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Engineering Ethics

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INTRODUCTION 1978 FORD PINTO ACCIDENT HIT FROM BEHIND FUEL TANK BURST INTO FLAMES COLLISION CAUSED DEATH OF THREE TEENAGE CHILDREN 50 ACCIDENTS IN SEVEN YEARS FORD CHARGED WITH CRIMINAL LAWSUIT CIVIL LAWSUIT GIVES DAMAGES CRIMINAL CASE CAN GIVE JAIL TERMS FOR ENGINEERS AND MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION FORD KNEW FUEL TANK DESIGN WAS FLAWED ENGINEERS KNEW BUT MANAGEMENT WANTED PINTO OUT IN MARKET AT A COMPETITIVE PRICE BECAUSE OTHER MANUFACTURERS WERE PLANNING SIMILAR SUB-COMPACT CARS. IMPROVED DESIGN WOULD INCREASE COST DILEMMA FOR ENGINEERS SAFETY OF PEOPLE VS COMPETITIVE PRICE BALANCE DUTY TO THE PUBLIC AGAINST DUTY TO THEIR EMPLOYER

INTRODUCTION ETHICAL CASES CAN GO BEYOND ISSUES OF PUBLIC SAFETY AND MAY INVOLVE BRIBERY, FRAUD, ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, FAIRNESS, HONESTY IN RESEARCH AND TESTING, CONFLICT OF INTEREST ENGINEERS GET TRAINING IN BASIC AND ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES BUT LITTLE TRAINING/EDUCATION IN BUSINESS PRACTICES, SAFETY AND ETHICS

INTRODUCTION ALL ACCREDITATION BOARDS WORLDWIDE HAVE MANDATED THAT ETHICS TOPICS BE INCORPORATED INTO UNDERGRADUATE ENGINEERING CURRICULA. PURPOSE OF SUCH COURSES IS TO HELP FUTURE ENGINEERS FOR CONFRONTING AND RESOLVING ETHICAL DILEMMAS, SUCH AS THE DESIGN OF AN UNSAFE PRODUCT LIKE THE PINTO, THAT THEY MIGHT ENCOUNTER DURING THEIR PROFESSIONAL CAREERS.

DEFINITIONS ETHICS IS THE STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTCS OF MORALS. ETHICS ALSO DEALS WITH THE MORAL CHOICES THAT ARE MADE BY EACH PERSON IN HIS OR HER RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER PERSONS. AS ENGINEERS WE ARE CONCERNED WITH ETHICS BECAUSE THESE DEFINITIONS APPLY TO ALL OF THE CHOICES AN INDIVIDUAL MAKES IN LIFE, INCLUDING THOSE MADE WHILE PRACTICING ENGINEERING.

DEFINITIONS DEFINITION OF ETHICS CAN BE NARROWED FOR ENGINEERS ENGINEERING ETHICS IS THE RULES AND STANDARDS GOVERNING THE CONDUCT OF ENGINEERS IN THEIR ROLE AS PROFESSIONALS ENGINEERING ETHICS ENCOMPASSES THE MORE GENERAL DEFINITION OF ETHICS BUT APPLIES IT MORE SPECIFICALLY TO SITUATIONS INVOLVING ENGINEERS IN THEIR PROFESSIONAL LIVES

DEFINITIONSENGINEEREING ETHICS IS A BODY OF PHILOSOPHY INDICATING THE WAYS THAT ENGINEERS SHOULD CONDUCT THEMSELVES IN THEIR PROFESSIONAL CAPACITY

WHY STUDY ENGINEERING ETHICS SEVERAL NOTORIOUS CASES RECEIVED A GREAT DEAL OF MEDIA ATTENTION - LIKE PINTO LEADING ENGINEERS TO GAIN AN INCREASED SENSE OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES AWARENESS OF IMPORTANCE OF ETHICS WITHIN ENGINEERING PROFESSION REALIZATION HOW TECHNICAL WORK HAS FAR REACHING IMPACTS ON SOCIETY WORK OF ENGINEERS CAN AFFECT PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY AND CAN INFLUENCE BUSINESS PRACTICES AND EVEN POLITICS

WHY STUDY ENGINEERING ETHICS MAJOR CORPORATIONS HAVE AN ETHICS OFFICE RESPONSIBLE TO ENSURE EMPLOYEES HAVE THE ABILITY TO EXPRESS THEIR CONCERNS ABOUT ISSUES SUCH AS SAFETY AND CORPORATE BUSINESS PRACTICES IN A WAY THAT WILL YIELD RESULTS AND WOULD NOT RESULT IN RETALIATION AGAINST THE EMPLOYEE ETHICS OFFICES ALSO TRY TO FOSTER AN ETHICAL CULTURE THAT WILL HELP TO HEAD OFF ETHICAL PROBLEMS IN A ORGANIZATION BEFORE THEY START

GOAL OF THIS COURSE TO SENSITIZE ENGINEERS TO IMPORTANT ETHICAL ISSUES BEFORE THEY HAVE TO CONFRONT THEM STUDY IMPORTANT CASES FROM THE PAST AND LEARN WHAT TO DO WHEN SIMILAR SITUATIONS ARISE IN YOUR PROFESSIONAL CAREER DERIVE LESSONS LEARN TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYZING AND RESOLVING ETHICAL PROBLEMS WHEN THEY ARISE

GOAL OF THIS COURSE GOAL FREQUENTLY SUMMED UP USING THE TERM MORAL AUTONOMY MORAL AUTONOMY IS THE ABILITY TO THINK CRITICALLY AND INDEPENDENTLY ABOUT MORAL ISSUES AND TO APPLY THIS MORAL THINKING TO SITUATIONS THAT ARISE IN THE COURSE OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING PRACTICE THUS GOAL OF THIS COURSE IS TO FOSTER THE MORAL AUTONOMY OF FUTURE ENGINEERS.

GOAL OF THIS COURSE WHY SHOULD A FUTURE ENGINEER STUDY ETHICS YOU ARE EITHER A GOOD PERSON OR A BAD PERSON GOOD PEOPLE ALREADY KNOW THE RIGHT THING TO DO AND BAD PEOPLE ARE NOT GOING TO DO THE RIGHT THING NO MATTER HOW MUCH ETHICAL TRAINING THEY RECEIVE. THE ANSWER LIES IN NATURE OF ETHICAL PROBLEMS THAT ARE OFTEN ENCOUTERED. MOSTLY CORRECT RESPONSE IS VERY OBVIOUS.

GOAL OF THIS COURSE HOWEVER MANY TIMES THE ETHICAL PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERTED IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE ARE VERY COMPLEX AND INVOLVE CONFLICTING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES. ENGINEERS WORKING ON PINTO WERE PRESENTED WITH A VERY CLEAR DILEMMA TRADE-OFFS WERE MADE SO THAT PINTO COULD BE SUCCESSFULLY MARKETED AT REASONABLE PRICE ONE OF THE TRADE-OFFS INVOLVED THE PLACEMENT OF THE FUEL TANK WHICH LED TO THE ACCIDENT.

GOAL OF THIS COURSE WHERE DOES AN ENGINEERING TEAM STRIKE THE BALANCE BETWEEN SAFETY AND AFFORDABILITY AND, SIMULTANEOUSLY, THE ABILITY OF THE COMPANY TO SELL THE CAR AND MAKE A PROFIT. THE GOAL, THEN, IS NOT TO TRAIN YOU TO DO THE RIGHT THING WHEN THE ETHICAL CHOICE IS OBVIOUS AND YOU ALREADY KNOW THE RIGHT THING TO DO. RATHER, THE GOAL IS TO TRAIN YOU TO ANALYZE COMPLEX PROBLEMS AND LEARN TO RESOLVE THESE PROBLEMS IN THE MOST ETHICAL MANNER.

GOAL OF THIS COURSE DIRECT AIM IS TO INCREASE ONES ABILITY TO DEAL EFFECTIVELY WITH MORAL COMPLEXITY IN ENGINEERING. STUDY OF ENGG ETHICS STENGTHENS ONES ABILITY TO REASON CLEARLY AND CAREFULLY ABOUT MORAL QUESTIONS MEANS INCREASE MORAL AUTONOMY.

SELF-DETERMINING INDEPENDENT

MORAL AUTONOMY CAN BE VIEWED AS THE SKILL AND HABIT OF THINKING RATIONALLY ABOUT ETHICAL ISSUES ON THE BASIS OF MORAL CONCERN. FOUNDATION OF MORAL CONCERN OR GENERAL RESPONSIVENESS TO MORAL VALUES DERIVES PRIMARILY FROM THE TRAINING WE RECEIVE AS CHILDREN IN BEING SENSITIVE TO THE NEEDS AND RIGHTS OF OTHERS AS WELL AS OF OURSELVES WHEN THIS TRAINING ABSENT ABUSED CHILDREN. BROKEN HOMES, SOCIO-PATHS ETC.

GOAL OF THIS COURSE

MORAL AUTONOMY1. MORAL AWARENESS 2. COGENT MORAL REASONING 3. MORAL COHERENCE 4. MORAL IMAGINATION 5. MORAL COMMUNICATION 6. MORAL REASONABLENESS 7. RESPECT FOR PERSONS 8. TOLERANCE FOR DIVERSITY 9. MORAL HOPE 10. INTEGRITY

ENGINEERINGIT IS A GREAT PROFESSION. THERE IS THE FASCINATION OF WATCHING A FIGMENT OF THE IMAGINATION EMERGE THROUGH THE AID OF SCIENCE TO A PLAN ON PAPER. THEN IT MOVES TO REALIZATION IN STONE OR METAL OR ENERGY. THEN IT BRINGS JOBS AND HOMES TO MEN. THEN IT ELEVATES THE STANDARDS OF LIVING AND ADDS TO THE COMFORTS OF LIFE. THAT IS THE ENGINEERS HIGH PRIVILEGE.

ENGINEERINGTHE GREAT LIABILITY OF THE ENGINEER COMPARED TO MEN OF OTHER PROFESSIONS IS THAT HIS WORKS ARE OUT IN THE OPEN WHERE ALL CAN SEE THEM. HIS ACTS, STEP BY STEP, ARE IN HARD SUBSTANCE. HE CANNOT BURY HIS MISTAKES IN THE GRAVE LIKE THE DOCTORS. HE CANNOT ARGUE THEM INTO THIN AIR OR BLAME THE JUDGE LIKE THE LAWYERS. HE CANNOT, LIKE THE ARCHITECTS, COVER HIS FAILURES WITH TREES AND VINES. HE CANNOT LIKE THE POLITICIANS, SCREEN HIS SHORTCOMINGS BY BLAMING HIS OPPONENTS AND HOPE THAT THE PEOPLE WILL FORGET. THE ENGINEER SIMPLY CANNOT DENY THAT HE DID IT. IF HIS WORKS DO NOT WORK, HE IS DAMNED.

