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  • IP TelephonyDeploying VoIP Protocols and IMSInfrastructure, Second Edition

    Olivier HersentCEO of Actility

    A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication


  • IP TelephonyDeploying VoIP Protocols and IMSInfrastructure, Second Edition

  • IP TelephonyDeploying VoIP Protocols and IMSInfrastructure, Second Edition

    Olivier HersentCEO of Actility

    A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication

  • This edition first published 2011 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    First edition published 2005

    Registered officeJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom

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    Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

    Hersent, Olivier.IP telephony : deploying VoIP protocols and IMS infrastructure / Olivier Hersent. 2nd ed.

    p. cm.Includes index.ISBN 978-0-470-66584-8 (cloth)1. Internet telephony. 2. Convergence (Telecommunication) I. Title.TK5105.8865.H47 20010004.695dc22


    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

    Print ISBN 9780470665848 (H/B)ePDF ISBN: 9780470973264oBook ISBN: 9780470973080

    Set in 10/12 Times-Roman by Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India


  • Contents

    Abbreviations ix

    Glossary xxi

    Preface xxix

    1 Multimedia Over Packet 11.1 Transporting voice, fax, and video over a packet network 1

    1.1.1 A Darwinian view of voice transport 11.1.2 Voice and video over IP with RTP and RTCP 5

    1.2 Encoding media streams 161.2.1 Codecs 161.2.2 DTMF 391.2.3 Fax 40

    2 H.323: Packet-based Multimedia Communications Systems 492.1 Introduction 49

    2.1.1 Understanding H.323 502.1.2 Development of the standard 522.1.3 Relation between H.323 and H.245 versions, H.323 annexes,

    and related specifications 552.1.4 Where to find the documentation 57

    2.2 H.323 step by step 582.2.1 The hello world case: simple voice call from terminal A

    to terminal B 58


    2.2.2 A more complex case: calling a public phone fromthe Internet using a gatekeeper 72

    2.2.3 The gatekeeper-routed model 792.2.4 H.323 calls across multiple zones or administrative domains 86

    2.3 Optimizing and enhancing H.323 952.3.1 Issues in H.323v1 952.3.2 The early H.245 procedure 992.3.3 The fast-connect procedure 992.3.4 H.245 tunneling 1032.3.5 Reverting to normal operation 1062.3.6 Using RAS properly and only when required 106

    2.4 Conferencing with H.323 1082.4.1 The MCU conference bridge, MC and MP subsystems 1082.4.2 Creating or joining a conference 1092.4.3 H.332 113

    2.5 Directories and numbering 1142.5.1 Introduction 1142.5.2 Contacting an email alias with H.323 and the DNS 1152.5.3 E164 numbers and IP telephony 116

    2.6 H.323 security 1242.6.1 Typical deployment cases 1242.6.2 H.235 131

    2.7 Supplementary services 1482.7.1 Supplementary services using H.450 1482.7.2 Proper use of H.450 supplementary services, future directions

    for implementation of supplementary services 1542.8 Future work on H.323 155

    3 The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) 1593.1 The origin and purpose of SIP 159

    3.1.1 From RFC 2543 to RFC 3261 1633.1.2 From RFC 3261 to 3GPP, 3GPP2 and TISPAN 166

    3.2 Overview of a simple SIP call 1673.2.1 Basic call scenario 1673.2.2 Syntax of SIP messages 169

    3.3 Call handling services with SIP 2193.3.1 Location and registration 2203.3.2 The proxy function, back to back user agents 2303.3.3 Some common services 2423.3.4 Multiparty conferencing 244

    3.4 SIP security 2503.4.1 Media security 2503.4.2 Message exchange security 251

  • CONTENTS vii

    3.5 Instant messaging (IM) and presence 2543.5.1 Common profile for instant messaging (CPIM) 2553.5.2 RFC 3265, Specific Event Notification 2603.5.3 RFC 3428: SIP extensions for instant messaging 266

    4 The 3GPP IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Architecture 2694.1 Introduction 269

    4.1.1 Centralized value added services platforms on switchedtelephone networks: the tromboning issue 269

    4.1.2 The Intelligent Network (IN) 2704.1.3 How VoIP solves the tromboning issue. The value added

    services architecture of 3GPP IMS 2704.1.4 The IMS architecture is ideal for mobile

    networks . . . but not only 2734.2 Overview of the IMS architecture 274

    4.2.1 Registration 2744.2.2 SIP session establishment in an IMS environment 2754.2.3 A few remarks on the IMS architecture 278

