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TRAINING PACKAGE # 1 Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups MODULE # 1 Gender Awareness Canada Nepal Gender in Organizations Project with the support of the Canadian International Development Agency
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TRAINING PACKAGE # 1

Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

MODULE # 1

Gender Awareness

Canada Nepal Gender in Organizations Project with the support of the Canadian International Development Agency

About the Gender Awareness ModuleThis module is part of a series of training packages that was produced by the CIDA-funded Canada -Nepal Gender in Organizations Project. The series consists of four packages, each with several modules.

CNGO TRAINING PACKAGES

Training Package #1 Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

Training Package #2 Gender-Friendly Organizational Development

Training Package #3 Gender-Responsive Community Development

Training Package #4 Training of Trainers

Modules 1. Gender Awareness 2. Group Dynamics 3. Gender and Development

THIS MODULE

Modules 1. Organizational Development 2. Organizational Systems 3. Resource Mobilization

Modules 1. Gender in Project Planning 2. Participatory Rapid Appraisal 3. Gender-Sensitive Linkages

Modules 1. Facilitator Training and Workshop Planning 2. Case Studies 3. Picture File

Each module is divided into several sections. In this module these include: Section 1: Background Information defines some key concepts and provides information on the topic. Section 2: Participatory Activities describes step-by-step activities. The facilitator should look to these for ideas, but should be selective and develop additional activities to fit specific circumstances. Section 3: Reference Materials provides background reading, tools, examples and worksheets relevant to the topic and the activities. This section also includes Case Studies that are appropriate for the module. CNGO participants developed these as part of Module #2 of Training Package #4: Developing Case Studies. Section 4: provides Display Pictures that are relevant to the activities in the module. The facilitators should add to these.

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CONTENTSSECTION 1: BACKGROUND INFORMATION............................................................................. 1 Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1 Key Concepts ................................................................................................................................... 1 SECTION 2: PARTICIPATORY ACTIVITIES ............................................................................... 3 Activity #1: Differentiating between Gender and Sex...................................................................... 3 Activity #2: Developing a Gender Lens ............................................................................................ 5 Activity #3: Examining Roles and Responsibilities: Who am I?................................................... 7 Activity #4: The Gender Tree.......................................................................................................... 9 Activity #5: Common Perceptions about Gender........................................................................... 11 Activity #6: Stereotypes.................................................................................................................. 13 Activity #7: Socialization................................................................................................................ 15 Activity #8: Change ........................................................................................................................ 16 SECTION 3: REFERENCE MATERIALS ................................................................................... 19 Reference #1: Sex and Gender....................................................................................................... 19 Reference #2: Nepalese Proverbs and Statements about Women and Men.................................... 20 Case Study #1: How Culture Creates Tension for Women............................................................ 21 Case Study #2: The Change in Gauris Family.............................................................................. 22 Case Study #3: The Future of the Sagarmatha Organization ........................................................ 23 Case Study #8: Searching for Self.................................................................................................. 24 Case Study # 9: Superstition.......................................................................................................... 26 Case Study #11: Results of Awareness........................................................................................... 27 Case Study #12: "Sheela".............................................................................................................. 28 Case Study #13: Divorce................................................................................................................ 29 Case Study #14: Sani Kanchi: A Symbol of Determination and Struggle....................................... 30 Case Study #18: Why Early Marriage?......................................................................................... 31

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SECTION 4: DISPLAY PICTURES ............................................................................................. 33 Display Picture 1: Gender Roles.................................................................................................... 33 Display Picture 2: Gender Lens ..................................................................................................... 34 Display Picture 3: Gender Lens (alternative)................................................................................. 35 Display Picture 4: Household Roles............................................................................................... 36 Display Picture 5: Community Roles............................................................................................. 37 Display Picture 6: A Gender Tree.................................................................................................. 38 Display Picture 7: Stereotypes....................................................................................................... 39

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SECTION 1: BACKGROUND INFORMATIONIntroductionGender issues are increasingly recognized as important in the development process. Nepal is one of hundreds of signatories to the Beijing Platform on Women's Equality that gave global recognition to twelve critical areas of action as necessary for the achievement of sustainable development and gender equality. In addition, Nepal has given support to the Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) -- a United Nations convention demanding global action to counter forms of gender discrimination. Equality is only possible when there is increased awareness, a transformation in attitudes, and a removal of unequal practices that are deeply rooted in the society. For this reason gender awareness training for all people and communities is valuable. An increase in gender awareness means gender sensitization, and the recognition of a need to incorporate women and marginalized people into the development process as active participants. Gender awareness contributes to changes in the attitudes and behaviours of individual people, and of groups.

Objectives of the Gender Awareness Training Module

To create an understanding of gender roles and relations. To develop participants ability to think about stereotyping, oppression, and gender relations. To create mutual trust and safety among participants in discussing sensitive issues around gender relations. To encourage participants to reflect upon their own lives and organizations, and to recognize relationships of inequality that affect them.

Key ConceptsDistinction between Sex and GenderSex refers to the universal, biological differences between men and women. Gender refers to the characteristics and qualities that societies associate with masculinity and femininity. The concept of gender encompasses the social roles and relationships between men and women. These roles and relationships are contextspecific and can change according to circumstances, and from generation to generation. Gender is influenced by other characteristics of society such as wealth, caste, class, age, education, race, religion, sexuality and ideology.

Gender EqualityGender is about relationships between men and women. Gender relations in many societies are unequal and hierarchical. This is shown by factors such as access to and control over resources. Institutions, ideologies, values, ideas and practices all play a role in shaping attitudes about gender. Gender equality is about valuing women and men equally. Equality means recognizing how women and men have traditionally been treated differently and making changes so that things like the work that women and men do is recognized as valuable and worthy. For example, unpaid work in the home can be as valued as work done in an office.