ENGINEERING ENGINEERING IS MANAGING THE UNKNOWN. ONE SOURCE OF ETHICAL ISSUES ENCOUTERED IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE IS LACK OF KNOWLEDGE NOT UNUSUAL IN ENGINEERING VERY OFTEN ENGINEERS ENCOUNTER SITUATIONS IN WHICH THEY DO NOT HAVE ALL OF THE INFORMATION THAT IS NEEDED. ENGINEERING DESIGN IS ABOUT CREATING NEW DEVICES AND PRODUCTS - MANY UNKNOWNS HOW WELL DOES IT WORK HOW WILL IT AFFECT PEOPLE WHAT CHANGES WILL THIS LEAD IN SOCIETY IS IT SAFE IF SAFETY CONCERNS HOW BAD ARE THEY WHAT ARE THE AFFECTS OF DOING NOTHING.

PERSONAL VS PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IMPORTANT TO MAKE A DISTINCTION BETWEEN PERSONAL ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL OR BUSINESS ETHICS . NOT ALWAYS A CLEAR BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE TWO. PERSONAL ETHICS DEAL WITH HOW WE TREAT OTHERS IN OUR DAY TO DAY LIVES. MANY OF THESE PRINCIPLES ARE APPLICABLE TO ETHICAL SITUATIONS THAT OCCUR IN BUSINESS AND ENGINEERING. HOWEVER, PROFESSIONAL ETHICS OFTEN INVOLVE CHOICES ON AN ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL RATHER THAN A PERSONAL LEVEL.

PERSONAL VS PROFESSIONAL ETHICS MANY PROBLEMS SEEM DIFFERENT BECAUSE THEY INVOLVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO CORPORATIONS, BETWEEN A CORPORATION AND THE GOVERNMENT, OR BETWEEN CORPORATIONS AND GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS. THESE TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS POSE PROBLEMS THAT ARE NOT ENCOUNTERED IN PERSONAL ETHICS.

ORIGINS OF ETHICAL THOUGHT PHILOSOPHY OF ANCIENT GREEKS AND THEIR PREDECESSORS. THINKERS IN TRADITIONS OF TORAH, BIBLE AND HOLY QURAN. FOR MANY PERSONAL ETHICS ARE ROOTED IN RELIGIOUS BELIEFS NOT TRUE FOR EVERYONE. MANY ETHICAL PEOPLE ARE NOT RELIGIOUS AND MANY RELIGIOUS PEOPLE ARE NOT ETHICAL. ETHICAL PRINCIPLES HAVE GENERALLY FILTERED THROUGH RELIGIOUS TRADITION AND HAVE BECOME CULTURAL NORMS.

ETHICS AND LAW PRACTICE OF ENGINEERING AND BUSINESS IS GOVERNED BY MANY LAWS INTERNATIONAL AND LOCAL.

MANY LAWS BASED ON ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICAL RATHER THAN PHILOSOPHICAL. DISTINCTION BETWEEN LEGAL AND ETHICAL MANY THINGS ARE LEGAL BUT COULD BE CONSIDERED UNETHICAL COVERSELY JUST BECAUSE SOMETHING IS ILLEGAL DOES NOT MEAN THAT IT IS UNETHICAL.

LAW HAS TO CATCH UP WITH LATEST FINDINGS. ENGINEERING ETHICS SEEK TO GO BEYOND THE DICTATES OF LAW INTEREST IS WHERE ETHICAL PRINCIPLES CONFLICT AND THERE IS NO LEGAL GUIDANCE TO RESOLVE.

RESPONSIBILITY OBLIGATIONS ACCOUNTABLE CONSCIENTIOUS BLAMEWORTHY/PRAISEWORTHY

DIMENSIONS OF ENGINEERING The idea of a new product is first captured in a conceptual design, which will lead to establishing performance specifications and conducting a pre liminary analysis based on the functional relationships among design variables. These activities lead to a more detailed analysis, possibly assisted by computer simulations and physical models or prototypes. The end product of the design task will be detailed specifications and shop drawings for all components .

DIMENSIONS OF ENGINEERING Manufacturing is the next major task. It involves scheduling and carrying out the tasks of purchasing materials and components, fabricating parts and sub-assemblies, and finally assembly and performance testing the product. Selling comes next or delivery if the product is the result of a prior contract. Thereafter, either the manufacturers or the customers engineers perform installation, personnel training, maintenance, repair and ultimately rejecting or disposal.

DIMENSIONS OF ENGINEERING Goals and alternatives have to emerge through the design process itself. Clarify goals and to begin to generate alternatives. Maybe forced to stop during initial attempt due to a snag and think of a better approach. Such re-considerations do not necessarily start and end at the same respective stages during subsequent passes through design, manufacture and implementation latest findings, other iterations, experience of similar product effect design may require assessment of prior decisions.

DIMENSIONS OF ENGINEERING Request for design while manufacturing or constructing must be handled carefully. This complexity requires co-operation among engineers of different departments and disciplines. Engineers tend to disregard or denigrate work carried out by other groups difficult to improve design or even rectify mistakes under such circumstances artificial boundaries moral issues. Engineering design not straight forward progression of isolated tasks trial and error process with backtracking examining results.

DIMENSIONS OF ENGINEERING Feedback loops based design. Engineering takes into account natural and social environments that affect the product and people using it. Problems may arise from shortcomings on the part of engineers, their supervisors, vendors or the operators of the product. Underlying causes can have different forms:

SHORT COMINGS ON THE PART OF ENGINEERS Lack of vision Incompetence Lack of time or lack of proper materials Silo mentality Safety engineers available Improper use or disposal of product Dishonesty Inattention Many moral challenges, need foresight, caution

SHORT COMINGS ON THE PART OF ENGINEERS To ensure confluence of good engineering, good business and good ethics, it is essential for engineering and corporations to be morally aligned. Professions make possible good work work that is excellent in quality & socially responsible. Some professions go through periods in which these aims become mis-aligned. Journalism, Genetic Science. Engineering also faces pressure some do not compromise on quality, safety and ethics.

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING AND ENGG DESIGNTHERE WILL BE NO UNIQUE CORRECT SOLUTION TO MOST PROBLEMS. THERE WILL BE A RANGE OF SOLUTIONS THAT ARE CLEARLY RIGHT, SOME OF WHICH ARE BETTER THAN OTHERS. THERE WILL ALSO BE A RANGE OF SOLUTIONS THAT ARE CLEARLY WRONG. BOTH APPLY A LARGE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE TO THE SOLUTION OF A PROBLEM, AND BOTH INVOLVE USE OF ANALYTICAL SKILLS. ALTHOUGH NATURE OF THE SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS IN ETHICS WILL BE DIFFERENT FROM THOSE IN MOST ENGINEERING CLASSES , APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEMS AND THE ULTIMATE SOLUTION WILL BE VERY SIMILAR TO THOSE IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE.

PROBLEMS IN ENGINEERING TASKSIT IS SAID THAT PROFESSIONS MAKE POSSIBLE GOOD WORK WORK THAT IS BOTH EXCELLENT IN QUALITY AND SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE, WHEN THE AIMS OF PROFESSIONALS, THEIR CORPORATIONS, CLIENTS AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC ARE CONGRUENT, IF NOT IDENTICAL

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER LAUNCHED IN EXTREMELY COLD WEATHER O-RING ON THE SOLID PROPELLANT BOOSTER, MADE MORE BRITTLE BY THE COLD, FAILED FAILURE LED TO EXPLOSION DURING LIFTOFF ENGINEERS WHO HAD DESIGNED THIS BOOSTER HAD CONCERNS ABOUT LAUNCHING UNDER THESE COLD CONDITIONS HAD RECOMMENDED LAUNCH BE DELAYED OVERRULED BY MANAGEMENT- SOME OF WHOM WERE ENGINEERS

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER MANAGEMENT FELT THERE WAS NOT ENOUGH DATA TO SUPPORT A DELAY SHUTTLE LAUNCHED RESULTING IN EXPLOSION ON SURFACE NO ENGINEERING ETHICAL ISSUES TO DISCUSS-SIMPLY AN ACCIDENT ENGINEERS RECOMMENDED NO LAUNCH OVERRUED BY MANAGEMENT NO ONE WANTED CHALLENGER TO EXPLODE IN STRICTEST SENSE AN ACCIDENT

CASE STUDY CHALLENGERSOME QUESTIONS WHEN SAFETY CONCERNS , WHAT IS ENGINEERS RESPONSIBILITY BEFORE LAUNCH DECISION IS MADE AFTER LAUNCH DECISION IS MADE, BUT BEFORE ACTUAL LAUNCH, WHAT DUTY DOES ENGINEER HAVE IF DECISION DOES NOT GO ENGINEERS WAY, SHOULD HE COMPLAIN TO UPPER MANAGEMENT OR SHOULD HE BRING THE PROBLEM TO THE ATTENTION OF THE PRESS

CASE STUDY CHALLENGERSOME QUESTIONS AFTER THE ACCIDENT HAS OCCURRED WHAT ARE THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE ENGINEERS IF LAUNCH WERE SUCCESSFUL, BUT THE POST MORTEM SHOWED THAT THE O-RING HAD FAILED AND AN ACCIDENT HAD NEARLY OCCURRED, WHAT WOULD BE THE ENGINEERS RESPONSIBILITY IF AN ENGINEER MOVES INTO MANAGEMENT, SHOULD HE SEPARATE ENGINEERING FROM MANAGEMENT DECISIONS

CASE STUDY - WARNING HINDSIGHT IS 20/20 STUDYING A CASE SEVERAL YEARS LATER AND KNOWING THE ULTIMATE OUTCOME, EASY TO SEE WHAT THE RIGHT DECISION SHOULD HAVE BEEN IF NASA HAD CRYSTAL BALL TO PREDICT THE FUTURE CHALLENGER WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN LAUNCHED IF FORD KNEW PINTO TANK WILL CAUSE DEATHS AND MILLIONS IN LAWSUITS IT WOULD HAVE FOUND A SOLUTION FOR THE FUEL TANK BEFORE SELLING PINTO

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER DESIGN CONTRACT AWARDED TO MORTON THIOKOL DESIGN BASED ON TITAN MISSILE SOLID ROCKET CONSISTS OF SEVERAL CYLINDRICAL PIECES THAT ARE FILLED WITH SOLID PROPELLANT AND STACKED ONE ON TOP OF THE OTHER TO FORM THE COMPLETE BOOSTER KEY ASPECT OF DESIGN ARE JOINTS WHERE THE INDIVIDUAL CYLINDERS COME TOGETHER CALLED FIELD JOINTS JOINTS SEALED BY TWO O-RINGS, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER O-RINGS DESIGNED TO PREVENT HOT GASES FROM THE COMBUSTION OF THE SOLID PROPELLANT FROM ESCAPING O-RINGS MADE FROM SYNTHETIC RUBBER AND NOT PARTICULARLY HEAT RESISTANT TO PREVENT HOT GASES FROM DAMAGING O-RINGS HEAT- RESISTANT PUTTY IS PLACED IN THE JOINT SECOND O-RING ADDED TO PROVIDE EXTRA MARGIN OF SAFETY

