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GHG Inventory & GHG Intensity Ranking

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cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 1 GHG Inventory & GHG Intensity Ranking Cement sector in India 2009-10 Cbalance solutions hub
cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 1
GHG Inventory &
Cbalance solutions hub
cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 2
cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 3
Cement as a commodity plays a vital role in the growth of a nation since it is an essential raw
material for various other sectors in the economy which are responsible for growth like
infrastructure, construction, commercial and residential real estate
In India, the cement sector is one of the prominent contributors to conventional as well as GHG
emissions. Although there is no statutory obligation on companies to measure and report total air
emissions in India, the preparation of air emission inventories can be useful in internal company
benchmarking, public reporting, product profiles, and emerging emissions trading. In the near future, it
is also possible that such inventories will encourage voluntary actions to promote energy efficiency and
GHG emissions mitigations, especially in large, organized industrial sectors like cement 1
India stands second in the cement production in world after China. The total installed capacity
of India in 2009-10 was 236 MT in 2009–2010.2In same year the cement production for India
was 200.7 MT. 3
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted from both the chemical process and energy consumption
associated with the manufacturing of cement. During calcination or calcining, calcium
carbonate (CaCO3)(limestone) is heated in a cement kiln to form lime, a process that emits
CO2 as a byproduct. The resulting lime reacts in the kiln with silica, aluminum, and iron oxides
present in the raw material to produce clinker. Clinker, an intermediate product, is mixed with a
small amount of gypsum and/or anhydrite to make Portland cement.4
For this study 51 cement producing Indian companies have been analyzed. Their emissions per
ton of cement produced have been calculated using the process shown in the diagram below.
Emissions per ton of cement produced is known as the emission intensity of the company or
also referred to as the emission factor.
The following Scope 1, Scope 2 and Scope 3 activities as defined are taken into consideration to
calculate the total emissions.
2 http://www.ibef.org/download/Cement_270111.pdf
3 http://www.ibef.org/download/Cement_270111.pdf
worksheet (October 2001)
cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 4
Scope 1 emissions due to energy fuels such as fossil fuels, wood, municipal waste,
peat fuels. This can be classified as Scope 1 emission
Scope 2 emissions due to quantity of electricity purchased from the grid
Scope 1 emissions from the self generation of electricity to meet internal
A company can produce electricity through various technologies like diesel
generator, gas generator, steam generator etc. Depending on the technology and
the fossil fuel used emissions from captive power generation is calculated.
In cases where company specific captive generation emission factors are not
available an India average for that particular technology has been used
Scope 1 emissions resulting from the chemical processing of certain materials
such as limestone
It is obtained from one of the following sources of data as per the IPCC/GHG
Protocol guidelines : clinker production, limestone production and cement
These are Scope 3 emissions which are attributed to a company when either
limestone or clinker is purchased for use as a raw material in cement
Quantity of cement produced by the company in FY
cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 5
Actual Production in 000 Tonnes
CO2e in 000 tonnes
Cochin Cements Ltd. 0.46 58.52 26.92 0.54
Cement International Ltd. 0.48 78.73 37.79 0.56
Burnpur Cement Ltd. 0.53 74.92 39.71 0.62
O C L India Ltd. 0.60 3035.00 1821.00 0.71
Lafarge India Pvt. Ltd. 0.61 7851.20 4789.23 0.72
Heidelberg Cement India Ltd. 0.63 2660.67 1676.22 0.74
Andhra Cements Ltd. 0.70 990.94 693.66 0.82
Ambuja Cements Ltd. 0.71 18828.45 13368.20 0.84
Chettinad Cement Corpn. Ltd. 0.72 4003.47 2882.50 0.85
Bheema Cements Ltd. 0.73 251.60 183.67 0.86
Binani Cement Ltd. 0.76 5280.00 4012.80 0.89
My Home Inds. Ltd. 0.78 2984.34 2327.79 0.92
J K Lakshmi Cement Ltd. 0.79 4156.76 3283.84 0.93