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StereotypesStereotypes are fixed ideas or assumptions about a group of people. Individuals belonging to that group are assumed to have the characteristics of that stereotype. Stereotypes can lead to false or unrealistic expectations about individuals who belong to a particular group of people. For example, a stereotype that men are more rational and logical can result in people finding it easier to vote for men in local elections.

Gender LensGender Lens is a name commonly given to the concept of putting on a pair of spectacles and looking out at the community around you. Out of one of the lenses you see the participation, needs and realities of women, and out of the other lens you see the participation, needs and realities of men. Your sight or vision is the combination of what both eyes see together. We need equal, respectful partnerships between men and women in order to have happy, healthy families and communities, in the same way that we need both eyes to see best. A gender lens can be used in many ways. One way that is gaining popularity is as a tool that NGOs and governments can use in their regular operations. For example, NGOs and governments can apply a gender lens to the management of their staff, to the development of training and community programs, to the planning of annual meetings or workshops, to the creation of a linkage component for their annual work plans, and so on. A gender lens can be a useful tool for promoting equal partnerships between men and women.

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SECTION 2: PARTICIPATORY ACTIVITIESActivity #1: Differentiating between Gender and SexOBJECTIVE

Participants will be able to distinguish between gender and sex.KEY QUESTION

What is the difference between gender and sex?TIME

1 hourMETHODOLOGY

Brainstorming, group discussion and presentation in the plenary.PREPARATION

Prepare a flip chart of sex and gender. Prepare Picture 1: Gender Roles for discussion.MATERIALS

Newsprint, markers, masking tape, Picture 1: Gender Roles and handout Reference #1: Sex and Gender. See also definitions in the Key Concepts section at the beginning of this module.S TEPS

1. Define sex and gender for participants. Give examples to explain each. 2. Share Picture 1: Gender Roles and explain that this picture illustrates women and men in different gender roles.

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3. Divide the participants into two groups one male and one female. The participants should be asked to form a circle and answer the question one-by-one so that everyone in the circle has a chance to individually respond. The question for the female group is When do you feel proud to be a woman? The question for the male group is Whe n do you feel proud to be a man? Then ask the participants to say whether their responses to this question were based on sex or gender. 4. Report back to large group and share examples.CLOSURE

Repeat the key question and ask the participants if the activity enabled them to respond to the question. If necessary, clarify uncertainties.

Tips for Facilitators If the group feels uncomfortable doing this exercise, follow the exercise with a group building exercise or warm-up activity.

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Activity #2: Developing a Gender LensOBJECTIVE

Participants will demonstrate an understanding of viewing the world through a gender lens.KEY QUESTION:

How do you view the world through gender lens?TIME:

1 hourMETHODOLOGY

Paired discussions, small groups, and visualization exercise.PREPARATION

Select Picture 2: The Gender Lens (1) or alternatively Picture 3: The Gender Lens (2) and prepare for showing.MATERIALS

Newsprint, markers, masking tape, Picture #2 or #3

Picture 2: The Gender Lens (1)S TEPS

Picture 3: The Gender Lens (2)

1. Get the participants to close their eyes and imagine a scenario in their community where men, women, boys, and girls are playing and working. Have them think about and imagine what each person is doing that is typical or not typical of their gender. Explain that this idea is similar to what we do when we examine the world through a gender lens. 2. Divide the group into pairs. Have the pairs draw pictures of what they saw men, women, girls and boys doing when their eyes were shut. 3. Explain the concept of a gender lens to the participants. (See Gender Lens under Key Concepts). Show Picture #2 or #3 to illustrate a gender lens. Remind the participants that when they closed their eyes and imagined what men and women were doing they were using their experience and knowledge to view the world through a gender lens. 4. Explain to the participants that we can also view our NGO activities through a gender lens. 5. In a large group discuss the following questions: Why should development NGOs be interested in gender? How can an NGO apply a gender lens to its own operations or community activities?

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6. Ask participants to work in groups of four (two pairs together) to come up with 2 -4 examples of points that an NGO might consider when examining itself through a gender lens. 7. Post these on the walls.CLOSURE

Ask the participants to share ways in which they can view the world through a gender lens.

Tips for Facilitators

The facilitator needs to review the Key Concepts section of this package and make sure he or she is familiar with the terms gender and gender lens. There are two drawings provided for this exercise the facilitator should choose the one that participants will be able to relate to the best. Sunglasses (made or bought) could be handed out after this exercise as a visual reminder of looking through a gender lens. Alternatively one pair could be purchased and passed around.

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Activity #3: Examining Roles and Responsibilities: Who am I?OBJECTIVES

Participants will understand their own roles and responsibilities with respect to gender in families, communities, and organizations.KEY QUESTION

What are your individual roles and responsibilities with respect to gender in the household, communities and in your organizations?TIME:

1 hourMETHODOLOGY

Questions and answers, individual drawing, and group sharing.PREPARATION

Decide how the gender lens will be displayed, e.g. flip chart, overhead, etc. Make necessary preparations. Draw large house on newsprint (see Display Picture 4: Household Roles). Prepare flip chart saying Who Am I.