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER PROBLEMS WITH THE FIELD JOINT WERE RECOGNIZED LONG BEFORE LAUNCH WHEN ROCKET IGNITED INTERNAL PRESSURE CAUSES THE BOOSTER WALL TO EXPAND OUTWARD PUTTING PRESSURE ON THE FIELD JOINT THIS PRESSURE CAUSED THE JOINT TO OPEN SLIGHTLY, PROCESS CALLED JOINT ROTATION JOINT DESIGNED SO THAT INTERNAL PRESSURE PUSHES ON THE PUTTY, DISPLACING THE PRIMARY O-RING INTO THIS GAP HELP SEAL IT

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER DURING TESTING IN 1977 THIOKOL BECAME AWARE THAT JOINT-ROTATION PROBLEM WAS SEVERE AND DISCUSSED IT WITH NASA DESIGN CHANGES MADE INCLUDING AN INCREASE IN THE THICKNESS OF THE O-RING FURTHER TESTING REVEALED PROBLEMS WITH SECOND SEAL ADDITIONAL DESIGN CHANGES 1N 1981 POST LAUNCH EXAMINATION OF BOOSTER FIELD JOINTS INDICATED THAT THE O-RINGS WERE BEING ERODED BY HOT GASES DURING LAUNCH

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER ALTHOUGH NO FAILURE OF THE JOINT THERE WAS CONCERN ABOUT THE SITUATION THIOKOL LOOKED INTO USE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF PUTTY AND ALTERNATIVE METHODS HALF THE FLIGHTS BEFORE CHALLENGER ACCIDENT HAD EXPERIECED SOME EROSION NOT UNUSUAL, TESTING AND RE-DESIGN IS COMMON IN ENGINEERING EROSION IS NOT BAD AS LONG AS CONTROLLED

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER FIRST FAILURE OF JOINT CAME IN JAN 1985 COLD WEATHER POST FLIGHT REVEALED BLACK SOOT AND GREASE ON OUTSIDE OF BOOSTER HOT GASES HAD BLOWN OUT BY THE O-RING CONCERN ABOUT RESILENCY OF O-RING MATERIAL AT REDUCED TEMPERATURE TEST ON ABILITY OF O-RINGS TO COMPRESS TO FILL THE JOINTS FOUND THEY WERE INADEQUATE

CASE STUDY - CHALLENGER THIOKOL RE-DESIGNED JOINT WITHOUT ORINGS USING STEEL BILLETS IN JUL 1985 BETTER ABLE TO WITHSTAND HOT GASES DESIGN NOT READY FOR CHALLENGER FLIGHT

CASE STUDY CHALLENGERPOLITICS TO ANALYZE DECISION MAKING LEADING TO FATAL LAUNCH IMPORTANT TO SEE POLITICAL CLIMATE IN WHICH NASA WAS OPERATING NASA BUDGET APPROVED BY CONGRESS WHICH WAS UN-HAPPY WITH DELAYS IN SHUTTLE PROJECT AND SHUTTLE PERFORMANCE - NOT MEETING INITIAL PROMISES NASA BILLED IT AS A RELIABLE, INEXPENSIVE LAUNCH VEHICLE FOR A VARIETY OF SCIENTIFIC AND COMMERCIAL PURPOSES

CASE STUDY CHALLENGERPOLITICS NASA WAS FEELING URGENCY BECAUSE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY WAS DEVELOPING WHAT SEEMED TO BE A CHEAPER ALTERNATIVE TO THE SHUTTLE COULD PUT SHUTTLE OUT OF BUSINESS NASA SCHEDULED RECORD NUMBER OF MISSIONS IN 1986 TO PROVE TO CONGRESS THAT PROGRAM WAS ON TRACK LAUNCHING IN JANUARY WAS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT BECAUSE PREVIOUS MISSION HAD BEEN DELAYED SEVERAL TIMES BY BOTH WEATHER AND MECHANICAL FAILURES

CASE STUDY CHALLENGERPOLITICS NASA ALSO FELT PRESSURE TO LAUNCH ON TIME SO THAT THE NEXT SHUTTLE LAUNCH WHICH WAS TO CARRY A PROBE TO EXAMINE HALEYS COMET WOULD BE LAUNCHED BEFORE A RUSSIAN PROBE DESIGNED TO DO THE SAME THING ADDITIONAL POLITICAL PRESSURE TO LAUNCH BEFORE REAGANS STATE OF UNION ADDRESS IN WHICH HE HOPED TO MENTION THE SHUTTLE AND SPECIAL ASTRONAUT THE FIRST TEACHER IN SPACE CHRISTA Mc AULIFFE IN CONTEXT OF HIS COMMENTS ON EDUCATION

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER EVEN BEFORE ACCIDENT THERE WERE HITCHES FIRST LAUNCH DATE ABANDONED DUE TO COLD FRONT EXPECTED TO MOVE THROUGH THE AREA FRONT STALLED - COULD HAVE LAUNCHED LAUNCH DELAYED DUE TO DEFECTIVE MICROSWITCH IN HATCH LOCKING MECHANISM WHEN THIS PROBLEM SOLVED ANOTHER COLD FRONT ARRIVED BRINGING VERY LOW TEMP DUE TO EXPECTED COLD TEMPERATURES NASA CHECKED WITH ALL SHUTTLE CONTRACTORS TO DETERMINE IF THEY FORESAW ANY PROBLEMS

POLITICS

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER DIRECTOR OF THIOKOLS SOLID ROCKET MOTOR PROJECT WAS CONCERNED ABOUT COLD WEATHER PROBLEMS EVENING BEFORE LAUNCH TELECONFERENCE BETWEEN NASA AND THIOKOL, ENGINEERS AND MANAGEMENT, TO DISCUSS POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF COLD TEMP ON SOLID ROCKET BOOSTERS BOISJOLY AND THOMPSON, TWO THIOKOL ENGINEERS, WHO HAD WORKED ON SOLID PROPELLANT BOOSTER DESIGN GAVE ONE HOUR PRESENTATION ON HOW COLD WEATHER WOULD INCREASE PROBLEMS WITH JOINT / O-RINGS

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER THEIR POINT WAS THAT LOWEST TEMP AT WHICH SHUTTLE LAUNCHED WAS 53O F WHEN THERE WAS BLOW-BY OF THE O-RINGS NEXT MORNING TEMP WAS PREDICTED TO BE 29O F , FAR BELOW PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE CHIEF OF ENGG THIOKOL RECOMMENDED THAT SINCE THERE HAD BEEN SEVERE O-RING EROSION AT 53O F AND NO DATA AND NO EXPERIENCE AVAILABLE FOR LOWER TEMPS NASA SHOULD DELAY LAUNCH UNTIL TEMP AROUND 53O F INTERESTINGLY ORIGINAL DESIGN SPECS STATED BOOSTER WILL OPERATE PROPERLY UPTO 31O F

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER NASA SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER PROJECT MANAGER POINTED OUT DATA WERE INCONCLUSIVE AND DISAGREED WITH THIOKOL ENGINEERS HE ASKED ENGG MANAGER OF BOOSTER PROJECT AT THIOKOL FOR HIS OPINION WHO BACKED UP RECOMMENDATION OF HIS FELLOW ENGINEERS NASA SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER TEAM DISAGREED BOISJOLY AND OTHER ENGINEERS REITERATED TO THEIR MANAGEMENT THAT THE ORIGINAL DECISION NOT TO LAUNCH WAS CORRECT NASA WANTED MORE DISCUSSIONS / ANALYSIS

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER KEY FACT THAT ULTIMATELY SWAYED DECISION WAS THAT IN AVAILABLE DATA THERE SEEMED TO BE NO CORRELATION BETWEEN TEMP AND DEGREE TO WHICH BLOW-BY GASES HAD ERODED THE O-RINGS IN PREVIOUS LAUNCHES CONCLUDED THAT THERE WAS NO TREND IN THE DATA INDICATING THAT LAUNCH AT THE EXPECTED TEMP WOULD BE UNSAFE GM AT THIOKOL ASKED CHIEF OF ENGG TO TAKE OFF YOUR ENGINEERING HAT AND PUT ON YOUR MANAGEMENT HAT A PHRASE THAT HAS BECOME FAMOUS IN ENGINEERING ETHICS

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER CHIEF OF ENGG REVERSED HIS PREVIOUS DECISION AND RECOMMENDED LAUNCH WITH PROVISIO THAT THERE WAS SAFETY CONCERN DUE TO COLD WEATHER BUT THE DATA WAS INCONCLUSIVE AND LAUNCH RECOMMENDED DIRECTOR OF SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER PROJECT THIOKOL AT NASA LAUNCH SITE WAS SURPRISED BY THIS RECOMMENDATION HE ATTEMTED TO CONVINCE NASA TO DELAY LAUNCH BUT TO NO AVAIL

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER CONTRARY TO WEATHER PREDICTIONS OVERNIGHT TEMP WAS 08O F COLDER THAN SHUTTLE HAD EVER EXPERIENCED ACCUMULATION OF ICE ON LAUNCHPAD FIELD JOINT OF RIGHT-HAND BOOSTER ESTIMATED AT 28O F CAMERAS RECORDED PUFFS OF SMOKE COMING OUT OF FIELD JOINT OF RIGHT HAND BOOSTER IMMEDIATELY AFTER IGNITION FIELD JOINT ROTATED BUT DUE TO EXTREME COLD TEMP O-RING DID NOT SEAT PROPERLY

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER HEAT RESISTANT PUTTY WAS ALSO SO COLD THAT IT DID NOT PROTECT THE O-RINGS AND HOT GASES BURNED PAST BOTH O-RINGS VERY QUICKLY FIELD JOINT WAS SEALED AGAIN BY BY PRODUCTS OF SOLID ROCKET-PROPELLANT COMBUSTION WHICH FORMED A GLASSY OXIDE ON THE JOINT THIS OXIDE MIGHT HAVE PREVENTED DISASTER BUT SHUTTLE ENCOUNTERED VERY STRONG WIND SHEAR ONE MINUTE INTO FLIGHT OXIDES THAT WERE SEALING JOINT WERE SHATTERED BY WIND

