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Index [ ] Catalytic Process Development for Renewable Materials, ... acyclic pathways 107, 108 ......

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  • 387

    Index

    Catalytic Process Development for Renewable Materials, First Edition. Edited by Pieter Imhof and Jan Cornelis van der Waal. 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

    aacetic acid 251, 255, 256, 341acetoacetate decarboxylase (AAD) 202acetone 202acetyl CoA 202, 203acid catalysts see also individual acid catalysts aromatic chemicals 193, 205 extractives transformation 330, 334, 343 furfural from carbohydrates 97, 100102,

    103107, 109, 112 non-thermochemical biorefi neries 252 turpentine derivatives 339, 341acid removal, ethanol dehydration 163acyclic carbonates 368, 369371acyclic pathways 107, 108adiabatic reactions 161, 162Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

    program (ARPA-E) 39agricultural crops see also sugar-based biomass carbohydrate source 84, 85 corn 153, 154, 204, 205, 357 sitosterol hydrogenation 321325Alcell pulping process 10, 253alcohols alcoholysis of urea 372 aldehyde/ketone functions conversion to

    190 butanols 4, 11, 12 carbamates production 365, 377 carboxylation 368, 369371 characteristics 170 coniferyl alcohol 225, 226 fatty alcohols 177180 oxidative carbonylation 368 perillyl alcohol 318, 320, 334 propargyl alcohols 376

    aldehydes 190, 200, 205, 318, 332, 333, 340, 342

    aldol condensations 342, 343algal biomass algaenan 386 alginate 385 carbohydrate source 84, 85, 9294 carbon dioxide fi xation 382386 product selection criterion 47 types 180alkali earth elements 283alkanes 197, 272274alkenes 272, 273, 376N-alkylpyrrolidones 21alumina catalysts 159, 160aluminium oxide catalysts 330, 331aluminium-containing MCM-41 106Amazon rain forest 152, 153amides 170, 376amines 170, 374377p-aminobenzoic acid 221, 222ammonia fi ber expansion (AFEX) 252Amyris 4, 13, 5478, 180anaerobic digestion 249, 252, 253AndersonSchultzFlory (ASF) distributions

    273Anellotech process 195, 198aniline 220222anionic polymerization 62, 63anthranilic acid 220222aphid alarm pheromones 59application strategies 263, 264aquatic carbohydrates 9294aqueous halides 101, 102aqueous phase reforming (APR) 192, 193aqueous sugar streams 192arabinogalactans 87, 91arabinoglucuronoxylans 88, 91

  • 388 Index

    arabinose 98, 100, 255arabinoxylans 88, 91, 92Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) Company

    39, 44AroE enzyme 212aromatic chemicals aromatic acid pathway 209 bio-oil derived 197 biological routes 199226 BTX biorefi nery 186199 DielsAlder -farnesene adducts 7375 diisocyanates 378 extraction, oils/fuels 96 lignin 226228 production from bio-based feedstocks

    185230 yields 229aromatics from biobased feedstocks, yields

    229artemisinin 54Arthrospira 383artifi cial photosynthesis 364, 367, 374, 380ASPEN simulation model 357359availability of raw materials 4143Avantium Chemicals 17, 22, 207azetidines 378aziridines 376, 378

    bbase oils 77batch reactors 128, 129benzenetoluenexylene (BTX) process

    185199Billion-Ton study (US DOE/DOA) 185bio-based plastics, see plasticsbio-isobutanol 12, 13, 199201bio-oils see also fats/oils aromatic chemicals production 188, 189 FischerTropsch process 289 product selection criterion 47, 48 production process 16, 17 pyrolysis 195198Biofene 13biofuels see also diesel biofuels; individual fuels from carbon dioxide 379381 life cycle analyses 33, 34 renewable current situation 918 existing biorefi nery infrastructures 44 outcomes comparison in product

    selection 40 target selection 33

    Biofuels Digest polls 2Biological and Chemical Catalysts

    Technologies Program (US DOE) 32biological routes aromatic chemicals 199226 purifi ed terephthalic acid from p-xylene

    199 biorefi neries using 249 common aromatic pathway 209221 enzymic reaction types 49 fats/oils as raw material 173, 174 isobutylene production 201203 organosolv biorefi ning 245267 polycarbonate production 374 valine pathway to isobutylene 200, 201biomass feedstocks see also sugar-based biomass aromatic chemicals production 185230 chemistry 187192 energy aspects 352, 353, 359 fats/oils as raw material 174, 175 5-hydroxymethyl furfural synthesis 111 lignocellulosic biomass gasifi cation 14, 15 current situation 10, 11 gasifi cation 14, 15 organosolv biorefi ning 245267 oxygen removal 14, 16 pretreatment/gasifi cation for FT process

    288299 pyrolysis 195198 residues available 18 statistical design of experiments 135137 usage by companies 4, 5biomass-to-liquids (BTL) FischerTropsch process 271312 basics 271278 biomass pretreatment/gasifi cation

    288299 cobalt catalysis 278285 concept 277, 278, 299308 energy/carbon effi ciencies 310312 pilot/demo plants 308310 process concepts 299308 reactors 285288biopolymers see also individual polymers and plastics cyclic carbonates synthesis 373, 374 defi nition 151 polyethylene from ethanol 151164 polymerization reactions 164, 257 polyurethanes synthesis 377379 precursor rational selection 28 storage carbohydrates 84, 86, 87