Picture 4: Household RolesMATERIALS

Picture 5: Community Roles

Newsprint, masking tape, meta cards, markers and flip chart saying: Who Am I?Community Level Gender Lens Organizational Level Household Level

Figure 1: Gender Roles in Different Settings

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S TEPS

1. Have participants discuss the following questions: Who are you? And what responsibilities do you have? Who are you in your household (i.e. role in family)? And what responsibilities do you have toward your family? Who are you in your community? And what responsibilities do you have towards your community? Who are you in your organization? And what responsibilities do you have towards your organization? 2. Show Figure 1. Based upon the above questions, ask each participant to individually reflect on their roles, responsibilities and identity within: 1) the home, 2) the community, and 3) their organization. 3. Display the drawing of the large house. Use Display Picture 4: Household Roles for display of the types of roles performed in the house and in the community, as needed. Ask participants to identify what they do as household work and what they do as community/productive work. On the inside of the house, list their household activities (for example, sweeping floors, cooking, washing clothes, etc). On the outside of the house, record their roles in the community and in their organizations (for example, going to meetings, gardening, helping the school children, volunteering at the health post). 4. Again, review the questions above. Have each participant share his or her experiences and feelings on these questions as they pertain to roles and responsibilities related to genderCLOSURE

Repeat the key question and ask the participants if the activity enabled them to respond to the question. If necessary, clarify uncertainties. Tips for Facilitators At the community level the house diagram is more appropriate than the gender lens figure shown at the beginning of this exercise. Household activities include activities related to the care and maintenance of the household. Some of these may be carried out outside the house, e.g., washing clothes, fetching water.

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Activity #4: The Gender TreeOBJECTIVE

Participants will identify some of the causes and effects of gender discrimination.KEY QUESTION

What are some of the causes and effects of gender discrimination?TIME:

2 hoursMETHODOLOGY

Brainstorming, group work, picture writing, plenary discussion and presentation.PREPARATION

Draw tree on newsprint, assemble materialsMATERIALS

A large tree drawn on a large sheet of newsprint, markers, Picture 4: A Gender Tree and Case Studies.

Picture 4: A Gender TreeS TEPS

Part A 1. Divide participants into small groups. Ask each group to sketch a large tree on a piece of newsprint (show example). Explain that we will call this a gender tree. Explain that we will use this tree to illustrate different forms of gender discrimination. 2. Have the groups discuss how values, beliefs and ways of thinking influence our expectations and perceptions of gender. Explain that the group should write the source of these beliefs o nto the ROOTS. Then, on the STEM, the participants should record the way these beliefs affect gender andModule 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

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social practices for example, if a root cause of discrimination was a belief that women should stay home and care for the family, then on the stem the group might write that this belief results in less girls attending school. On the BRANCHES the participants should then record what happens as a result of this. Use different colour markers for: Branches: What are visible gender differences? Stem: What influences our gender beliefs? Root: What are the root causes of gender differences? 3. The facilitator should move around to each group and pose probing or leading questions to stimulate thought. 4. Invite group representatives to present their group tree in plenary and discuss it. It is important for the facilitator to point out how the three levels interact with each other. Part B: Case Study Distribute Case Study #1: How Culture Creates Tension for Women, Case Study # 9: Superstition, or Case Study #13: Divorce . Discuss how women are humiliated, and dominated in the male dominated society. Also discuss what can be done by NGOs to change these forms of discrimination.CLOSURE

Repeat the key question and ask the participants if the activity enabled them to respond to the question. Review the concept of discrimination and how one form of discrimination leads to another. If necessary, clarify uncertainties. Tips for Facilitators In order to do this exercise the facilitator must understand discrimination and its causes and effects. The facilitator should be able to give examples. After completing a gender tree the facilitator might also ask the group to think of how this can change and have participants cut out leaves from green paper, write one change that can occur on each, and then tape the leaves to the gender tree.

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Activity #5: Common Perceptions about GenderOBJECTIVE

Participants will be able to identify how proverbs and common idioms influence perceptions of gender.KEY QUESTION

How do proverbs and common idioms influence perceptions of gender?TIME:

1.5 hoursMETHODOLOGY

Paired discussions, presentation and explanation.PREPARATION

Prepare signs that say Agree, Disagree, Unsure. Prepare handout. Assemble materials.MATERIALS

Newsprint, markers, meta cards, masking tape and Reference #2: Nepalese Proverbs and Statements about Women and MenS TEPS

Part A 1. Have each participant write one proverb (popular saying about men or women commonly used in Nepali society) on a meta card. 2. Post the meta cards on the wall. 3. Discuss how these proverbs reinforce beliefs and influence behaviours of men and women. 4. Mark three walls or sides of the room with signs that say "Agree, "Disagree," and "Unsure." 5. Read each statement and ask participants to move to the sign that represents their personal response to the statement. Then ask participants why they made this choice. Part B 1. Give participants the handout. Reference #2: Nepalese Proverbs and Statements about Women and Men contains some proverbs and statements that are used in the Nepalese society. 2. Discuss what the proverbs say about men and women. Part C Proverbs and common idioms create values and expectations that affect men and women. Ask participants to identify other things that affect our perceptions about gender. For example, the influence of newspapers, textbooks, television, magazines, advertising, etc.CLOSURE

Repeat the key question and ask the participants if the activity enabled them to respond to the question. If necessary, clarify uncertainties.

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Tips for Facilitators

Facilitators should use local sayings and proverbs. During discussion probing questions for the facilitator might include: How did you feel about the proverbs and statements? Are the statements or proverbs positive or negative? Who is supported and who is humiliated by these proverbs? Are there proverbs that reflect positively on men and women? Are the roles for men and women in these sayings accurate? Realistic? Facilitators should only use Part C if they have examples on hand.