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER JOINT OPENED AGAIN AND HOT GASES ESCAPED FROM THE SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER SOLID BOOSTER WAS ATTACHED TO LARGE LIQUID FUEL BOOSTER, THE FLAMES FROM THE SOLID-FUEL BOOSTER BLOW-BY QUICKLY BURNED THROUGH THE EXTERNAL TANK LIQUID PROPELLANT WAS IGNITED AND THE SHUTTLE EXPLODED SHUTTLE PROGRAM WAS GROUNDED PENDING THOROUGH REVIEW OF SHUTTLE SAFETY

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER THIOKOL FORMED FAILURE-INVESTIGATION TEAM WHICH INCLUDED BOISJOLY MANY INVESTIGATIONS INTO CAUSE OF ACCIDENT BY CONTRACTORS AND GOVT BODIES REAGAN FORMED COMMISSION OF DISTINGUISHED SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WHO WERE ASKED TO LOOK INTO CAUSE OF ACCIDENT AND TO RECOMMEND CHANGES IN THE SHUTTLE PROGRAM ONE MEMBER WAS NOBEL PRIZE WINNER IN PHYSICS

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER NOBEL WINNER ABLY DEMONSTRATED WHAT WENT WRONG ON NATIONAL MEDIA DEMONSTRATED THE PROBLEM WITH O-RINGS BY TAKING A SAMPLE OF THE O-RING MATERIAL AND BENDING IT. FLEXIBILITY OF MATERIAL AT ROOM TEMPERATURE WAS EVIDENT. HE THEN IMMERSED IT IN ICE WATER AND BENT THE RING IT WAS CLEAR THAT THE RESILIENCY OF THE MATERIAL WAS SEVERELY REDUCED CLEAR DEMONSTRATION OF WHAT HAPPENED

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER AS PART OF COMMISSION HEARINGS, BOISJOLY AND OTHER THIOKOL ENGINEERS WERE ASKED TO TESTIFY BOISJOLY HANDED OVER TO THE COMMISSION COPIES OF INTERNAL MEMOS AND REPORTS DETAILING THE DESIGN PROCESS AND THE PROBLEMS THAT ALREADY BEEN ENCOUNTERED THIOKOL WAS TRYING TO PUT THE BEST POSSIBLE SPIN ON THE SITUATION AND BOISJOLYS ACTIONS HURT THIS EFFORT

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER AFTER THIS ACTION BIOSJOLY WAS ISOLATED WITHIN THE COMPANY, HIS RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THE RE-DESIGN OF THE JOINT WERE TAKEN AWAY AND HE WAS SUBTLY HARASSED THE ATMOSPHERE BECAME INTOLERABLE FOR BOISJOLY AND HE TOOK EXTENDED SICK LEAVE JOINT RE-DESIGNED AND SHUTTLE FLEW NUMEROUS SUCCESSFUL MISSIONS AMBITIOUS LAUNCH SCHEDULE ORIGINALLY INTENDED BY NASA HAS NEVER BEEN MET

CASE STUDY CHALLENGERETHICAL ISSUES DID ASTRONAUTS HAVE ENOUGH INFORMATION TO GIVE CONSENT TO LAUNCH CAN AN ENGINEER WHO HAS BECOME A MANAGER TRULY EVER TAKE OFF HIS/HER ENGINEERS HAT REAGAN WAS WIDELY SEEN AS DOING NOTHINGWHILE EDUCATION SYSTEM DECAYED. TEACHER-IN-SPACE IDEA WAS COOKED UPTO TO DIVERT ATTENTION FROM THE PROBLEM. WHAT ARE ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS IF THIS IS TRUE

CASE STUDY CHALLENGER

ETHICAL ISSUES SHOULD LAUNCH HAVE BEEN ALLOWED WHEN THERE WAS NO TEST DATA FOR THE EXPECTED CONDITIONS SHOULD A PRODUCT BE RELEASED -USED WHEN IT HAS NOT BEEN TESTED OVER ALL EXPECTED OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS WHEN DATA IS INCONCLUSIVE WHICH WAY SHOULD THE DECISION GO AFTER THE ACCIDENT THIOKOL AND NASA INVESTIGATED CAUSES OF EXPLOSION. BOISJOLY ACCUSED NASA AND THIOKOL OF INTENTIONALLY DOWNPLAYING THE PROBLEM WITH O-RINGS WHILE LOOKING FOR OTHER CAUSES - WHAT ARE ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THIS TYPE OF INVESTIGATION

CASE STUDY CHALLENGERETHICAL ISSUES MANAGEMENT DECISION TO LAUNCH WAS PROMPTED BY CONCERN FOR HEALTH OF THE COMPANY AND SPACE PROGRAM IF PROBLEMS AND DELAYS HAD CONTINUED THIOKOL MIGHT HAVE LOST NASA CONTRACTS OR NASA FUNDING REDUCED LOSS OF JOBS AT THIOKOL AND NASA. HOW MIGHT THESE CONSIDERATIONS ETHICALLY BE FACTORED INTO THE DECISION ENGINEERING CODE OF ETHICS REQUIRE ENGINEERS TO PROTECT THE SAFETY AND HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC DO ASTRONAUTS COUNT AS PUBLIC IN THIS CONTEXT

CASE STUDY CHALLENGERETHICAL ISSUES WHAT SHOULD NASA MANAGEMENT HAVE DONE DIFFERENTLY WHAT SHOULD THIOKOL MANAGEMENT HAVE DONE DIFFERENTLY WHAT ELSE COULD BOISJOLY AND THE OTHER ENGINEERS AT THIOKOL HAVE DONE TO PROTECT THE LAUNCH FROM OCCURRING

PROFESSIONALISM LATE IN 1994 REPORTS APPEARED THAT THE LATEST GENERATION OF PENTIUM MICROPROCESSORS WAS FLAWED JOURNALS, MAGAZINES AND NEW YORK TIMES STORIES REPORTED THAT THESE CHIPS WERE UNABLE TO PERFORM RELATIVELY SIMPLE MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OPERATIONS INTEL DENIED LATER ARGUED THAT ALTHOUGH A PROBLEM BUT ERROR WOULD BE SIGNIFICANT IN SOPHISTICATED APPLICATIONS MOST PEOPLE WOULD NOT EVEN NOTICE IT

PROFESSIONALISM ALSO REPORTED INTEL KNEW AND WAS WORKING TO FIX IT MANY PEOPLE ASKED TO HAVE DEFECTIVE CHIP REPLACED INTEL REFUSED PUBLIC OUTCRY REACHED HUGE PROPORTIONS AND IT BECAME A PUBLIC RELATIONS DISASTER INTEL AGREED TO REPLACE DEFECTIVE CHIPS WHEN CUSTOMER REQUESTED DID INTEL DO ANYTHING UNETHICAL NEED TO DEVELOP FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING ETHICAL PROBLEMS ONE PART OF FRAMEWORK IS CODE OF ETHICS ESTABLISHED BY PROFESSIONAL ENGG ORGANIZATIONS

PROFESSIONALISM CODES HELP GUIDE ENGINEERS IN THE COURSE OF PROFESSIONAL DUTIES AND GIVE THEM INSIGHT INTO ETHICAL PROBLEMS ENGINEERING CODE OF ETHICS HOLD THAT ENGINEERS SHOULD NOT MAKE FALSE CLAIMS OR REPRESENT A PRODUCT TO BE SOMETHING THAT IT IS NOT

PROFESSIONALISM PRUDENT TO EXAMINE THE NATURE OF PROFESSIONS WITH THE GOAL OF DETERMINING WHETHER ENGINEERING IS A PROFESSION VALUABLE TO DISTINGUISH THE WORD PROFESSION FROM OTHER WORDS USED SYNONYMOUSLY ie JOB AND OCCUPATION

PROFESSIONALISM ANY WORK FOR HIRE CAN BE CONSIDERED A JOB, REGARDLESS OF THE SKILL LEVEL INVOLVED AND THE RESPONSIBILITY GRANTED OCCUPATION IMPLIES EMPLOYMENT THROUGH WHICH SOMEONE MAKES A LIVING ENGINEERING IS CERTAINLY A JOB AND ALSO AN OCCUPATION HOW DO THE WORDS JOB AND OCCUPATION DIFFER FROM PROFESSION PROFESSION AND PROFESSIONAL USED COMMONLY IN MODERN SOCIETY

PROFESSIONALISM What is a Profession WORK THAT REQUIRES SOPHISTICATED SKILLS MEMBERSHIP IN THE PROFESSION REQUIRES EXTENSIVE FORMAL EDUCATION PUBLIC ALLOWS SPECIAL SOCIETIES OR ORGANIZATIONS THAT ARE CONTROLLED BY MEMBERS OF THE PROFESSION SIGNIFICANT PUBLIC GOOD RESULTS FROM THE PRACTICE OF THE PROFESSION

PROFESSIONALISM JUDGEMENT REFERS TO MAKING SIGNIFICANT DECISIONS BASED ON FORMAL TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE. DECISIONS WILL HAVE SERIOUS IMPACTS ON PEOPLES LIVES AND WILL OFTEN HAVE IMPORTANT IMPLICATIONS REGARDING THE SPENDING OF LARGE AMOUNTS OF MONEY DISCRETION CAN HAVE TWO DIFFERENT MEANINGS. THE FIRST INVOLVES BEING DISCRETE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF ONES DUTIES BY KEEPING INFORMATION ABOUT CUSTOMERS, CLIENTS AND PATIENTS CONFIDENTIAL. THE OTHER DEFINITION INVOLVES THE ABILITY TO MAKE DECISIONS AUTONOMOUSLY.

PROFESSIONALISM MEDICINE fits definition of profession, requires very sophisticated skills and cannot be mechanized, requires judgment as to appropriate treatment plans for individual patients and it requires discretion physicians have been granted physician patient privilege, the duty not to divulge information given in confidence by the patient to the physician. Although Medicine requires extensive practical training (residency/housejob), it also requires much formal education (05 -08 years). Medicine has a special society Pak Medical Assoc

PROFESSIONALISMTo which a large number of practicing physicians belong and that participates in the regulation of medical colleges, sets standards for practice of the profession, and enforces codes of ethical behaviour for its members. Healing the sick and helping to prevent disease clearly involve the public good. By the definition presented earlier, medicine definitely qualifies as a profession

PROFESSIONALISM LAW is a profession, involves sophisticated skills acquired through extensive formal training, has a professional society Pak Bar Association/Council etc and serves an important aspect of the public good highly debatable Difference between athletics and carpentry on one hand and law and medicine on the other is clear. First two really cannot be considered professions, and the latter two most certainly are.