    4.3 The IMS CSCFs 2794.3.1 The Proxy-CSCF 2794.3.2 The Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF) and Application Servers (AS) 2824.3.3 The Media Resource Function (MRF) 286

    4.4 The full picture: 3GPP release 8, TISPAN 2884.4.1 The packet core domain: the evolved packet system 2894.4.2 The IMS domain 2994.4.3 Summary of SIP extensions required in an IMS network 311

    5 The Media Gateway to Media Controller Protocol (MGCP) 3135.1 Introduction: why MGCP? 313

    5.1.1 Stimulus protocols 3135.1.2 Decomposed gateways 3155.1.3 Some history 317

    5.2 MGCP 1.0 3185.2.1 The MGCP connection model 3215.2.2 The protocol 3235.2.3 Handling of fax 3505.2.4 Extensions for phone user interface control 354

    5.3 Sample MGCP call flows 3585.3.1 Call set-up 3585.3.2 DTMF tones 3645.3.3 Call release 364

    5.4 The future of MGCP 365

  • viii CONTENTS

    6 Advanced Topics: Call Redirection 3676.1 Call redirection in VoIP networks 367

    6.1.1 Call transfer, call forward, call deflection 3676.1.2 Summary of major issues 3686.1.3 Reference network configurations in the PSTN 3716.1.4 Reference network configurations with VoIP 3746.1.5 How to signal call transfer? 3876.1.6 VoIP call redirection and call routing 3886.1.7 Conclusion 390

    7 Advanced Topics: NAT Traversal 3937.1 Introduction to Network Address Translation 393

    7.1.1 One-to-one NAT 3937.1.2 NAPT 3947.1.3 Issues with NAT and NAPT 396

    7.2 Workarounds for VoIP when the network cannot be controlled 3987.2.1 Ringing the proper phone 3987.2.2 Using port forwarding to solve the wrong media

    address problem 3997.2.3 STUN 3997.2.4 Other proposals: COMEDIA and TURN 402

    7.3 Recommended network design for service providers 4047.3.1 Avoid NAT in the customer premises for VoIP 4057.3.2 Media proxies 4127.3.3 Security considerations 415

    7.4 Conclusion 416

    Annex 417

    Index 427

  • Abbreviations

    3GPP Third Generation Partnership ProjectA-BGF Access Border Gateway functionA-RACF Access RACFA/V Audio-visualAAD Average Acknowledgement DelayAAL2 ATM Adaptation Layer 2ACD Automatic Call DistributionACELP Algebraic-Code-Excited Linear-PredictionACF Admission ConfirmACL Access Control ListACM Address Complete MessageADEV Average Delay DeviationADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Mode ModulationADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber LineAES Advanced Encryption StandardAF Application FunctionAGCF Access Gateway Control FunctionAMF Access Management FunctionAMR Adaptive Multi-RateAMR-WB Adaptive Multi-Rate (Wide Band)AN-GW Access Network GatewayANDSF Access Network Discovery and Selection FunctionANM Answer MessageANSI American National Standard InstituteAOC Advice of ChargeAoR SIP Address of RecordAPDU Application Protocol Data Unit


    API Application Programming InterfaceARF Access Relay FunctionARJ Admission RejectARQ Admission RequestAS Application ServerASCII American Standard Code for Information InterchangeASF Application Server FunctionASN-1 Abstract Syntax Notation OneASP Application Service ProviderASR Automatic Speech Recognition or Answer Seizure RatioATM Asynchronous Transfer ModeAUCX Audit ConnectionAUEP Audit EndpointAVC Advanced Video CodingAVT Audio/Video TransportB2BUA Back-to-back User AgentBASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction CodeBBERF Bearer Binding and Event Reporting FunctionBCF Bandwidth ConfirmBER Basic Encoding RuleBGCF Breakout Control Gateway FunctionBGF Border Gateway FunctionBICC Bearer Independent Call ControlBNF Backus-Naur FormBRJ Bandwidth RejectBRQ Bandwidth RequestBTF Basic Transport FunctionC-BGF Core Border Gateway functionC-RACF Core RACFCA Call AgentCALEA Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement ActCallID Call IdentifierCBC Cipher Block ChainingCC CSRC CountCCF Charging Collector FunctionCCIR Consultative Committee for International Radio (ITU)CDMA C

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