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Activity #6: StereotypesOBJECTIVE

Participants will be able to identify stereotypes of masculinity and femininity that result in unequal treatment of men and women.KEY QUESTION

What are stereotypes and how do they influence gender roles and relations?TIME

variesPREPARATION

Find examples of stereotypes suitable to the local context. Assemble materials.METHODOLOGY

Picture interpretation, discussion, role playMATERIALS

Newsprint, markers, meta cards, masking tape, Picture 5: Stereotypes

Picture 5: StereotypesS TEPS

1. Define stereotypes for participants. (See Key Concepts section). 2. Divide the participants into three or four groups. Explain that we are going to look at how people are affected by sex stereotypes. Each group is to brainstorm common characteristics of the opposite sex which they have heard and which they may or may not believe. The following two questions may guide this process: What characteristic s and behaviours does society expect from women?

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What characteristics and behaviours does society expect from men?

3. Ask the groups to write down responses, using different colors of meta cards for female and male characteristics. 4. Present the cards in the plenary. 5. Present Picture 5: Stereotypes to the group. Ask the group if this picture illustrates any stereotypes. Present the question: How have stereotypes resulted in men and women being treated differently in society? 6. Review how we develop stereotypes (from Activity #5: Common Perceptions about Gender, or Activity #4: The Gender Tree.) Part B 1. Divide the participants into groups and have them develop a role -play about stereotypes for a three to five minute radio or TV program. The group can select different forms of programs, for example, advertisements, talk shows, sitcoms, drama, newscasts, etc. 2. Present the role -play to the whole group.CLOSURE

Repeat the key question and ask the participants if the activ ity enabled them to respond to the question. If necessary, clarify uncertainties.

Tips for Facilitators The facilitator should be able to provide examples. The left side picture shows the stereotype role for a girl, collecting firewood and looking after her little sister, while her brother goes to school. The right side changes that stereotype to show all three children going to school. Facilitator may want to divide the participants into same-sex groups if he or she feels it will increase participant comfort and safety.

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Activity #7: SocializationOBJECTIVE

Participants will be able to explain how social environments influence gender inequalities.KEY QUESTION

How do social environments influence gender?TIME

1 hourMETHODOLOGY

Group discussion, presentation in the plenary, and question and answer.MATERIALS

Newsprints, markers, masking tape, meta cards of different colours and case studiesS TEPS

1. Ask one of the participants to read aloud one or more of these case studies: 2. Case Study #2: The Change in Gauris Family , Case Study #12: "Sheela" Case Study #14: Sani Kanchi: A Symbol of Determination and Struggle, Case Study #18: Why Early Marriage? Then, discuss the questions that follow the case study. After doing one example in the large group, the facilitator can divide the participants into smaller groups to repeat this exercise using a different case study. 3. Following the case study, the facilitator should ask these questions to the group. How does a boy or a girl grow in the family and in society? How are they both treated? What are the norms and values of socie ty relating to women and men? Where do these expectations come from, and how are they reinforced? Are the social values and norms justifiable or not? Can they be changed? .CLOSURE

Repeat the key question and ask the participants if the activity enable d them to respond to the question. If necessary, clarify uncertainties.

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Activity #8: ChangeOBJECTIVE

Participants will understand that gender roles are changeable and that participants can influence change.KEY QUESTION

How are gender roles changeable and how can we influence change?TIME:

45 minutesMETHODOLOGY

Game, discussion.PREPARATION

Assemble pictures of people. Select case studies to be used.MATERIALS

Newsprint, markers, masking tape, meta cards, and pictures of people (might be photos or pictures drawn or cut out from magazines or newspapers). Case studies optional (Case Study #3: The Future of the Sagarmatha Organization; Case Study #8: Searching for Self ; Case Study #11: Results of Awareness)S TEPS

Part A: Game 1. Participants sit in one large circle on the ground. Give each participant one meta card. On the meta card participants should each write down one thing that has changed over time -- it could be an idea, an invention, an experience, a policy, etc. Each participant then reads their idea and places it inside the circle. 2. After all of the ideas are read out, the group clusters the ideas into changes that are common or flow from similar ideas. Discuss changes that are common and different and how they came about. 3. Divide the participants into groups of two or three. Give each group two or three pictures. Ask the group to discuss what is happening in the picture and how a change in the community or a change in the relationship between the people in the picture might make the picture look different. Ask participants to focus on changes in gender relations but not to exclude other forms of change. Discuss. 4. Each group gives one example in plenary. 5. Facilitator may ask these questions during de-briefing: What is common about the changes you have suggested? Why might these changes be difficult to achieve? When is change perceived as positive? Negative? How do people respond to change and why? Part B: Case Study (optional) 1. Read or ask a participant to read the case study. 2. Lead discussion answering the questions at the end of the case study.

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CLOSURE

Repeat the key question and ask the participants if the activity enabled them to respond to the question. If necessary, clarify uncertainties.

Tips for Facilitators Optional for facilitator: Tell the participants that todays session will not end at the normal time but will continue for an extra 3 hours in the evening. Note the response. (Ideally this would be a good time for tea). Then, ask the participants how they feel about this change in schedule and why? Finally, explain that you only said this to illustrate responses to change and why change is so difficult to achieve, but the scheduling will not change. This activity would also be appropriate before using a case study about change, such as Case Study #3: The Future of Sagarmatha Organization, Case Study # 8: Searching for Self or Case Study # 11: Results of Awareness. The facilitator may also substitute a case study for the exercise on pictures suggested here.