Engineering requires sophisticated skills spend four years in college to gain them min level

PROFESSIONALISM

Essence of engineering design is judgment how to use the available materials, components, devices , etc to reach a specified objective Discretion is required in engineering required to keep their employers or clients intellectual property and business information confidential Primary concern of any engineer is the safety of the public that will use the product and devices he designs

Always a trade-off between safety and other engineering issues in a design requiring discretion on the part of the engineer to ensure design serves its purpose and fills the market niche safely. Mechanization needs to be examined carefully once design finalized it can easily be replicated without the intervention of an engineer. However, each new design or a modification of an existing design requires a engineer. Industry uses many computer based tools for generating designs CAD Software not mechanization

PROFESSIONALISM

PROFESSIONALISM Each discipline within has a professional society Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for Electrical Engineers Society of Mechanical Engineers (SME) Engineering Societies differ from Law and Medical Societies each specialty of Engineering has its own Society no overlapping Very few practicing engineers belong to their professional societies engineering societies weak as compared to Law and Medical Societies

PROFESSIONALISM Although Engineering a profession significant differences between how engineering is practiced and how law and medicine are practiced Lawyers typically self employed in private practice essentially independent business group practice law firms very few employed Initially doctors in private practice but now managed care and medical centers growing and physicians employed in large corporations/Govt however they retain much of decision making power head always a doctor of medical facility

PROFESSIONALISM Engineers practice differently. Most engineers are not self employed part of large companies involving many different occupations accountants, marketing, less skilled employees Exception are civil engineers who generally practice as independent consultants or in engineering firms like Law Firms When employed by large corporations, engineers are rarely in significant managerial positions, except with regard to managing other engineers

PROFESSIONALISM Paid well as compared to rest of society but less compensated than doctors and lawyers Training different from doctors and lawyers. Employed after undergraduate studies unlike law and medicine where training begins after undergraduate program completed

PROFESSIONALISM Engineering societies not as powerful as medical and law associations perhaps because of number of professional engineering societies. Law and Medicine cannot be practiced without license/registration whereas engineers employed by large corporations on the basis of degree only. Engineering does not have same social stature as law and medicine less pay Despite differences engineering is a profession may not be as mature as law and medicine

PROFESSIONALISM Professional Societies also serve other, perhaps less noble, purposes. Sociologists describe two different models of professions social contract and business model Social-Contract model views professional societies set up primarily to further public good implicit social contract involved society grants the professions perks like high pay, high status and ability to self regulate in return society gets services by profession

OTHER ASPECTS

PROFESSIONALISMOTHER ASPECTS Cynical view of professions is provided by the business model Professions function as a means for furthering the economic advantage of its members professional organizations are labor unions for the elite strictly limiting the number of practitioners of the profession, controlling the working condition for professionals, artificially inflating salaries of its members Analysis of both models in terms of law and medicine show that there are ways in which these professions exhibit aspects of both these models

PROFESSIONALISMOTHER ASPECTS Where does engineering fit in this picture service oriented profession , fits into social-contract model very nicely Some engineers would like to see engineering professional societies function more according to business model but they do not Engineering societies have no clout with major engineering employers to set wages and working conditions or to help engineers resolve ethical disputes with their employers little prospect that engineering societies will function this way in future

PROFESSIONALISM If engineering was practiced like law/medicine Education to be changed Four year pre-engineering degree followed by 3 4 years engineering professional program Engineers in all fields work for firms Corporations have fewer engineers supervising several engineering technicians Less engineers in work force higher pay Engineering Technicians less pay than engineers

ENGINEERING IF PRACTICED LIKE MEDICINE

CODE OF ETHICS Codes express the rights, duties and obligations of the members of the profession Primarily code of ethics provides a framework for ethical judgment for a professional No code can be totally comprehensive and cover all possible ethical situations starting point for ethical decision making Ethical codes do not establish new ethical principles reiterate principles and standards that are already accepted Codes express these principles in a coherent comprehensive and accessible manner Code defines the roles and responsibilities of professionals

CODE OF ETHICS Important what a code of ethics is not Not a recipe for ethical behaviour only a framework for arriving at good ethical choices Never a substitute for sound judgment Not a legal document Cannot be arrested for violating its provisions expulsion from professional society may result Expulsion does not mean cannot practice engineering not necessarily any direct consequences of violating ethical codes

CODE OF ETHICS Code of ethics does not create new moral or ethical principles Code of ethics spells out the ways in which moral and ethical principles apply to professional practice Code helps the engineer to apply moral principles to the unique situations encountered in professional practice Helps create an environment within a profession where ethical behaviour is the norm Serves as a guide or reminder of how to act

Can also be used to bolster an individuals position with regard to a certain activity Code provides a little backup for an individual who is being pressured by a superior to behave unethically Can also bolster the individuals position by indicating that there is a collective sense of correct behaviour; there is strength in numbers Can indicate that the profession is seriously concerned about responsible, professional conduct Should not be used as window dressing

CODE OF ETHICS

CODE OF ETHICSEight essential roles Serving and protecting the public Guidance Inspiration Shared standards Support for responsible professionals Education and mutual understanding Deterrence and Discipline Contributing to the professions image

CODE OF ETHICSABUSE/OBJECTIONS TO CODES Worst abuse is to restrict honest moral behaviour to preserve the professions public image and protect the status quo Relatively few engineers are members of societies and do not feel compelled to abide by codes Many who are members are not aware of codes Consultation of codes is rare Objections that codes have internal conflicts but do not give a method to resolve them Codes are coercive ethical behavior with a stick

Codes of IEEE and NSPE have different structures IEEE code short and deals in generalities NSPE code is longer and more detailed Short code lacks detail and more likely to be read by members and more understandable. Articulates general principles and truly functions as a framework for ethical decision making Longer code has advantage of being more explicit and cover more ground less to imagination More useful in application to specific cases Less likely to be read and understood by engineers

CODE OF ETHICS

CODE OF ETHICS Some specifics of IEEE and NSPE codes differ IEEE does not mention duty to employer IEEE does mention a duty to protect environment NSPE has preamble that presents duties of engineer NSPE does mention the engineers duty to his /her employer Only professions do not have code of ethics Student code of ethics, code for use of computers, corporate codes, etc Corporate codes spell out company policies on business practices, relationship with suppliers & Govt agencies, health/safety, harassment, etc

ETHICAL THEORIES Study Moral Theories applied to Ethical problems Moral and Ethical Theories derived from ancient Greeks, Torah, Bible and Holy Quran Ethical Ideas were continually refined during course of history acknowledged that moral principles are universal, regardless of origin, and applicable even in secular settings Many moral principles codified and handed down through the law large body of thinking philosophical, legal and religious to draw from Ethical conduct is fundamentally grounded in a concern for other people HUQOOQ UL IBAD

ETHICAL THEORIES A Moral Theory defines terms in uniform ways & links ideas & problems together in consistent ways Exactly how scientific theories function. They organize ideas, define terms and facilitate problem solving An ethical theory is a comprehensive perspective on morality that clarifies, organizes and guides moral reflection provides a framework for making moral choices and resolving moral dilemmas not a simple formula but a comprehensive way to identify, structure and integrate moral reasons

ETHICAL THEORIES Ethical theories also ground the requirements in engineering code of ethics by reference to broader moral principles. They illuminate connections between engineering codes of ethics and ordinary morality that is the justified moral values that play a role in all areas of life

Four / Five (some say) ethical theories. Each differing according to what is held to be the most important moral concept and that have been especially influential

ETHICAL THEORIESUTILITARIANISM DUTY ETHICS RIGHTS ETHICS VIRTUE ETHICS SELF - REALIZATION ETHICSNONE HAS WON CONSENSUS AND EACH HAS DIFFERENT VERSIONS. SUITABLY MODIFIED, THE THEORIES COMPLEMENT AND ENRICH EACH OTHER TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY USUALLY AGREE WITH RESPECT TO THE RIGHT ACTION IN PARTICULAR SITUATIONS. TAKEN INDIVIDUALLY AND TOGETHER THEY PROVIDE ILLUMINATING PERSPECTIVES ON ENGINEERING ETHICS.

ETHICAL THEORIES UTILITARIANISM: Seeks to produce the most utility, defined as a balance between good and bad consequences of an action, taking into account the consequences for everyone affected. In other words it says that we ought to maximize the overall good, taking into equal account all those affected by our actions. Utilitarianism holds that those actions are good that serve to maximize human well-being. The emphasis is not on maximizing the well-being of the individual but rather on maximizing the well-being of the society as a whole. It is somewhat of a collectivist approach an example is building of dams includes cost-benefit & risk benefit analysis

UTILITARIANISM Simple and plausible producing good consequences but there are objections What exactly is good to be maximized should we maximize the good effects of individual actions or good effects of general rules Another objection is that implementation depends greatly in knowing what will lead to the most good Impossible to do a complete set of experiments to determine all of the potential outcomes specially when humans are involved maximizing benefit to society involves guesswork risk best guess might be wrong Despite objections still considered valuable tool for ethical problem solving

UTILITARIANISM Two flavors of Utilitarianism Act Utilitarianism and Rule Utilitarianism Act Utilitarianism focuses on individual actions rather than rules individual actions should be judged based on whether the most good was produced in a given situation, and rules should be broken if doing so will lead to the most good Rule Utilitarianism holds that moral rules are most important. Adhering to these rules might not always maximize good in a particular situation, overall adhering to moral rules will ultimately lead to good

UTILITARIANISM COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS: Often used in engineering analysis when trying to determine whether a project makes sense application of utilitarianism Costs of a project are assessed, as are the benefits projects with the highest ratio of benefits to cost will be implemented maximizing overall good Pinto Case - $11 part per car to protect fuel tank 11 million cars & 1.5 million trucks cost benefit $200,000 human life;injury $67,000 Highway Auth Estimated 180 burn deaths, 180 burn injuries $137 Million for part; $49.5 Million death/Injury

ETHICAL THEORIES DUTY ETHICS: contends that there are duties that should be performed (duty to treat others fairly or the duty not to injure others) regardless of whether these acts lead to the most good. In other words duty ethics says we ought to respect individuals autonomy. Here good consequences for society as a whole are not the only moral consideration moral duties are fundamental (be honest, do not cause suffering to other people, be fair to others, etc) these actions are our duties because they express respect for persons, express an unqualified regard for autonomous moral agents and are universal principles.

ETHICAL THEORIES RIGHTS ETHICS: Emphasizes that we all have moral rights, and any action that violates these rights is ethically unacceptable. Like duty ethics, the ultimate overall good of the actions is not taken into account. Rights ethics holds that people have fundamental rights that other people have a duty to respect humans have the right to life, liberty and property.

ETHICAL THEORIES Duty ethics and rights ethics are really just two different sides of the same coin. Both of these theories achieve the same end: Individual persons must be respected, and actions are ethical that maintain this respect for the individual. In duty ethics, people have duties, an important one of which is to protect the rights of others. And in rights ethics, people have fundamental rights that others have duties to protect.