Madras Cements Ltd. 0.79 8030.00 6343.70 0.93
Zuari Cement Ltd. 0.80 3195.20 2556.16 0.94
Birla Corporation Ltd. 0.81 5698.00 4615.38 0.95
K C P Ltd. 0.81 807.65 654.19 0.95
A C C Ltd. 0.82 21369.00 17522.58 0.96
Anjani Portland Cement Ltd. 0.82 497.72 408.13 0.96
Shree Cement Ltd. 0.82 9371.92 7684.97 0.96
India Cements Ltd. 0.83 10494.00 8710.02 0.98
Rain Commodities Ltd. 0.84 2372.30 1992.73 0.99
Barak Valley Cements Ltd. 0.85 207.92 176.73 1.00
Sainik Finance & Inds. Ltd. 0.87 37.61 32.72 1.02
Dalmia cement (Bharat) Ltd. 0.88 4074.00 3585.12 1.04
Kalyanpur Cements Ltd. 0.88 676.00 594.88 1.04
Meghalaya Cement Ltd. 0.88 555.98 489.26 1.04
Shree Digvijay Cement Co. Ltd. 0.89 1010.66 899.49 1.05
Orient Paper & Inds. Ltd. 0.90 3056.03 2750.43 1.06
Penna Cement Inds. Ltd. 0.90 4088.77 3679.89 1.06
Shiva Cement Ltd. 0.90 98.47 88.62 1.06
Prism Cement Ltd. 0.95 2568.32 2439.90 1.12
Century Textiles & Inds. Ltd. 0.99 7583.22 7507.38 1.16
J K Cement Ltd. 0.99 4586.51 4540.64 1.16
cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 6
Samruddhi Cement Ltd. [Merged] 0.99 10121.95 10020.73 1.16
Ultratech Cement Ltd. 1.02 17639.00 17991.78 1.20
Saurashtra Cement Ltd. 1.04 1285.92 1337.35 1.22
Mangalam Cement Ltd. 1.05 1637.00 1718.85 1.24
Sanghi Industries Ltd. 1.05 1828.17 1919.58 1.24
Keerthi Industries Ltd. 1.06 280.11 296.91 1.25
Gujarat Sidhee Cement Ltd. 1.08 2034.19 2196.93 1.27
Deccan Cements Ltd. 1.11 1096.95 1217.61 1.31
Cement Corpn. Of India Ltd. 1.14 968.23 1103.78 1.34
Hemadri Cements Ltd. 1.17 203.64 238.26 1.38
Panyam Cements & Mineral Inds. Ltd.
1.17 433.03 506.65 1.38
Sagar Cements Ltd. 1.39 1120.35 1557.29 1.64
Vinay Cements Ltd. 1.41 97.69 137.74 1.66
Cement Manufacturing Co. Ltd. 1.55 401.41 622.19 1.82
Rishi Cement Co. Ltd. 1.68 1.74 2.92 1.98
Sectoral Total 180632.25 154306.96 0.85
The graph below shows us the emissions per ton of cement produced for each company as well
as the emission intensity of the various companies as compared to the India average of 0.85
TCO2e/ ton of cement produced.
We can see that about 55% of the companies i.e. 28 out of 51 have emission intensities higher
than the India average.
Cochin Cement Ltd. has the lowest emission factor of 0.46 TCO2e/ton while the company with
the highest factor is Rishi Cement Ltd. at 2.92 TCO2e/Ton cement. The range of the intensity
with respect to the average varies from Cochin Cement Ltd. which is about half to Rishi Cement
Ltd. which is about twice that of the average.
cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 7
cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 8
The distribution of emission intensities of the companies analyzed is shown below:
As visible in the graph above about half of the 51 companies have emission intensities in the medium
range. There is quite an even distribution of companies with about a quarter in the above average range
and a quarter in the below average range. The 12% of companies in the first bar can be termed as
industry leaders and set the benchmark for the rest of the industry. The laggards are companies in need
of major technological advances to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Such a chart will help
policy makers design specific policy initiatives to cater to companies in each range as well prioritize
incentives based on the quantum of distribution.
There are 28 companies out of 51 in the cement sector whose emission factor is more than the
India average per ton produced. If all of these companies improve their efficiency to atleast the
Indian average there will be a savings of upto 10.41 MTCO2e. In a potential best case scenario,
if all the other 50 companies perform atleast as well as the best in class, i.e Cochin Cement ltd.
which has an emission intensity of 0.46 TCO2e/ton of cement produced, approximately 71.21
MTCO2e can be saved. Such sector specific and company specific understanding of GHG
intensities can be a useful tool for policy making in order to help India achieve its goal of 20-
25% emission reduction over 2005 levels by 2020.
P e
rc e
n ta
intensity =
cBalance Solutions Pvt. Ltd – Cement Sector GHG Inventory Report Page 9
1) Scope 1: Direct air emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the company These include direct process emissions (e.g. calcination of raw materials), direct stationary combustion in furnaces, diesel generator sets, etc., from fossil fuels, and mobile emissions from company-owned vehicles.
2) Scope 2: Indirect air emissions from the generation of purchased electricity consumed by the company