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Pathophysiology Department of Pathophysiology Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine.

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  • Slide 1
  • Pathophysiology Department of Pathophysiology Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine
  • Slide 2
  • CHAPTER 1 General Introduction of Pathophysiology Main teaching content and Syllabus Why do we study pathophysiology What is pathophysiology?
  • Slide 3
  • Pathophysiology may be defined as the physiology of disease, of disordered function, or derangement of function seen in disease that is produced by the action of an etiologic agents on susceptible tissues or organs. Pathophysiology includes also the study of the mechanisms underlying disease. Concept of Pathophysiology
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  • Why do we study pathophysiology bridge subject basicsciences clinicalmedicine pathophysiology Pathophysiology is an important subject bridging Basic sciences and clinical medicine. Position
  • Slide 5
  • Main teaching content and Syllabus Fundamental pathological process Common changes of function, metabolism and structure occurred in the different diseases, e.g. Content Conspectus of disease The general concept of diseases and general etiology and pathogenesis of diseases. Systemic pathophysiology Systemic pathophysiology Heart failure, respiratory failure, hepatic failure, renal failure, e.g.
  • Slide 6
  • Syllabus Format Time Teaching content Lecture 42h Introduction; Conspectus of disease; Apoptosis Lecture 42h Introduction; Conspectus of disease; Apoptosis and related disease; Water and electrolytes and related disease; Water and electrolytes imbalance; Acid-base imbalance; Fever; Stress; imbalance; Acid-base imbalance; Fever; Stress; Hypoxia; DIC; Shock; Ischemia-reperfusion Hypoxia; DIC; Shock; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Respiratory failure; Heart failure; Hepatic injury; Respiratory failure; Heart failure; Hepatic failure; Renal failure. failure; Renal failure. Self-study Signal transduction and related disease. CBL 4h Four case; Group learning. CBL 4h Four case; Group learning.
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • CHAPTER 2 Conspectus of Disease Concepts of Health and DiseaseConcepts of Health and Disease Etiology of DiseaseEtiology of Disease Pathogenesis of DiseasePathogenesis of Disease Outcome of DiseaseOutcome of Disease
  • Slide 9
  • Health Concepts of Health and Disease The World Health Organization affirms that health is more than the absence of disease, but rather a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, This definition sets a lofty goal for patients seeking health as well as for health care professionals. health Factor in health physical well-being mental well-being social well-being
  • Slide 10
  • Sub-Health Sub-Health There is a situation, in which the person dose not show specific symptoms and signs of disease, but lives a low- quality of life both physically and mentally. angst Manifestation of sub-health Manifestation of sub-health physical sub-health: fatigue & disability; hyponoia; gastralgia; heart-throb, etc. gastralgia; heart-throb, etc. mental sub-health: angst; fidget; irascibility; insomnia, etc. social sub-health: not concerned with our roles within society as a whole. society as a whole. irascibility
  • Slide 11
  • Homeostasis Neural regulated Humoral regulated Signal regulated in cell disease is caused by the etiological factors. base of disease is deregulated homeostasis. Factor in disease Factor in disease Disease Disease is referred as aberrant manifestation of deregulated homeostasis caused by harmful agents. Disease is defined as an abnormal life process which is induced by disorders of homeostasis under the action of certain cause(s). deregulated
  • Slide 12
  • Senescence Senescence is a biological process of dyfunctional change by which organisms become less capable of maintaining physiological function and homeostasis with increasing survival. This leads to a reduced probability of reproduction and an increased susceptibility to death from both exogenous and endogenous causes.
  • Slide 13
  • Etiology of Disease Concept of Etiological Factors & Predisposing Etiologic factors involved in diseases include causative, predisposing and precipitating factors, which contributes to the onset of diseases. Etiological factors Etiological factors The factor that causes the disease and determine the clinical features of the disease Among the etiological factors, a wide range of extrinsic factors in the environment and intrinsic factors in the body must be considered.
  • Slide 14
  • Predisposing factors Predisposing factors The function of these factors is to intensify the effects of causative factors and promote the onset and development of diseases. precipitating factor The factors promotes the development of disease and influences the timing of illness onset. risk factors risk factors The risk factor concept is epistemological in nature: it is often not clear exactly what a risk factor contributes to understanding and explanation.