ETHICAL THEORIES Like Utilitarianism there are problems with the duty and rights ethics theories Basic rights of one group (person) may conflict with the basic rights of another group how to decide whose rights have priority eg dam , nuclear waste These theories do not always account for the overall good of society very well emphasis is on individual so good of a single individual can be paramount compared to what is good for society as a whole a single person can block dam or disposal of nuclear waste

ETHICAL THEORIESIt is clear more than one ethical theory will be considered in discussion of engineering cases. Theories clearly represent different ways of looking at ethical problems and can frequently arrive at different solutions. Thus, any complete analysis of an ethical problem must incorporate multiple theories if valid conclusions be drawn this point will become more clear as discussion on ethical theories continues

RIGHTS ETHICS Right Ethics enter engineering in many ways. Holding paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public can be interpreted as having respect for the publics rights to life (by producing safe products), rights to privacy, rights not to be injured (by dangerous), and rights to receive benefits through fair and honest exchanges in a free market place. Additionally, basic right to liberty implies a right to give informed consent to the risks accompanying technological products. Then employers have rights to faithful service from employees, and employees have rights to reciprocal fair and respectful treatment from employers.

RIGHTS ETHICS Nearly all ethical theories leave room for rights. Rule Utilitarians say rights are those areas of liberty that are important to deserve special safeguards. Rights ethics is distinctive it makes human rights the ultimate appeal the moral bottom line. At its core morality is about respecting the inherent dignity and worth of individuals as they exercise their liberty. Human rights constitute a moral authority to make legitimate moral demands on others to respect our choices, recognizing that others can make similar claims on us. Right ethics provides a powerful foundation for the special ethical requirements in engineering / others.

RIGHTS ETHICS Rights Ethics sound very familiar to commonly known Human Rights fundamental truth that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights like Life, Liberty and pursuit of Happiness these are natural human rights which cannot be taken away and are sometimes violated. Debate on Human Rights rages between nations each accusing other for violations. Human Rights and legal rights are different. Legal rights are those that the law of a given society says one has. Human rights are those we have as humans, whether the law recognizes them or not.

RIGHTS ETHICSUNITED NATIONS ALSO ADOPTED HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE IDEA OF HUMAN RIGHTS IS THE SINGLE MOST POWERFUL MORAL CONCEPT IN MAKING CROSSCULTURAL MORAL JUDGMENTS ABOUT CUSTOMS AND LAWS

RIGHTS ETHICS Two versions Liberty rights and Welfare rights Liberty rights are rights to exercise ones liberty, and they place duties on other people not to interfere with ones freedom called negative rights (not) Welfare rights are rights to benefits needed for a decent human life, when one cannot earn those benefits (handicapped, sick, unemployed) when the community has them available zakat, bait-ul-mal sometimes called positive rights Another version says no welfare rights but generally agreed that liberty rights imply at least some basic welfare rights.

RIGHTS ETHICS Special Moral Rights exist rights held by particular individuals rather than by every human being eg engineers and their employers have special moral rights that arise from their respective roles and contracts they make with each other. Special rights are grounded in human rights, however, indirectly Few rights are absolute, in the sense of being unlimited and having no justifiable exceptions. Members of public do not have an absolute right not to be harmed by technological products hang gliders, airline travel (dangerous service) informed purchase/consent no misleading information

DUTY ETHICS Duty Ethics are those required by duties to respect the liberty or autonomy of individuals All these duties derive from one fundamental duty to respect persons. Autonomy moral selfdetermination or self-governance means having the capacity to govern ones life in accordance with moral duties. Hence, respect for persons amounts to respect for their moral autonomy. Immorality occurs when we merely use others, reducing them to mere means to our ends, treating them as mere objects to gratify our needs. Duties are universal apply equally to all

DUTY ETHICS Moral duties are categorical imperatives As imperatives they are injunctions or commands that we impose on ourselves as well as other rational beings As categorical they require us to do what is right because it is right, unconditionally and without special incentives attached Morality is not an iffy matter that concerns hypothetical (conditional) imperatives, such as if you want to prosper, be honest.

PRIMA FACIE DUTIES Everyday principles of duty are absolute in the sense of never having justifiable exceptions Problem with absolutism given complexity of human life, duties invariably come into conflict with each other creating moral dilemmas Moral dilemmas resolvable by recognizing some valid exceptions to simple principles of duty engineers have a duty to maintain confidentiality about information owned by their corporations, but that duty can be overridden by the paramount duty to protect the safety, health and welfare of public

PRIMA FACIE DUTIES To emphasize that most duties have some justified exceptions the expression prima facie duties used Prima Facie simply means might have justified exceptions rather than at first glance Most duties are prima facie they sometimes have permissible or obligatory exceptions. The same is true for most rights and other moral principles. Not always obvious how best to balance conflicting duties, so as to arrive at our actual duty our duty in a situation, all things considered Must reflect carefully weighing all duties/facts

VIRTUE ETHICS: regards actions as right that manifest good character traits (virtues) and regards actions as bad that display bad character traits (vices); this ethical theory focuses on the type of person we should strive to be. Fundamentally, virtue ethics is interested in determining what kind of people we should be. Virtue is often defined as moral distinction and goodness. A virtuous person exhibits good and beneficial qualities. Virtue ethics focuses on such words as responsibility, honesty, competence, humility, courage, fairness and loyalty virtues ; and dishonesty, disloyalty, arrogance, incompetence, cowardice, unfairness and irresponsibility - vices . Virtue ethics is closely tied to personal character.

ETHICAL THEORIES

VIRTUE ETHICS Virtue ethics emphasizes character more than rights and rules. Character is the pattern of virtues (morally desirable features) and vices (morally undesirable features) in an individual. Virtues are desirable habits or tendencies in action, commitment, motive, attitude, emotion, ways of reasoning and ways of relating to others. Vices are morally undesirable habits or tendencies. Words for specific virtues (previous slide) remain familiar, both in Engineering and everyday life.

ETHICAL THEORIES VIRTUE ETHICS: In many ways this theory seems to be mostly personal ethics and not particularly applicable to Engineering or business ethics (at first glance). However, personal morality cannot or should not be separated from business morality. If behavior is virtuous in personal life, the behavior is virtuous in business or work life. How to apply virtue ethics to engineering? Trickier to apply because virtue ethics less susceptible to rigorous analysis and harder to describe nonhuman entities like corporation or government in terms of virtue. Question like Is this action Honest, Will it demonstrate loyalty to my community or employer, Have I acted in responsible fashion will make proper course of action obvious Be careful in applying. Some words like Honour are both virtue / vice.

VIRTUE ETHICSMost comprehensive virtue of engineers is responsible professionalism. Four categories: Public spirited virtues

Proficiency virtues Teamwork virtues Self-governance virtues

VIRTUE ETHICS Public-spirited virtues: are focused on the good of clients and the wider public. The minimum virtue is nonmaleficence, that is, the tendency not to harm others intentionally engineering codes also call for preventing or removing harm to others promoting the public safety, health and welfare. Also justice within corporations, government and economic practices is an essential virtue in the engineering. Proficiency virtues: are the virtues of mastery of ones profession, in particular mastery of the technical skills that characterize good engineering practice competence diligence creativity

VIRTUE ETHICS Teamwork virtues: are those that are especially important in enabling professionals to work successfully with other people. Like collegiality, cooperativeness, loyalty and respect for legitimate authority. Also important are leadership qualities that play key roles within authority-structured corporations responsible authority motivation. Self-governance virtues: are those necessary in exercising moral responsibility. Some center on moral understanding and perception self-understanding & good moral judgment practical wisdom. Others center on commitment & putting understanding into action courage, self-discipline, perseverance, fidelity to commitments, self-respect, integrity, honesty.

VIRTUE ETHICS Existential pleasures of engineering Essence of engineering ethics is best captured by the word conscientiousness competence The Golden Mean virtues are tendencies to find the golden mean between the extremes of too much (excess) and too little (deficiency) with regard to particular aspects of our lives inspired by Aristotle who defined moral values as habits of reaching a proper balance between extremes in conduct, emotion, desire and attitude. Social Practices only means of progress

ETHICAL THEORIES SELF-REALIZATION ETHICS: Emphasizes the moral significance of self-fulfillment that is pursuing what is good for oneself. Two versions: in one version the self to be realized is defined by caring relationships with other individuals and communities. In another version called ethical egoism, right action consists in always promoting what is good for oneself, with no presumption that the self is defined in terms of caring and community relationships.

SELF-REALIZATION ETHICS Each of the preceding theories leaves considerable room for self-interest pursuing what is good for oneself. Utilitarians believe that self-interest should enter into our calculations of the overall good; rights ethics says we have rights to pursue our legitimate interests; duty ethics says we have duties to ourselves; and virtue ethics links our personal good with participating in communities and social practices. Self-realization ethics gives greater prominence to self-interest and to personal commitments that individuals develop.

SELF-REALIZATION ETHICS Two versions depending on how the self (person) is conceived. Ethical Egoism self conceived in a highly individualistic manner. Each of us ought always and only to promote our own self-interest. Self-interest is understood as our long-term and enlightened well being (good, happiness), rather than a narrow, short-sighted pursuit of immediate pleasures that leaves us frustrated or damaged in the long run. Second version self to be realized is understood in terms of caring relationships and communities.

SELF-REALIZATION ETHICS Can ethical egoism be supported? Importance of self-respect vs Altruism World be a better place if all or most people embraced ethical egoism. Ethical egoism is the only psychologically realistic ethical theory by nature human beings are exclusively self-seeking; sole motives are to benefit ourselves. Psychological egoism is true: all people are always and only motivated by what they believe is good for them in some respect.

SELF-REALIZATION ETHICS Psychological egoism is a theory about psychology, about what actually motivates human beings. Ethical egoism is a statement about how they ought to act. If psychological egoism is true, ethical egoism becomes the only plausible ethical theory. Psychological egoism says the only thing an engineer cares about is his own well being. Psychological egoism flies in the face of common sense motives of human decency, compassion and justice no sound reasons for psychological egoism

SELF-REALIZATION ETHICS What are or should be the motives of engineers? Predominant egoism: strongest desire for most people most of the time is self seeking most acts of helping and service to others involved mixed motives combination of self-concern / others Predominant egoism acknowledges human capacities for love, friendship and community involvement engineer: public safety, health, welfare Motives of Professionals Proficiency motives, Compensation motives and Moral motives

SELF-REALIZATION ETHICS These motives are interwoven and mutually supportive all of them contribute to providing valuable services to the community as well as professional relationships among engineers, other involved workers and clients. Engineering is demanding and it requires engineers to summon and to integrate a wide range of motivations life is demanding and our survival requires constant interweaving and cross-fertilization of motives. Human nature must consist of a number of motives which are genuinely distinct and autonomous, but which are adapted to fit together, in the normal maturing of the individual, into a life that can satisfy.

