LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION Any one individual living thing Group of similar organisms that can breed & produce fertile offspringGroup of individuals that belong to the same species & live in the same areaAssemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area All the organisms that live in a place together with their physical environmentGroup of ecosystems that share similar climates & typical organismsEntire Planet All organisms and physical environments
Organism / SpeciesPopulationCommunity Ecosystem Biosphere
WHATS THE BROADEST LEVEL??BiosphereWhere is it located and what does it include? Portion of Earth where life exists Consists of all the organisms plus their physical environmentOrganisms + Land + Water + Atmosphere Extends from about 8km about Earths surface to as far as 11km below the surface of the ocean.
HOW IS ECONOMICS LINKED WITH ECOLOGY?
Humans live within the biosphere and DEPEND on ecological processes to provide such essentials as food and drinks that can be bought/sold/traded.
Word BankBiome PopulationEcosystemCommunityBiosphereOrganism
WHICH ECOLOGICAL CATEGORIES IN THE HIERARCHY INCLUDE BOTH BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS?
Ecosystem, Biome, Biosphere
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A POPULATION AND A COMMUNITY?
A population is made up of individuals of one species living in the same area, while a community includes a variety of different species in a particular area.
WHAT ARE THE SIMPLESTLEVELS??? Additional: OrganelleTissue
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN FACTORSAbiotic Biotic
Rocks:Pine trees:Waterfalls:Clouds:A mushroom in the soil:A fish swimming in a lake:
CLASSIFY THE FOLLOWING FACTORS AS BIOTIC, ABIOTIC, OR BOTH:
ENERGY, PRODUCERS, CONSUMERSAs mentioned in our previous unit, materials and energy move between the living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) parts of ecosystems. Materials (atoms, molecules) must be recycled but energy is NOT! So, a constant supply of energy must enter every ecosystem.
On Earth, what supplies our energy???
Remember, organisms must be able to: produce or obtain nutrients
convert the nutrients into usable forms of chemical energy (cellular respiration producing ATP!!)
use these forms of energy to power their life processes.
2 CATEGORIES BASED ON HOW LIVING THINGS PRODUCE/OBTAIN NUTRIENTS. Obtains food by consuming other living things AKA Consumer Ex: Animals, fungi, bacteria, some microorganismsCategories: Herbivores,OmnivoresDecomposers
Capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds AKA Primary Producer Ex: All Plants, bacteria, some microorganisms
DONT FORGET DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUTOTROPHY
WHAT WOULD HAPPEN TO THE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN IN OUR ATMOSPHERE WITHOUT THE PRESENCE OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PRODUCERS? The amount of oxygen would decrease to such a low level that we could not breathe.
CONSUMERS: Primary (first order) - herbivoresSecondary (second order)Tertiary (third order)Quatenary (fourth order)Their feeding strategy can vary depending on what they are eating, and what is eating them!
EXAMPLES OF CONSUMERSCarnivoresSnakes, cat, dog, otterScavengersVultureDecomposersBacteria, FungiDetritivoresEarthworms, snails, crabs, shrimpOmnivoresHumans, bears, pigs, coati (badger)HerbivoresCows, deer, caterpillars
Compare your school to an Ecosystem. Provide levels of organization found within the school. List Abiotic and Biotic Factors found in and around the school.
COMPARE YOUR SCHOOL TO AN ECOSYSTEMProvide levels of organization found within the school. List Abiotic and Biotic Factors found in and around the school.
Species One Student or One Teacher Population 9th Graders, or All Teaching StaffCommunity LHS, Heritage, Collins Ecosystem All the schools + non living factors desks, chairs, water, etc.
HOW CAN WE SHOW FEEDING RELATIONSHIPS IN AN ECOSYSTEM??? Food ChainsFood WebsPyramids of EnergyPyramids of BiomassPyramids of Numbers
ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMSFood Chains &Food Webs Food Chains Energy passing through an ecosystem in a series of steps. Organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten Vary in Length Example how many steps in the food chain below?
Food WebsInterconnected food chainsShows networks of feeding interactionsDue to the fact that many animals eat more than 1 type of food Each step in a food chain/web is called a trophic level ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMSFood Chains &Food Webs
What do you think would happen to the ecosystem above if the algae were killed off?Since algae are the primary producers in this ecosystem, providing the energy necessary for life processes in this ecosystem, life in this ecosystem would not continue if algae were killed off
OTHER QUESTIONS TO THINK ABOUTFood chains and food webs cannot go on forever; in other words they cannot have an unlimited number of trophic levels. Why do you think this is true?
