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Hydraulic Fracturing ( Fracking )

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Hydraulic Fracturing ( Fracking ). Elizabeth Salois. What is Fracking ?. Fracking  hydraulic fracturing Process of extracting natural gas from shale rock layers from deep within the earth - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)Elizabeth SaloisWhat is Fracking?Fracking hydraulic fracturingProcess of extracting natural gas from shale rock layers from deep within the earthThere are now two types of drilling, horizontal and traditional vertical injects fluids into shale areaAfter this 1 month process, the well is closed with cement to ensure groundwater protectionWhat chemicals are used in the process?The gas companies use a number of different chemicals in order to frack (estimated at 750 kinds) including:Methanol Isopropyl alcohol2-butoxyethanolEthylene glycolBenzene or leadEtc. What are the effects of some of these chemicals?Methanolproduced in catalytic industrial process directly from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogenSimplest alcohol and is a flammable liquidCan be used as antifreeze, solvent, fuel, etc.Isopropyl alcoholCan dissolve ethyl cellulose, oils, gums, and natural resinsAlso colorless and flammableCan be separated from water solutions by adding salts such as sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, etc.BenzeneNatural constituent of crude oil and is a basic petrochemical (found in coal tar and petroleum)Has a high octane numberNatural carcinogenSmall amounts are used to make: rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, explosives, and pesticides

Why do companies do this?Oil companies use hydraulic fracturing in order to:Increase/restore fluids such as petroleum, water, natural gas from reservoirsEnables production of natural gas and oil from rock formations below earths surfaceProvides natural gas within US bordersOther usesStimulate groundwater wellsDispose of waste by injection into deep rock formationsFor heat extraction to produce electricityPlaces affected by frackingMain areas:TexasPennsylvaniaWest VirginiaMichigan Roughly half of North DakotaAs well as a number of perspective areas like New York

Should we be concerned?Massachusetts has also become an area of question when it comes to drilling gas shales have been found around Western MassachusettsPart of Massachusetts contains a formation known as the Harford Basin which is 34 miles long and 15 varies from 3-15 miles wide surrounds SpringfieldPioneer Valley Green-Rainbow Party has shown concern for future drilling and wants to make sure it meets regulations and is safe.Geologists say that the Basin is not in the right state to be extracting gas from but may become so in the near future.

Fracking Across the UShttp://earthjustice.org/features/campaigns/fracking-across-the-united-states

Hopewell Township, PAOne of the biggest victims of frackingMarch 31, 2010 100-by-800 foot impoundment filled with wastewater from fracturing exploded near HopewellResidents smelled strong gas odors which then set nearby equipment on fireBetween Dec.5-6, 2009, a pit containing 750,000 gallons of fresh water mixed with wastewater overflowed into a small tributaryMay 2009pipe with wastewater leaked about 5,000 gallons into Cross Creek LakeAugust 2010EPA fined Atlas Resources $97,350 for December spill of 2009, which the company failed to reportWhat are the environmental effects of fracking?Stress on surface and ground water supplies from withdrawing large amounts of waterContamination of underground sources of drinking water due to faulty well constructionAdverse impacts from discharges into surface waters from disposal into underground injection wellsAir pollution from the release of volatile organic chemicalsPossible earthquakesWhat are the health effects of hydraulic fracturing?Respiratory problemsNeurological problemsSkin rashesDigestive issuesLinked to breast cancerFracking Hell: The Untold Storyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEB_Wwe-uBM

How do we regulate hydraulic fracturing?Much of the regulation is mandated state-by-stateHowever, there are federal regulations in place:EPA requires manufacturers and processors of the additives to disclose the chemicals they are usingIf the company doesnt disclose information about the chemicals they are using, they have to provide a reason why.Must ensure proper disposal of waste and correct cementing and closing of the wells/drilling sitesVictims of Frackinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cKpv_LaSQVY


Works Cited:http://earthjustice.org/features/campaigns/down-to-earth-the-dark-side-of-the-fracking-boomhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZe1AeH0Qz8http://8020vision.com/2011/04/17/congress-releases-report-on-toxic-chemicals-used-in-fracking/http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/27/us/27gas.html?_r=3&pagewanted=1&hpw&http://www.policymic.com/articles/6465/fracking-exposed-shocking-new-report-links-drilling-with-breast-cancer-and-women-s-violencehttp://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/health-wellness/2012/12/12/group-explores-possibility-fracking-massachusetts-federal-study-hints-limited-shale-gas-deposits/ueDJlzRbDH42pPnLcP3KMO/story.html

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