SELF-REALIZATION ETHICS Second version says that each individual ought to pursue self-realization, but it emphasizes the importance of caring relationships and communities in understanding self-realization and in defining the self to be fulfilled. This version highlights personal commitments which express and develop individual talents while enriching communities Jack Kilby This version emphasizes that we are social beings whose identities and meaning are linked to communities in which we participate. Personal Commitments are relevant in professions.

PERSONAL VS CORPORATE MORALITY Is there a distinction between the ethics practiced by an individual and the ethics of a corporation Can a corporation be a moral agent as an individual can if corporation has no moral agency then it cannot be held accountable for its actions. Dilemma most sharp in virtue ethics can a company be expected to display honesty or loyalty these are human traits, cannot be ascribed to Co Corporations should be considered pseudomoral agents and held accountable corporate wrongdoing should not be hidden behind

WHICH ETHICAL THEORY IS BEST How to decide which theory is applicable to a given problem can use all of them to analyze a problem from different angles ad see what result each gives Arguments for and against each theory. Ethical theories are attempts to provide clarity and consistency, systematic and comprehensive understanding and practical guidance in moral matters sound ethical theories meet these aims. Sound ethical theories are clear and coherent, they organize basic moral values in a systematic and comprehensive way, they provide helpful guidance that is compatible with our moral convictions.

WHICH ETHICAL THEORY IS BEST An important role of a sound ethical theory is to improve our moral insight into particular problems. There is an ongoing checking of an ethical theory against the judgments about specific situations that we are most confident are correct and in reverse a checking of our judgments about specific situations by reference to the ethical theory. Theories and specific judgments are continually adjusted to each other in a back-and-forth process until we reach what is called reflective equilibrium.

WHICH ETHICAL THEORY IS BEST It is an equilibrium because our principles and judgments coincide; and it is reflective since we know to what principles our judgments conform and the premises of their derivation. Which of the ethical theories most fully satisfy these criteria? Some versions of rule-utilitarianism, rights ethics, duty ethics, virtue ethics and self-realization ethics all satisfy the criteria in high degrees there are more similarities and connections than differences Community-oriented version of self realization ethics can be linked to duties to oneself, personal liberty and pursuit of excellence.

Need to develop analysis and problem-solving strategies to help engineers to decide whether it is ethical to work on a particular product or process. What tools are there for an engineer to decide which is the ethically correct path to take? These techniques will allow us to put ethical problems in the proper perspective and will point us in the direction of the correct solution. In engineering we look for an appropriate formula, plug in the numbers and calculate the answer not possible in ethical problem solving

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES

First step is to completely understand all of the issues involved once issues determined a solution to the problem becomes apparent. Issues involved in understanding ethical problems can be split into three categories: Factual Conceptual Moral

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING ANALYSIS OF ISSUES

Understanding these issues helps to put an ethical problem in the proper framework and helps point the way to a solution.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING TYPES OF ISSUES Factual issues involve what is known about case what the facts are. Concept seems straightforward, the facts of a case are not always clear/controversial right to die global warming Conceptual issues have to do with the meaning or applicability of an idea defining what constitutes a bribe as opposed to an acceptable gift determining whether certain business information is proprietary conceptual issues are not always clear-cut and will often result in controversy.

Once the factual and conceptual issues have been resolved all that remains is to determine which moral principle is applicable to the situation. Resolution of moral issues is often more obvious once the problem is defined, it is usually clear which moral concept applies, and the correct decision becomes obvious. Issues surrounding an ethical problem can be controversial, how can these controversies be resolved? research to establish the truth not always possible to achieve final truth- everyone

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING TYPES OF ISSUES

Generally, further research helps clarify the situation, can increase the areas of agreement, and can sometimes achieve consensus on the facts. Conceptual issues are resolved by agreeing on the meaning of terms and concepts sometimes agreement not possible but further analysis of the concepts at least clarifies some of the issues and helps to facilitate agreement. Moral issues are resolved by agreement as to which moral principles are pertinent and how they should be applied.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING TYPES OF ISSUES

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING CASE STUDY PARADYNE COMPUTERS Paradyne Computers bid to supply Social Security Administration (SSA) with new computer systems Request for proposals clearly specified that only existing systems would be considered. Paradyne did not have any such system and had never tested the software on the product they proposed to sell. Employment of a former SSA worker by Paradyne to help lobby SSA for contract is also clear. Factual issues do not appear controversial.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING CASE STUDY PARADYNE COMPUTERS Conceptual issues involve whether bidding to provide an off-the-shelf product when the actual product is only in the planning stages is lying or is an acceptable business practice. Is placing a Paradyne label over the real manufacturers deceptive? Does lobbying your former employer on behalf of your current employer constitute a conflict of interest? These questions generate discussions.

Paradyne asserted that it had done nothing wrong and was simply engaging in common business practices. Issue of conflict of interest is so hard to decide that laws have been enacted making it illegal for workers who have left government employment to lobby their former employers for specific period of time. Moral issues include the following: Is lying an acceptable business practice? Is it alright to be deceptive if doing so allows your company to get a contract?

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING CASE STUDY PARADYNE COMPUTERS

Line Drawing Technique useful for situations in which the applicable moral principles are clear, but there seems to be great deal of gray area about which ethical principles apply. Performed by drawing a line along which various examples and hypothetical situations are placed. At one end is placed positive paradigm, an example of something that is unambiguously morally acceptable. At the other end the negative paradigm an example of something that is unambiguously not morally acceptable. In between is placed the problem under consideration, along with other similar examples.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

Those examples that more closely conform to the +ve paradigm are placed near it and vice versa. By carefully examining this continuum and placing the moral problem under consideration in the appropriate place along the line, it is possible to determine whether is more like the +ve or ve paradigm and therefore whether it is acceptable or unacceptable. Example of disposing slightly toxic waste by dumping it into a local lake from which a town gets its drinking water.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

To determine if this practice is acceptable ? Start by defining the problem and +ve and ve paradigms. Research indicates that that the concentration of toxic waste in lake will be 5 parts per million (ppm). Regulation limit on this waste is 10 ppm at 5 ppm no health problems and consumers not able to detect compound in their drinking water. +ve paradigm water supply should be clean & safe ve paradigm toxic levels of waste are put in lake . Draw a line and place +ve and ve paradigms on it.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

Establish some other hypothetical examples: 1. At 5 ppm chemical will be harmless, but towns water will have an unusual taste. 2. Chemical can be removed by existing water treatment system. 3. Chemical can be removed by the town with new equipment that will be purchased by the company. 4. Chemical can be removed by the town with new equipment for which the taxpayer will pay. 5. Occasional exposure to the chemical can make people feel ill but this only lasts an hour and is rare

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

6. At 5 ppm, some people can get fairly sick, but the sickness only lasts a week, and there is no longterm harm. 7. Equipment can be installed at the plant to further reduce the waste level to 1 ppm. More and more test examples can be created but generally where the problem fits along the line is obvious with only a few examples. Re-draw line with examples inserted appropriately. After setting examples it may be clear that there is gap in knowledge seasonal variations, H2O usage

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

Complete exercise by denoting the problem with P and inserting it at the appropriate place along the line somewhat subjective. Clear that dumping waste is probably a morally acceptable choice since no humans harmed but far from +ve paradigm and there are probably better choices that can be made and company should investigate these alternatives. Other considerations

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

Although action seems ethically acceptable many other considerations may be factored into the final decision: Political aspects Community may regard dumping toxin as unacceptable Company may want to avoid lengthy amount of time required to obtain a permit / oversight by government

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

Line drawing can help solve the ethical aspects of a problem, but a choice that appears morally acceptable still might not be the best choice when politics and community relations are considered. In any case immoral choice is never the correct choice.

This technique seems to help with problem analysis and can lead to solutions there are many pitfalls in its use if not used properly, gives incorrect results Can be used to prove that something is right when it is actually wrong effective when used objectively and honestly choice to put examples and define paradigms is up to individual. Can reach false conclusions by using incorrect paradigms by dishonest placement of examples along line and dishonest placement of problem with examples say problem like example 2 and near PP

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

Apply this technique to Pentium Chip Case in 90s reported that latest Intel chip had flaws. At first Intel sought to hide this information, but later agreed to a policy of offering chips without flaws. +ve paradigm products should perform as adv ve paradigm knowingly sell products that are defective and will negatively affect applications. Few examples that can be added are:1. There is a flaw in the chip, but it is undetectable and wont affect any customers applications. 2. There are flaws in the chip, the customer is informed of them, but no help is offered.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

3. A warning label says that the chip should not be used for certain applications. 4. Recall notices are sent out, and all flawed chips are replaced. 5. Replacement chips are offered only if the customer notices the problem.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING LINE DRAWING

Other examples can also be added if line drawn and Intels approach there is a flaw, customers arent informed, and the magnitude of the problem is minimized . Line drawing analysis says that the approach taken by Intel in this case wasnt the best ethical choice.

Familiar and used in developing computer programs and other engineering disciplines. In engineering ethics helpful for analyzing a variety of cases, especially those in which there is a sequence of events to be considered or a series of consequences that flows from each decision. Advantage to analyze ethical problems is that it gives a visual picture of a situation and allows to readily see the consequences that flow . No unique flow chart that is applicable to a problem different flow charts can be used to emphasize different aspects of the same problem.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING FLOW CHARTING

Like line drawing essential to be as objective as possible and to approach flow charting honestly. Otherwise possible to draw any conclusion, even one that is clearly wrong. Apply to disaster at Bhopal Union Carbide chemical plant leaked in 1984 highly toxic chemical used in manufacture of pesticides toxic cloud of gas over Bhopal killing 2000 and injuries to over 200,000. Inadequate safety measures by US company.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING FLOW CHARTING

Flow charts deal with the decision making process that might have gone on at Union Carbide as they decided whether or not to build a plant at Bhopal. Chart emphasizes safety issues for the surrounding community. There were several paths that might have been taken and multiple decisions that had to be made. Flow chart helps to visualize the consequences of each decision and indicates both the ethical and unethical choices. Key to effective use of flow charts is to be creative.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING FLOW CHARTING

An area that presents us with a choice between two conflicting moral values, each of which seems to be correct. How to make the correct choice? Conflict problems can be solved in three ways. Often in conflicting moral choices, one is more significant than the other resolution easy. Second solution called creative middle way attempt at some kind of compromise nobody gets what they want. When no easy choice hard choice, bite the bullet.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING CONFLICT PROBLEMS

Examine Challenger case to illustrate resolution of conflict problems dilemma by Engineering Mngr Conflict was clear unknown probability that shuttle would explode Mngr had responsibility to his company and people who worked for him. Consequences of postponing the launch may lead to loss of future contracts from NASA, loss of jobs. For many easy choice simply not to launch risk to lives far outweighs any other considerations. Impossible to balance jobs against lives. Not everyone finds this easy choice Engg Mngr

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING CONFLICT PROBLEMS

Creative middle ground might involve delaying launch until later in day temperature warmed up May not be possible for timing related completion of planned missions. Astronauts could be informed of engineers concern and be allowed to make the choice whether to launch or not. If risk is informed and choice made by those taking the risk, somewhat relieves the company of the responsibility if an accident occurs.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING CONFLICT PROBLEMS

Hard choice is what Engg Mngr made. Choose to risk the launch, perhaps because the data were ambiguous. Might also have wanted to help ensure the future health of the shuttle program and to save the jobs of Thiokol workers. Gamble did not pay off shuttle exploded. Causing deaths of astronauts, leading to lengthy delays in the shuttle program, political problems for NASA and business difficulties for Thiokol.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING CONFLICT PROBLEMS

Gray area of engineering ethics is acceptance of gifts from vendors or the offering of gifts to customers to secure business. Difficulty is because of the potential for gifts to become bribes or to be perceived as bribes. Frequently engineers find themselves in the position of either dealing with vendors who wish to sell them products or acting as vendors themselves and working on sales to other engineers or companies.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING BRIBERY / ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING BRIBERY / ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS Bribery is illegal nearly everywhere although in some places it may be overlooked or even expected, but it always takes place under the table. Never a legitimate business practice laws against. Fine line between bribery and a simple gift sometimes the distinction has to do with the value of the gift always it has to do with the intent. Important to ensure no matter how innocent the gift, the appearance of impropriety is avoided.