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SECTION 3: REFERENCE MATERIALSReference #1: Sex and GenderSex refers to the biological fact that we are born male or female. The biological characteristics of men and women are universal, obvious, and in general, permanent. Gender is the socially constructed roles and responsibilities assigned to men and women in a given culture and location. Gender roles and responsibilities are determined by the social, cultural and economic organization of the society, and by the prevailing religious, moral, and legal norms. Sex and Gender SEX BORN WITHCannot Change GENDER SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED Can Change

Examples: SEX Only women give birth to babies Only men produce sperm

GENDER Women and men can take care of children Women and men can work as teachers, engineers, and labourers.

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Reference #2: Nepalese Proverbs and Statements about Women and Men

When a girl is born, the earth sinks by a foot, but when a boy is born, it rises on foot to greet him. If you look after her well good. If you kill her, you are cursed. (Reference to bidding the bride farewell after the wedding ceremony. The brides mother ties a knot in cloth containing money, nuts, holy thread etc and gives it to the groom with this message. Even a beggar does not take alms from a barren woman. If there is a son, you are safe. If it is a daughter, you have dismay. A daughter from a family of good background will be good like pure water. (Equates good to being disciplined, respectful, obedient) A husband with two wives goes to the corner and cries. The in-law who is very weak has eaten soybean so is weaker now. What do we do with her? (Refers to the devaluation of daughter-in-law and sister-in-law; their malnourishment in some homes; and the traditional rejection of soybean as a good food) Women dont have Adams apples because they cant keep secrets. (Suggests women are chattering gossips and do not have the discretion of men) Women are excluded from the maternal house once married & suffer the battering of their husbands, so what is their status? If a daughter dies, she goes to a big house. (No worry, no loss when a girl or woman dies) Daughters of widows are like bulls. (Without a man around, they must be wild and uncontrolla ble) Who has sons has property, who owns a cow has the forest. We should listen to our male elders and go near their fire for heat. (Men are the source of strength, protection, warmth etc.) If the hen starts crowing, it should be slaughtered and thrown over the hill. (Women must be submissive. If they speak up, they should be discarded.) A sons relation is a bone relation. A daughters relation is like leaves. (A sons relations are lasting and valuable while a daughters fall like leaves and become worthless.) An uncles property is invested in aunties ritual. (Translates similar to easy come-easy go and has underpinnings that relate to the low value put on in-laws and their property) If late, let it be a son. If a boy is born, cut a goat. If a girl is born, cut a pumpkin. Where women are respected, God enjoys. (From Holy Hindu scripture) Drum, savage, sudra, animal and women- these are to be beaten Poet Tulsi Das (India) In childhood a female must be subject to her fatherin youth to her husbandand when her lord is dead to her sons - women must never be independent - Manu It is not good if women give opinions The daughter is a thing to give away, for someone else she is kept What a relief to send her away today, I am light as a feather and free from debt Poet Kali Das

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Case Study #1: How Culture Creates Tension for WomenPrepared by Neerala Tiwari

This case study is appropriate for the Gender Awareness module, topic Gender Tree. The women and girls of a certain village in Doti District face discrimination within their families and their community. Bimala and Sunita are two women among hundreds of women who have been victims of discrimination in that community. Bimala was married at the age of eighteen. After her first year of marriage, she gave birth to a daughter. Bimala became pregnant again before her daughter had turned one year old. Because she became pregnant again so soon, she was unable to do all the work expected of a wife, mother, and daughter-inlaw. The members of Bimalas family, including her husband, began to abuse, neglect, and torture her. She could not share her anxieties and problems with anyone. Bimala became weak, and had lost all concern for her health. By the time her due date arrived, she was exhausted and afraid. Early one night, Bimala went into labour. Her mother-in-law became angry, and told Bimala that if she had another daughter, then Bimala would not be allowed to stay at home. Bimala became nervous and prayed for a son. She also thought that it would be best to call her younger sister, Sunita, for help after the birth. Bimala sent a message to her sister, asking Sunita to meet her at the hospital, and Bimala went to the hospital alone. Within a few hours of her admission, Bimala gave birth to a daughter and, fortunately, there were no complications. Sunita informed her brother-in-law of the birth, but no one came to visit the hospital because the baby was a girl. One day later, Bimala was discharged. She returned home, and Sunita helped to look after the baby on the way. The culture within the village is very traditional. As one example, no one is allowed to touch a woman who has given birth for a period of ten days, and a person who has touched a new mother will not be allowed to touch anyone else for a period of ten days. Having seen the baby with Sunita, Bimala's neighbours, as well as her parents, refused to allow Sunita to enter the house. Sunita did enter, but suffered abuse from her family as a result. Sunitas parents did not permit her to cook, or to sleep in her own room as she usually did. Sunita was upset and depressed about the situation that Bimala faced, and Sunita was relieved to discuss it with others at a training program that she attended immediately afterward.

Discussion1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Why was Bimala unable to perform her household responsibilities? What did Bimala's mother-in-law say to her when Bimala went into labour, and why? How do you think this made Bimala feel? What was the attitude toward Sunita when she came back from the hospital? How does the culture of the village affect the lives of women and girls? What could you do as part of a NGO, and why?

