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Indian Student Diaspora

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An inside into the foreign migration of students from India
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Effects of Various Factors on Brain Drain Intention : A Case Study Of Punjab11

INDIA`s DIASPORA

Applications for Migration (2012-13) :India - 40,100 China - 27,300 Britain - 21,700AUSTRALIAIn 2013 9,50,000 Indian Scientists Migrated. 83% increase from 2003USAIndia is theHighest Supplier of Expatriate Doctors to USIndian Doctors In USA- 52,0003.5 Million IndiansUAE : 2.2 Million Indians

Saudi Arabia : 1.8 Million Indians

United Kingdom : 1.5 Million

4 Million Indians2H1: There is a significant relationship between push factors and brain drain intentions H2: There is a significant relationship between pull factors and brain drain intentions. Hypothesis:-To explore the relationship between various push and pull factors on Brain Drain intentions of students in Punjab. Research Objective:3BRAIN DRAIN INTENTIONConceptual Model4PUSH FACTORSPUSH Factors Low Occupational IncomeLess Opportunity to Advance in OccupationLimited Job Opportunities in Field of ExpertiseNo opportunity for Advanced TrainingLack of Opportunities and Financial Resources to Start Business Less satisfying Social and Cultural LifeInefficient Bureaucracy and GovernmentPolitical PressureLack of Social SecurityUnstable EconomyDifficult to access Research Centers PULL FACTORSPULL Factors Higher Occupational IncomeGreater Opportunity to Advance in ProfessionBetter Work EnvironmentHigher Job AvailabilityHigher Opportunity for development in area of SpecialtyOrdered and Organized General EnvironmentBetter Social and Cultural LifeAccess to Research CentersBetter Educational Opportunities

H1H2Research MethodologySampleSampling Unit : StudentsSampling Frame :Random Sampling - Tier II Cities of PunjabQuestionnaire : Structured Semi DisguisedSample Size : Total 230Ludhiana - 115Chandigarh- 115Sampling :Snow Ball SamplingResearch Design:Descriptive Research5DESCRIPTIVES6FactorKaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling AdequacyBarlett`s Test of SphericitySig.Pull Factors.872.000Push Factors.877.000Pull FactorsInitial EigenvaluesPush FactorsInitial EigenvaluesTotal% of VarianceCumulative %Total% of VarianceCumulative %Component 14.38748.74548.745Component 14.84744.06744.067Component 21.42412.94457.012DATA ANALYSISKMO and Barlett`s Test for Push and Pull FactorsFactor Analysis : Variance Output7PULL FACTORS COMPONENT MATRIXPUSH FACTORS COMPONENT MATRIXITEMComponentITEMComponent112Higher Occupational Income.677Low Occupational Income.575Greater Opportunity to Advance in Profession.753Less Opportunity to Advance in Occupation.764Better Work Environment.782Limited Job Opportunities in Field of Expertise .783Higher Job Availability.703No Opportunity for Advanced Training.810Higher Opportunity for development in area of Specialty.652Lack of Opportunities and Financial Resources to Start Business .583Ordered and Organized General Environment.752Less satisfying Social and Cultural Life.465 Better Social and Cultural Life.585Inefficient Bureaucracy and Government.818Access to Research Centers.691Political Pressure.878Better Educational Opportunities.669Lack of Social Security.819Unstable Economy.626Difficult to access Research Centers.574Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.8CORRELATION ANALYSISITEMPull Factor- High Occupational IncomePush Factor 1 Low Occupational IncomePush Factor 2 Inefficient Government Brain DrainPearson Correlation.567**.455**.500**Sig. (2-tailed).000.000.000Variables in Equation MODELUnstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients tSig.Std. ErrorBeta(Constant).778.3302.362.019X1 = Pull-Higher Occupational Income.441.081.3755.440.000X2 =PUSH-Low Occupational Income.159.073.1472.186.030X3 =PUSH-Inefficient Government.194.074.1882.636.009FACTORCronbach AlphaPull- Higher Occupational Income0.865Push- Low Occupational Income0.792Push- Inefficient Government0.851RELIABILITY TESTREGRESSION EQUATION : BD=0 + 1X1 + 2X2 + 3X3Could be written as:- Brain Drain= 0.778+ 0.441(Pull-Higher Occupational Income) + 0.159(Push-Low Occupational Income) + 0.194(Push- Inefficient Government)

REGRESSION ANALYSIS9Research FindingsIndividuals with High Education are more concerned about the Income and the salaryIt can be argued that the individuals migrate as they feel they are not paid at par with their talent and qualifications.ImplicationsTo reverse effects of Brain Drain and especially to retain the skilled and educated workforce, the Government of India needs to work on Policies that strengthen the educational framework provide better job opportunities with higher pay packages to the skilled Indian population so that they are appreciated as per their qualifications reduce the corruption and inefficiencies in the government organizations and bureaucracy. 10THANK YOU

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