Bribe is something, such as money or a favour, offered or given to someone in a position of trust in order to induce him to act dishonestly it is something offered or serving to influence or persuade. Bribery corrupts economic system bribery does not reward the most efficient producer. Sellout to the rich corrupts justice and public policy by allowing rich to make all the rules guarantees that only large, powerful corporations survive since they are more capable of providing bribes small business not able to give favours.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING BRIBERY / ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS

Bribery treats people as commodities that can be bought and sold degrading to human beings. Boundary between a legitimate gift and a bribe is very subtle coffee mugs, calendars with logo, dining together shared / low-cost ok Social interaction facilitates close and successful interactions required by both sides but when meals or gifts are no longer low cost possibility of abuse becomes large. Examples mug vs crystal bowl, fast food vs PC, sales seminar in Rawalpindi vs Dubai with family.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING BRIBERY / ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS

Gifts can be before purchase or afterwards does not change the situation. Bribery can easily be analyzed by looking at the factual, conceptual and moral issues. Line drawing can be effectively applied to bribery cases. Subtle differences between value of gift, timing of gift, etc easily visualized using line drawing and often very clear what the ethical choice will be based on a well drawn line. Flow charting can be used to examine the consequences that will result from acceptance or offer of a gift.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING BRIBERY / ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS

How to ensure that accepting a gift does not cross the line into bribery. Most companies have clear policy about acceptance of gift deviation requires approval from higher management. Philosophy rooted in sense of trying to avoid any conflict of interest and any appearance of impropriety. Companies that realize importance of social interactions allow employees more discretion, otherwise preapproval required from management absence of guidelines use media test.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING BRIBERY / ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS

Computers have become a ubiquitous tool in engineering and business. Numerous ways in which in which computers have been misused leading to serious ethical issues. Engineers role as designer, manager and user of computers brings responsibility for ethical use. Ethical issues associated with computers are variations on other issues unauthorized use of information stored on computer databases relate to issue of confidentiality and proprietary info Same ethical problem solving techniques used.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING COMPUTER ETHICS

Three broad categories of computer ethics problems: Those for which the computer is the instrument of the unethical act, such as the use of a computer to defraud a bank. Those for which the computer is the object of the act, as when computer software is stolen and installed on ones own computer or when information is accessed from someone elses computer. Problems associated with the autonomous nature of computers.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING COMPUTER ETHICS

Computers can be used to more efficiently steal money from the bank vis--vis masked bandit. Bank robbery easier to perform and harder to trace robber sits at a computer terminal (modern equivalent of a mask) invades the banks computer system and directs bank assets to a location accessible to him using a computer a criminal can make it difficult for the theft to be detected and traced no difference between robbery in person or via computer although higher amounts taken then armed robbery crime impersonal.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING COMPUTER AS THE INSTRUMENT

Another instrumental area involves privacy widely held that certain information is private and cannot be divulged without consent information about individuals as well as corporate information. Computers did not create the issues involved in privacy, but they certainly have exacerbated them. Computers make privacy more difficult to protect, since large amounts of data on individuals and corporations are centrally stored on computers where an increasing number of people can access it privacy harassment information like personal property theft.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING COMPUTER AS THE INSTRUMENT

This unethical act popularly referred to as hacking with sometimes the hacker being portrayed as heroic. Hacking comes in many forms: gaining unauthorized access to a data base, implanting false information in a data base or altering existing information and disseminating viruses over the Internet. Hacking clearly ethically troublesome privacy invaded, information altered, secret military info could have implications on national security.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING COMPUTERS AS THE OBJECT

Autonomy refers to ability of a computer to make decisions without the intervention of humans. Applications for which autonomy is valuable manufacturing process that require monitoring and control at frequent intervals can benefit little impact beyond the interests of the manufacturer. Automatic trading on stock exchange can create unstable situation computers start selling stocks automatically as prices drop causing other computers to sell until major market crash 1987.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING AUTONOMOUS COMPUTERS

Autonomy of computers has also been called into question with regard to military weapons many weapons rely heavily on computer sensors and computer controls due speed with which events can happen on modern battlefield valuable to have weapons that can operate autonomously. Weapon systems operating without human intervention can be unstable malfunctioning sensor may lead a computer to think enemy has increased its military activity, causing increased readiness followed by increased activity by enemy could lead to conflict human control necessary.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING AUTONOMOUS COMPUTERS

Is the act by an employee of informing the public or higher management of unethical or illegal behaviour by an employer or supervisor. Examine the ethical aspects of whistleblowing and discuss when it is appropriate or inappropriate. Also look at what corporations and government agencies can do to lessen the need for employees to take this drastic action. Whistleblowing straddles the line between rights and responsibilities engineers have a duty to protect the health and safety of the public and in many cases engineer is compelled to blow whistle.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

Engineers also have the professional right to disclose wrongdoing within their organizations and expect to see appropriate action taken. Whistleblowing can take several forms: Internal, external, acknowledged and anonymous. Internal whistleblowing occurs when an employee goes over the head of an immediate supervisor to report a problem to a higher level of management or all levels of management are bypassed and the employee goes directly to the President, CEO of the company or the board of directors when done this whistleblowing is kept within the org.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

External whistleblowing occurs when the employee goes outside the company and reports wrongdoing to newspapers or law-enforcement authorities / government. Either type of whistleblowing is likely to be perceived as disloyalty however keeping it within the company is often seen as less serious than going outside of the company. Anonymous whistleblowing occurs when the employee who is blowing the whistle refuses to divulge his name when making accusations these might be memos or phone calls or talk to media.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

Acknowledged whistleblowing on the other hand occurs when the employee puts his name behind the accusations and is willing to withstand the scrutiny brought on by his accusations. Whistleblowing can be very bad from a corporations point of view because it can lead to distrust, disharmony and an inability of employees to work together sports penalty by own teammate extreme disloyalty though gentlemanly thing to do. In business whistle blowing is perceived as an act of extreme disloyalty to the company and to coworkers.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

During course of professional life might come across cases of wrongdoing. How do you know when you should blow the whistle? To answer this question lets look at when you may blow the whistle and then look at when you should blow the whistle. Whistleblowing should only be attempted if the following four conditions are met: 1. Need there must be clear and important harm that can be avoided by blowing the whistle. In deciding whether to go public, the employee needs to have a sense of proportion.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

1. (contd) Dont need to blow the whistle about everything, just the important things. If there is a pattern of many small things that are going on, this can add up to a major and important matter requiring that the whistle be blown toxic spill in nearby waterway, but immediately cleaned vs this event happening repeatedly and no corrective action taken to rectify the problem despite repeated attempts by employees. First case does not merit notifying outside authorities. But in second case the situation is serious enough to warrant the extreme measure of whistleblowing.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

2. Proximity the whistleblower must be in a clear position to report on the problem. Hearsay is not adequate. Firsthand knowledge is essential to making an effective case about wrongdoing. This also implies that the whistleblower must have enough expertise in the area to make a realistic assessment of the situation. This condition stems from the clauses in several codes of ethics that mandate that an engineer not undertake work in areas outside his / her expertise. This principle applies equally well to making assessments about whether wrongdoing is taking place.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

3. Capability the whistleblower must have a reasonable chance of success in stopping the harmful activity. Not obligated to risk your career and the financial security of your family if you cant see the case through to completion or you dont feel that you have access to the proper channels to ensure that the situation is resolved. 4. Last Resort whistleblowing should be attempted only if there is no one else more capable or more proximate to blow the whistle and if you feel that all other lines of action within the context of the organization have been explored and shut off.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

These four conditions tell us when whistleblowing is morally acceptable. But when is an engineer morally obligated to blow the whistle? There may be situations in which you are aware of wrongdoing and the four conditions above have been met. In this case the whistle may be blown if you feel that the matter is sufficiently important. You are only obligated to blow the whistle when there is great imminent danger of harm to someone if the activity continues and the four conditions have been met.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

A great deal of introspection and reflection is required before whistleblowing is undertaken. Important for the whistleblower to understand his motives before undertaking this step. It is acceptable to blow the whistle to protect the public interest, but not to exact revenge upon fellow employees, supervisors or your company. Nor is it acceptable to blow the whistle in the hopes of future gains through promotion, publicity, media coverage or just being considered very important and pure and righteous.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

Look at whistleblowing from the employers point of view should seek to minimize the need for employees to blow the whistle within organization. If information about wrongdoing becomes public, it is harmful to the organizations image and will negatively affect the future prospects of the Co. It is probably impossible to eliminate all wrongdoing in a corporation or government deptt even good organizations with strong ethical culture will have employees who succumb to the temptation to do something wrong.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

Typical corporate approach to stemming whistleblowing and the resulting bad publicity is to fire whistleblowers and to intimidate others that might seem likely to blow the whistle this approach ineffective and ethically unacceptable. Four ways to stop whistle blowing: Strong corporate ethics culture Clear lines of communication Employees have meaningful access to high-level mangr Willingness on the part of management to admit mistakes, publicly if necessary.

ETHICAL PROBLEM SOLVING WHISTLE BLOWING

Strong corporate ethics culture: This should include a clear commitment to ethical behaviour, starting at the highest levels of management, and mandatory ethics training for all employees. All managers must set the tone f

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