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Case Study #2: The Change in Gauris FamilyPrepared by Neerala Tiwari In some small villages of West Nepal, the lives of women have not changed at all in the past twenty years. Women are marginalized, and are considered to be nothing more than animals dependent on other members of the family. The men, on the other hand, see themselves as the breadwinners and the leaders of the family. They control the household, and rule womens bodies. Gauri lived in one such village. She was married by the age of sixteen while still in ninth grade. After the marriage, she was forced to leave school because of household responsibilities, and because of other cultural barriers that kept her in the home. After two years of marriage, Gauri gave birth to a girl. Because she had a daughter, Gauris husband and family began to physically and emotionally abuse her. Every night, Gauris husband would drink, and then beat her. Finally, Gauri could no longer tolerate the violence and went to a womens NGO where she shared her problem. The NGO staff went to Gauris home and tried to convince the husband and family to refrain from violence. The pleas on Gauris behalf were in vain. Gauri became pregnant again; she became anxious and depressed during her pregnancy. She thought that if she had another daughter, she would suffer violence again. This time, Gauri gave birth to a son. Her family and husband treated her altogether differently. They invited their neighbours to celebrate the occasion. It is not only Gauris family, but in many other families of that culture who hope for a son and hate the birth of a daughter.

Discussion:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why was Gauri always worried? What was the cause of her anxieties? How did the family disposition toward Gauri suddenly change? What were the causes? Was the NGO response appropriate? How could it have been different? How did the birth of a son change Gauris relationship with her family?

Module 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

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Case Study #3: The Future of the Sagarmatha OrganizationPrepared by Neerala Tiwari

This case study is appropriate for the Gender Awareness module, topic Change. Sagarmatha is the name of a social organization that has thirty members. Three of the members are women. One woman serves on the eleven-member executive board. The organization has introduced itself since 1995 as an advocacy group for women. Their office is a single room in a small cottage that is located in the courtyard of the chairpersons house. The location is not convenient for all members of the organization, so many of them do not visit the office very often. Whenever the members do meet, they make decisions that are relevant to the organization through an informal process, after much gossiping. The presence of the one woman at any board meeting is very rare. She complains that the location is too far away, and requires her to spare too much time doing volunteer work. No one has paid any attention to her problem. Board members seldom attend meetings. Dinesh is one member of the organization. He has assumed the responsibility of filing, accounting and office management. Three times a week, he goes to the office. However, there is no toilet or telephone for him to use, so he must use the facilities inside the chairpersons house. Over time, hes become frustrated and shy about asking permission to use the facilities, yet he has been compelled to do so. The chairperson makes most of the decisions in the organization. He himself visits the office only now and then, even though the office is located in his yard. Last month, the organization was assigned an auditor. At that time, Dinesh had to face many difficult questions and produce many documents. Dinesh, however, is not allowed to participate at board meetings. The secretary general records the minutes of the meetings, but the minutes are very brief and unclear, making Dineshs task much harder. There are three people allowed to sign cheques for the organization. They are the chairperson, the secretary, and the secretary general. On the basis of the chairpersons personal decision, Dinesh has been directed to write cheques for the signing authorities to sign later. Sometimes, the other signing authorities do not believe Dinesh and challenge him about the cheques. Dinesh feels pressured, and has begun to feel guilty. Sometimes expenses are greater than the amounts allocated in the budget, and when this happens, the chairperson questions Dinesh about why he spent the money without approval from the board. Dinesh has often proposed to the chairperson that the office should be re-located somewhere more convenient for everyone. In order to save money on rent, the chairperson has refused to consider moving the office. He blames problems on other board members who fail to spend any time in the office. Regardless, the chairperson has officially assumed all the responsibilities of the organization for himself, and claims that he reviews each and every document after the assigned member has completed it. The chairperson prepares various proposals, and submits them to donors, without knowing the real situation that women face. He consults reports, and borrows his ideas from them. Since 1995, Sagarmatha has not changed in any significant way.

Discussion:1. For whom is Sagarmatha working? 2. List some of the issues faced by this organization and then make suggestions for change.

Module 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

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Case Study #8: Searching for SelfPrepared by Manju Thapa Magar

This case study is appropriate for the Gender Awareness module, topic Change. My name is Sarada, and I am from West Nepal. When I was younger, I liked to play with my friends, and I loved to work as a shepherd and to go to the jungle. At the time, my older sister still went to school. She would ask me to go to school with her. However, I preferred to go to the jungle and to play. I grew up gradually. My parents wanted me to marry before starting menstruation because they believed this to be holy and they thought that this would make the gods happy. My parents decided on a husband and prepared me for marriage, but I rejected their plans. I told them that I would rather be a saint than a wife. Angered, I took some silver coins from our house and prepared to leave home, but my family and others in the community threatened me and forced me to be sent to the groom's house. On the first night of my marriage, the groom came up to me with red eyes and asked me, "You refused to marry me. Why?" He intended to hit me, and he then asked in a loud voice, "What woman doesn't have a husband? They don't have support from anyone else!" My first experience of marriage was dreadful. Members of my new family began to tease and abuse me, and they forced me to obey certa in restrictions. They did not allow me to keep the tika on my forehead [a sign of marriage in this particular caste]. I was not allowed to wear new clothes or to speak with my friends. If I said anything, family members would call me a "leader" [a derogatory expression in that community]. They would try to find issues with me so that they could start quarrels, and I did not receive sufficient food. I felt useless, so I returned to my parents' house. Because I was married, it was not acceptable for me to stay with my parents. My sister told me that she would care for me, and that we could go somewhere else to find work. I wrote a letter of divorce, but my family and the community told me that they would not accept even water from the hands of a divorced woman. I didn't want to be even more rejected, so I stopped seeking a divorce. My sister then took me back to Punjab and left me with my husband. I spent a year there, and had a baby son. After that, my husband said that we would have to move out and find our own home. We would live separate from his family. When we initiated discussions with the family about moving out, they told us that we would receive total rejection if we were to do so. We called upon people in the village for help, and they gave us a small piece of land. When the new season arrived, my husbands family would not allow me to use the land. I was forced to run away, and had to spend another year with my parents because there was no other choice. We have tried many times to live on our own, but the family has not helped us or allowed it to happen. We know now that we will not receive any support from my husbands family. Meanwhile, my son has been growing up. I have had some feelings of satisfaction from him, but thats all. My husband has begun to give me more attention, and to provide care for our son, but my own attention to our household has decreased. I will always remember the scene from our first day of marriage. We dont love each other. I am alive only for the sake of my child. I often ask myself, Is this way of being alive also called life?

