* State the difference between Jointing and Pointing
* Sketch the main Joint profiles in use today
*Identify tools used for Jointing and Pointing
* State the sequence and times of when to joint and point.
Jointing & Pointing
When bricks have been laid to form a wall, the surplus mortar is scraped flush with surface of the brick face. This type of surface finish is called a flush finish.
Today, most brickwork is ‘jointed’ which means that the joints are finished as the work proceeds and therefore require no further attention.
‘Pointing’ is a term used to describe the process of finishing off joints that were raked out on the day the brickwork was built. Pointing is carried out after the brickwork is complete.
Sample PanelsOn larger sites, before commencement of any brickwork, sample brickpanels may be constructed and pointed to show how the finished product will look, giving architectural staff a chance to change the type or colour of pointing required.
This is because sometimes coloured mortar may be used for the joints.
Using Coloured Mortar
Two different mortar colours with the same brick
Shaping mortar jointsThe shape of brickwork joints is often done to match existing brickwork and often the client or the architect will specify that the joints be finished in a particular way in order to achieve a particular effect of the finished brickwork.
There are a number of jointing effects that can be used; below are some of the morecommon types of joint finishes.
One of the most important aspects of jointing up brickwork is to avoid smudging or staining the surface of the bricks.
Timing is probably the most important aspect of jointing up. The correct time to joint-up will be determined by the suction rate of the bricks being used and the weather conditions when the bricks were laid.
This type of finish is achieved by scraping or ‘ironing in’ the joint to the shape required by using a tool known as a jointer.
The jointer is rubbed along the joints to form a concave or half-round joint. The jointing tool must remain in contact with the brick arises above and below the bed joints to avoid a tramline effect on the surface of the joint. The cross joints should always be done first andcare is needed when finishing joints at external angles.
Note: Always joint into
The main body of Brickwork
Because it is important to start shaping the joints at exactly the right moment, you may have to joint the work in stages. During the summer months, it is usually necessary to joint-up every two or three courses in a length of wall typically built by one bricklayer. In colder weather or winter months, the timescale will be lengthened.
It may appear easy to achieve a high standard flush joint, but experience, care and attention are required if the joints are to be left looking truly flush.Flush joints are achieved by cleaning off excess surface mortar close to the surface of the brickwork and then, later on, brushing the surface with a light bristle brush to remove any crumbs. Great care should be taken to avoid making brush marks in the soft mortar. It is often advisable to leave the brushing until the work is complete, maybe the following morning.
Raked or square-recessed
After raking out, the surface of the joint is normally polished up to maximise the effectiveness of the joint. This can be achieved by using a square jointing tool. This type of joint does not shed water, so it is not suitable for exposed sites.
Raked or square-recessed joints are joints where the surface is a specified depth below the surface of the brick.
This is achieved by raking or scraping out the joint material using a tool called a ‘Chariot’or an improvised depth gauge which is usually a piece of timber with a nail inserted to the depth required.
Raked or square-recessed
A weatherstruck joint is formed using a pointing trowel. The joint has a surface, which slopes from the top to the bottom of the brick so that water can run off the surface of the joint. Vertical joints can have the joints sloping left or right but must be consistent throughout the wall surface.
Forming a vertical weathstruck joint
A Frenchman tool with a wooden batten, or pointing rule, to form a straight edge
Frenchman tool and pointing rule in use
Finishing Mortar Joints
Care should be taken when finishing mortar joints, otherwise the finished brickwork will look untidy.Finishing off at internal and external angles is just as important as finishing off face work on straight walls.
Internal jointing left to right Internal jointing should not be straight
Pointing is a term used to describe the process of finishing off joints that are raked out on the day the brickwork is built. It is carried out after the brickwork is complete. Sometimes the client or the architect will specify that the joints should be pointed to achieve a particular effect using a range of different joint finishes, (see shaping mortar joints), or a different colour may be used to contrast the finished brickwork.
When pointing new or old brickwork, the joints are raked out to a depth of between 12 and 15mm ready to receive the mortar.