduced.Types of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Chlorine Chemistry0+1-14.4Ca2+ + CO32- CaCO3NH3 + H+ NH4+Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2Ca + F2 CaF2PrecipitationAcid-BaseRedox (H2 Displacement)Redox (Combination)Classify the following reactions.

4.4Chemistry in Action: Breath Analyzer

4.43CH3COOH + 2Cr2(SO4)3 + 2K2SO4 + 11H2O3CH3CH2OH + 2K2Cr2O7 + 8H2SO4 +6+3Solution StoichiometryThe concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of solvent or solution.M = molarity =moles of soluteliters of solutionWhat mass of KI is required to make 500. mL ofa 2.80 M KI solution?

volume of KI solutionmoles KIgrams KIM KIM KI500. mL= 232 g KI166 g KI1 mol KIx2.80 mol KI1 L solnx1 L1000 mLx4.54.5

Dilution is the procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution.

DilutionAdd SolventMoles of solutebefore dilution (i)Moles of soluteafter dilution (f)=MiViMfVf=4.5How would you prepare 60.0 mL of 0.200 MHNO3 from a stock solution of 4.00 M HNO3?

MiVi = MfVfMi = 4.00Mf = 0.200Vf = 0.06 LVi = ? L4.5Vi =MfVfMi=0.200 x 0.064.00= 0.003 L = 3 mL3 mL of acid+ 57 mL of water= 60 mL of solutionGravimetric Analysis4.6Dissolve unknown substance in waterReact unknown with known substance to form a precipitateFilter and dry precipitateWeigh precipitateUse chemical formula and mass of precipitate to determine amount of unknown ion

In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete.Equivalence point the point at which the reaction is completeIndicator substance that changes color at (or near) the equivalence point

Slowly add baseto unknown acidUNTIL

the indicatorchanges color4.7What volume of a 1.420 M NaOH solution isRequired to titrate 25.00 mL of a 4.50 M H2SO4 solution?

4.7WRITE THE CHEMICAL EQUATION!

volume acidmoles acidmoles basevolume baseH2SO4 + 2NaOH 2H2O + Na2SO44.50 mol H2SO41000 mL solnx2 mol NaOH1 mol H2SO4x1000 ml soln1.420 mol NaOHx25.00 mL= 158 mLMacidrxcoef.Mbase

Chemistry in Action: Metals from the SeaCaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)Mg(OH)2 (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + 2H2O (l)CaO (s) + H2O (l) Ca2+ (aq) + 2OH (aq)-Mg2+ (aq) + 2OH (aq) Mg(OH)2 (s)-Mg2+ + 2e- Mg2Cl- Cl2 + 2e-MgCl2 (aq) Mg (s) + Cl2 (g)


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