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Discussion1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How do you feel when you read this case? Is it realistic? Why do these incidents happen? What are some of the issues in this story? What could we do to change these situations as individuals and as part of an organization? Re-write the last paragraph of this story by: reflecting a change in thinking on the part of the family (for example, supporting the couples decision to move out), expressing a shift in the thinking of gender roles between the man and the woman, or expressing the views of the husband .

Module 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

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Case Study # 9: SuperstitionPrepared by Manju Thapa Magar

This case study is appropriate for the Gender Awareness module, topic Gender Tree. This is a true story from West Nepal. The people of that region still follow certain traditions that may have already changed elsewhere. They believe, for example, that menstruation is not holy, and that it affects women's ability to live their lives. During menstruation, women must sleep in a small hut with the animals. They are not allowed to eat healthy food or to have warm clothes or blankets, even in the winter. It is expected that the women will stay warm from the breath of animals such as the buffalo or cows. Different provisions are made during a womans first, second, and third periods of menstruation. For example, a girl must stay alone for 23 days during her first menstruation. The following is a case study of a group. The credit committee of a womens group is about to conduct a five-day training session for members of the general group. Altogether, there are 20 participants. During the sessions, one member of the group begins to menstruate but does not inform the other participants. On the fourth day, after bathing, she arrives at the training session with wet hair. The other participants realize that the woman is menstruating. They accuse her of being a bad woman with intentions to destroy what is holy in the community. The menstruating woman is afraid, but boldly asks how menstruating women can be considered unholy if this is something that they must do in order to produce children. Someone else replies that they too feel the traditional beliefs cause unnecessary hardships for women, and cause them to feel shy and bad about themselves. One of the elderly women in the group notes that this conversation is improper, and that these women should be asked to leave. The participants feel a great deal of discomfort.

Discussion1. 2. 3. 4. How do you feel after reading the above case study? What are the causes behind this practice and how is it reinforced? What happens when someone starts to question the practice? How do people respond? Can you think of other situations where social practices are questioned and where people respond similarly? 5. How does this situation reflect different kinds of power?

Module 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

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Case Study #11: Results of AwarenessPrepared by Sanat Acharya

This case study is appropriate for the Gender Awareness module Sitaram, born in a remote area of West Nepal, was extremely conservative from an early age. He was very active in social services work, and he was held in high regard in the surrounding communities. Despite being well regarded in the community, Sitaram's attitude toward women was not positive. This included the women in Sitarams own household. Although he sometimes wanted to change his attitude, he felt helpless against the deep-rooted social practices that had been a part of his family for generations. As an example, Sitaram would not permit women who were menstruating or who had just given birth to enter the house. No one in the household thought to give the women any rest or support. Instead, the women were kept busy all the time, and became physically and emotionally exhausted. Sitaram experienced the opportunity to attend NGO training sessions on gender. The training helped Sitaram to learn about gender issues, and to change his attitude toward women. People were astonished to see the change. He began to help and support the women in his household. He engaged in domestic chores, even washing the dishes. Such changes created an environment that allowed others to discuss issues of gender discrimination, untouchables, and other conservative practices. Sitarams changed attitude was beneficial, not only to himself, but to his family and the community as well.

Discussion:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What happened in this case study? What factors made Sitaram reluctant to change his attitude? What helped Sitaram to change his attitude and behaviour? Are there similar types of people in your community, and have you encountered them? What would you suggest to help them to become more sensitive about gender issues? How would you help others to apply the lessons from this case study?

Module 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

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Case Study #12: "Sheela"Prepared by Manju Thapa Magar

This case study is appropriate for the Gender Awareness module, topic Socialization. Sheela was born in the Makwanpur district, and has one older brother. Following the birth of her brother, Sheelas father decided that one son was sufficient to continue the family lineage, and he decided to have a vasectomy. Social pressure against this was high because men who underwent this operation were considered impure and not allowed to do holy work. From the male perspective, this was a difficult decision. Shortly after, Sheelas mother became pregnant again, and her father accused her mother of having other relations. He started drinking heavily, and aggressively blamed Sheelas mother for getting pregnant. Every day, the quarrels became more violent. Sheelas father hit her mother, burned her with cigarettes, and forbade her to go outside. The nine months of pregnancy were hell, but at last Sheelas mother gave birth to a baby daughter. Sheelas father was not pleased that the child was female, and often told Sheela that she was not his daughter. Sheela felt lonely, and received no love or attention. She also felt guilty, and blamed herself. After seven years, the mother became pregnant again and they realized that the vasectomy had not been successful. Another daughter was born. Several years later, Sheela obtained a job and started studying for her B.Sc. However, the incidents of her childhood have left a permanent mark on her, and she is still unable to accept herself or understand who she is.

Discussion1. Who is responsible for Sheelas inability to accept herself and how? 2. How is this situation typical of others in Nepal and how is it different?