  • Index 389

    structural carbohydrates 8697 terpenes 6068biorefi neries see also companies anaerobic digestion catalysts 252, 253 benzenetoluenexylene process 186199 existing infrastructures 43, 44 organosolv process 245267 thermochemical treatments 248, 249 types 247251biotechnology 47, 246biphasic reactors 99Blue Tower concept 296, 298, 300boiling point/NIR spectra correlation 144borneol 336, 340bottles for beverages 156, 157, 194, 195,

    356359BouveaultBlanc reduction 178Braskem ethanol to polyethylene process 151164 commercial plants 154157 development reasons 151, 152 legislation/certifi cation 157, 158 polymerization 164 process description 158163 Triunfo plant 155, 156, 164brassicasterol 322brown macroalgae 93building blocks 19, 35, 36, 5860, 83113bulk chemicals 352, 380butanols 4, 11, 12byproduct use product selection criterion

    46

    ccalcium oxide 381, 382campesterol 322camphene esterifi cation/etherifi cation 339, 341 monoterpenes isomerization 325327 -pinene isomerization 331 terpenes isomerization 318campholenic aldehyde 318, 332, 333, 340,

    342camphor 327, 340candidate bio-based product selection

    2750carbamates synthesis 374376, 377379carbide mechanism 274carbohydrates see also sugar-based biomass aquatic 9294 building blocks 19 dehydration to fuels 1618

    dehydration to furans 94112 DOE 2010 Report on products from 37, 38 furan-based building blocks from

    83113, 205 potential products 39 sources 8494 storage carbohydrates 84, 86, 87 cellulose 84, 86, 87, 89, 253, 254 lignocellulosic biomass 10, 11, 14, 15,

    245267 starch 43, 44 structural 8692 top chemical opportunities list 35carbon capture and storage (CCS) 363, 367 effi ciency 230, 303, 310312 fl ux 209, 210, 212, 213 natural cycle 363 sources, carbon dioxide 363387carbon dioxide carbamates 374379 carbon source 363387 conversion possibilities 367379 cyclic carbonates/polymers synthesis 373,

    374 cyclic reduction 380 energy products from 379381 FischerTropsch process 301, 302, 305,

    306 fi xation into aquatic biomass 382386 industrial use 364367 inorganic carbonates production 381,

    382 removal, Braskems ethanol dehydration

    163 transesterifi cation/alcoholysis of urea 372carbon monoxide 15, 161, 163, 248, 299 see also FischerTropsch processcarbonates carbon dioxide conversion 367374 inorganic 381, 382 organic linear 369, 370 urea transesterifi cation/alcoholysis 372carboncarbon bond cleavage 49carbonoxygen cleavage 49carboxylation of epoxides 373, 374carboxylic acids 170trans-carveol 320carvone 320catalysts anaerobic digestion biorefi neries 252,

    253 biomass-derived sugars 193 biorefi ning processes 251253

  • 390 Index

    Braskems ethanol dehydration 159, 160 catalytic hydrogenolysis 191 catalytic reforming 191 coking 147, 162, 195 deactivation 327330 energy savings 351354 fats/oils as raw material 173177 transformation requirement 170173 fatty alcohols case study 178, 179 furfural from carbohydrates 101107, 112 kinetics/pseudo-kinetics 131, 132 loadings design 135, 136 long term performance/deactivation

    145148 novel, environmental assessment

    349360 -pinene isomerization 327 principal component analysis 139142 process conceptual development 173177 process energy profi les 351 product selection criteria 48, 49 terpenes 5378 polymerization 6164 testing equipment for conceptual process

    design 128131catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) 211,

    217cationic polymerization 63cellulose 84, 87, 89, 99, 253, 254 see also lignocellulosic biomass feedstockscertifi cation 157, 158chalcones 222226char 289, 291chemical structure preservation 256Chemrec technology 295, 297, 300Chemurgy movement 27, 53chitin 385chitosan 385Chlorella 382chlorophyll pigments 383cholesterol-suppressing agents 321325Choren technology 208, 209, 295, 297, 299,

    300chorismate pathway 209, 215chromic acid 325, 335, 339, 341chromium catalysts 100chromium trioxide 341trans-cinnamic acid decarboxylase (CADC)

    220circulating-bed gasifi ers 292294clean-up 301, 302Clostridium spp. 202coal, bio-coal 249

    Cobalt Biofuels 11, 12cobalt catalysts FischerTropsch process 276285 activation/preparation 278280 activity 280283 long-term performance 146, 148Coca-Cola beverage bottles 156, 157codes of conduct 157, 158coking 147, 162, 195commercial interest/activities see also companies aromatics from biobased feedstocks

    228230 carbon dioxide 364367 cobalt FT catalyst formulations 283, 284 ethanol dehydration 154157 furfural production/applications 95, 96 organosolv biorefi nery products

    257259 status quo 123 terpene building blocks 57, 58commodity aromatic chemicals 185230common aromatic pathway 209221companies see also individual companies bio-isobutanol 12, 13 Biofuels Digest 2010-2011 top 50 2 carbohydrate potential products 3840 cobalt FT catalyst formulations 284 collaboration 7, 8 ethanol deh

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