Some might make an analogy of decomposers being like earth's "recycling center". Summarize the importance of decomposers and detritivores in food webs
Only a small portion of the energy available at each level of the food web or chain is transferred to the next level (on average, 10 %). Eventually, as we move up the energy pyramid, the amount of energy transferred will not be enough to support the life processes of another trophic level.Decomposers break down any dead organisms that have not been consumed into detritus. Detritivores breakdown both decomposers and the detritus that they produce to obtain energy. Without decomposers, nutrients would be locked forever in dead organisms. Instead, these nutrients re-enter the food web through primary producers; they are recycled.
DECOMPOSERS & DETRITIVORES IN FOOD WEBSConvert dead material into detritus Detritus Eaten by detritivoresEx: Grass Shrimp, Crayfish, WormsDecomposition process releases nutrients that can be used by primary producers Natures Recyclers Without them nutrients would remain locked in dead organisms
DISTURBANCES? What might happen to feeding relationships in food webs after a disturbance? Example Oil Spill
HOW DOES ENERGY FLOW THROUGH AN ECOSYSTEM ?In a one-way stream from PRIMARY PRODUCERS to various CONSUMERS
Show relative amounts of energy, biomass, or numbers of organisms in each trophic level of a given food chain or webECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
PYRAMIDS OF ENERGYShows:Relative amount of energy available at each trophic level of a food chain/food webWhat happens to the amount of energy available at each trophic level?DECREASES!!Only 10% of available energy gets passed upWhat is this energy being used for??
PYRAMIDS OF BIOMASSWhats Biomass???Total amount of living tissue within a given trophic levelPyramid of biomassThe amount of biomass a given trophic level can support is determined by the amount of available energy. Relative amount of living organic matterGreatest biomass is at base see image
PYRAMIDS OF NUMBERSShows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
In most ecosystems, the shape of the pyramid of numbers is similar to the shape of the pyramid of biomass for the same ecosystem, with the numbers of individuals on each level decreasing from the level before it.
This is the only pyramid that can be inverted!!
ON YOUR OWN Why is a food web a more accurate representation of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem than a food chain? All of the organisms in one area and their physical environment is known as a(n)a. Habitatb. Populationc. ecosystem_______ always make up the first trophic level in a food web.About ___ percent of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to the next trophic level.a. 90%b. 10% c. 100%d. 0%
ON YOUR OWN Why is a food web a more accurate representation of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem than a food chain? An organism is rarely food for or feeds on just one other organism; a food web shows the many different feeding relationships that exist between organisms in an ecosystem.All of the organisms in one area and their physical environment is known as a(n)a. Habitatb. Populationc. ecosystemPrimary Producers always make up the first trophic level in a food web. About ___ percent of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to the next trophic level.a. 90%b. 10% c. 100%d. 0%
What is a Niche??Range of physical and biological conditions in which a species lives, and the way in which a species obtains food/energy to survive and reproduce Niche describes the following:Where an organism livesWhat it doesHow it interacts with the biotic and abiotic factors in an environment Niche refers to an organisms total way of life!NICHES AND COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS
Organisms occupy different places in a community because each species has a range of conditions under which it can grow and reproduce
These conditions help define where and how an organism livesNICHES AND COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS
Every species has its own range of tolerance
Whats Tolerance? the ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental circumstancesExample temperature, sunlight, rainfallEach organism has an optimum range for best survival and reproductionTOLERANCE:
Habitat general place where an organism lives ; its addressHABITAT
Resource any necessity of life: water, nutrients, light, food, spaceFor plants: sunlight, water, soil nutrientsFor animals: nesting space, shelter, types of food, places to feedRESOURCES AND THE NICHE
Physical aspects of the niche:Abiotic factors sunlight, water, soil, rocks, temperature
Biological aspects of the niche:Biotic factors when and how it reproduces, the food it eats, the way it obtains the foodASPECTS OF THE NICHE
COMPETITIONHow does competition shape communities?If you look at any community, you will probably find more than one kind of organism attempting to use various essential resources. RELATIONSHIPS
When organisms attempt to use the same limited ecological resource in the same place at the same time, competition occurs. For example In a forest plant roots compete for water and nutrients in the soil.
Competition can occur both among members of the same species (known as intraspecific competition) and Between members of different species (known as interspecific competition)
ABIOTIC BIOTICABIOTICABIOTICBOTHBOTH****Organisms expend much of the energy they acquire on LIFE PROCESSES respiration, growth, reproduction etcMost of the remaining energy is released into the envionment as heat byproduct of these activities *Pyramids will be upside down or inverted if there are a lot of small animals feeding on a large plant. They are also inverted where an animal has a large number of small parasites feeding on it. One human, for example, can have a large number of head lice.*An organism is rarely food for or feeds on just one other organism; a food web shows the many different feeding relationships that exist between organisms in an ecosystem.ECOSYSTEM10%Producers (primary)*