Module 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

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Case Study #13: DivorcePrepared by Sanat Acharya

This case study is appropriate for the Gender Awareness module, topic Gender Tree. From an early age, Maya was very dedicated and obedient to everyone. Her father was very conservative. He thought that it would be best if Maya were married before she matured. When she was still of an early age, Maya was given in marriage to an older man. Because of their great difference in age, they were very unlike each other in nature. However, being an obedient wife, Maya remained honest and loyal to her husband. She took care of him without complaint, believing that silence is a woman's virtue. One day Maya was surprised when her husband told her that he had another wife in the village who was pregnant. He told Maya that it had happened by mistake when he had been drinking, and said that if Maya would not accept her husbands lover as his second wife he would commit suicide. Maya could not tolerate the thought of his death, so she nodded her head in agreement. Her husband was, of course, happy with her decision. After a few months, without informing her, Mayas husband left for the Terai with his second wife. Maya was helpless to object. When her husband returned to speak with her, he claimed that he had settled his second wife in the Terai and that he had come back to live with Maya. He spoke sympathetically and Maya softened. Mayas husband moved home and pretended to love Maya, but this did not last long. Gradually, Mayas husband managed to extract all of her jewellery and ornaments. He took them and sold them for alcohol. After a while, he would beat her if she dared to refuse his demands. Maya lost everything to her alcoholic husband, until one day she heard that he had left the village with another woman. Mayas soft nature and kind heart had been taken advantage of. She had no alternative but to seek a divorce. She went to the courts and divorced her husband, then returned to her parents' home and began a new life with many challenges ahead.

Discussion1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What were the causes of the problems facing Maya? Did she make the right decisions? What would you do if you were Maya? What can be done to prevent similar incidents from happening again? What do you think were some of the new challenges Maya faced? How could you or your organization respond to situations like this?

Module 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

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Case Study #14: Sani Kanchi: A Symbol of Determination and StrugglePrepared by Sanat Acharya This case study is appropriate for the Gender Awareness module. Sani Kanchi is 26 years old now. She was 21 when she was married to a man from a poor family. They spent their early days together with much excitement and happiness. Soon, however, Sanis husband realized that he was unable to afford their day-to-day expenses. After several months, Sanis husband, Shanta, a jobless young man, decided to go to Muglan. (Going to India in search of work is often called Muglan.) Newly married, Sani was distressed about being separated from her husband, but hoping for a better future, she tolerated the separation. Sani spent the passing days, months, and years remembering the early days of her marriage. She did not receive word from Shanta, and was worried about him. Sani slowly gathered her courage and decided to go to Muglan to locate him. Eventually, she found him, and he was amazed to see her. Both of them shared their sorrow and grief. Shanta confessed that he had avoided communicating with her because he'd failed to find any substantial work. After a couple of months together in Muglan, Sani became pregnant and was exceedingly happy. When her due date approached, her husband suggested that she return home. He said that he wouldn't be able to devote very much time to her and that it would be easier for both of them if she went home. Sani was confused, but finally she returned to Nepal. A month after her arrival in Nepal, Sani gave birth to the child. She was surrounded by happiness at home, yet she continued to miss her husband. She sent a message to him and began to wait for his arrival. Years passed, but still Shanta did not return. Sani was forced to seek other ways of supporting herself, but she was illiterate and found it nearly impossible to find any work in the village. She always wished that she had received an education. Sanis troubles in life taught her that education was everything. She wanted to teach and share her feelings and experiences with the people in her community. Eventually, she joined an adult literacy class conducted by an NGO in her village. She became actively involved in other activities of the organization. Now, Sani's ultimate goal is to educate her son in order to provide him with a bright future. Her son now attends a nearby private school. In the meantime, Sani has continued to help others while preparing to take a formal examination at the school. She will be sitting alongside her son for this years Class 2 examination.

Discussion1. 2. 3. 4. How is Sani different from other women and how is she the same? Why do men such as Shanta migrate for work? Do women also do this? Why or why not? What obstacles did Sani overcome? How? What were the results? Are there similar stories of people who have joined literacy groups with your organization or NGO or one you know about? 5. How can the NGO be aware of these situations and work to support people caught in these situations?

Module 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups

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Case Study #18: Why Early Marriage?Prepared by Didi Bahini

This case study is appropriate for the Gender Awareness module, topics Gender Lens and Socialization. Sharadha Devi is a 10 year-old girl. She lives in ward #9 in Kehunia, Parsa district. She is from the chamar caste (who are considered the untouchable caste, and who clean toilets as a profession). Sharadha Devi was married six months earlier to a 14 year-old boy from a different village. She doesn't know why she was married at such a young age. She is still living in her parents home because they believe that until GAUNA (a ceremony performed by the grooms family) is performed, Sharadha can't live at her husband's home. Sharadha doesn't know when she is going to her husband's place, and when asked about her marriage and her husband, she just smiles and doesnt say anything. Sharada Devi does not go to school. She helps her mother in the kitchen and looks after her younger siblings. When she tried to discuss her marriage with her parents, she received the response, This is the system here, and we can't help it. If our daughter doesnt get married now, then other people will think that something is wrong with our girl."

Discussion1. Who is responsible for child / early marriages? Parents, society, or others? How are they responsible? 2. How can we change the system?

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SECTION 4: DISPLAY PICTURESDisplay Picture 1: Gender Roles

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Display Picture 2: Gender Lens

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Display Picture 3: Gender Lens (alternative)

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Display Picture 4: Household Roles

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Display Picture 5: Community Roles

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Display Picture 6: A Gender Tree

Note: Roots represents the causes, Stem represents the institutions, values and social expectations that foster gendered characteristics and Fruits/leaves represents the visible gender differences

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Display Picture 7: Stereotypes

Module 1 of CNGO Training Package #1: Interpersonal Growth and Gender in Groups


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