  • Slide 15
  • Classification of etiological factors biological agents Factors of environment Factors of environment physical agents chemical agents Genetic aberrancies may be caused by single or polygenic mutations. Inherited factors Inherited factors gene mutation genetic predisposition The genetic mutations cause problems only when a person is eposed to certain environmental agents. chromosomal aberration 21
  • Slide 16
  • Congenital factors Congenital factors The disorders are of a developmental nature and most of them are nongenetic. Nutritional imbalance Nutritional imbalance Either excesses or deficiencies of nutrients predispose cells to injury.
  • Slide 17
  • Immunological factors Immunological factors immunodeficiency disease autoimmune disease anaphylactic reaction Psychological and social factors Psychological and social factors Anxiety, strong or persistent psychological stimulation or stress may lead to mental illness and may be related to some diseases, such as hypertension, peptic ulcer, coronary heart disease, and depression.
  • Slide 18
  • Pathogenesis Pathogenesis of disease refers to the rules and mechanisms underlying the development or evolutin of diseases. It studies how the primary pathological agents cause disease in organism and how the disease develops. Basic Mechanism of Disease Neural mechanism Humoral mechanism Cellular mechanism Molecular mechanism
  • Slide 19
  • Neural mechanism Neural mechanism Neural system plays a central role in regulating entire life activities; therefore, the disorders in central nerve system will definitely affect the corresponding periphery system. Humoral mechanism Humoral mechanism hormones chemical mediators cytokines humoral factor Molecular mechanism Molecular mechanism Cellular mechanism Cellular mechanism
  • Slide 20
  • Neural mechanism Neural mechanism Neural system plays a central role in regulating entire life activities; therefore, the disorders in central nerve system will definitely affect the corresponding periphery system. Humoral mechanism Humoral mechanism hormones chemical mediators cytokines humoral factor Molecular mechanism Molecular mechanism Cellular mechanism Cellular mechanism
  • Slide 21
  • General Rules for Pathogenesis of Diseases Damage and anti-damage responses Damage and anti-damage responses Damages are usually made when a variety of harmful insults attack the body. During this process, anti- damage responses are also induced in the body to restore the normal situation. pain Infection (fever) plasma loss pain Infection (fever) plasma loss shock ischemia & injury of Cells Bp, blood volume shock ischemia & injury of Cells Bp, blood volume Severe burn Damage Anti-damage Stress WBC, Blood coagulation SAMS excitation(+) Stress WBC, Blood coagulation SAMS excitation(+) C.O, Blood redistribution C.O, Blood redistribution Rehabilitation blood flow heart & brain Rehabilitation blood flow heart & brain Anti-infection, plasma loss SAMS: Sympathetico-adrenal-medullay system; c.o: cardiac output
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  • Slide 23
  • Alternation of cause and result Alternation of cause and result In the evolution of a disease, the cause of the disease can produce a result, and this result can also become another cause in the evolution proess of disease. benign circle vicious circle Local-systemic relationship Local-systemic relationship Diseases are generally systemic whereas the local pathological alterations caused by insults are recognized to be representative of systemic diseases.
  • Slide 24
  • Outcome of Disease The course of a disease varies. An acute disease has relatively sudden onset and lasts for a short term, whereas a chronic disease, sometimes begins with an acute phase, usually lasts for a long period of time. There are generally three types of outcomes for a disease. Outcome of Disease Complete recovery Incomplete recovery Death
  • Slide 25
  • Complete recovery This is best outcome of a disease. In this case, the pathologically altered metabolism, structure and function are perfectly restored, and the symptoms and signs of the disease disappear entirely. Incomplete recovery The main symptoms disappear but some pathological changes are left behind, namely sequela. Sequela is generally brought about by the compensatory response to maintain a relatively normal activity.
  • Slide 26
  • Traditionally death Traditionally death agonal stage agonal stage stage of clinical death stage of clinical death stage of biological death stage of biological death Death The cessation of heart-beats and breath is used as the criterion of death of a body. Brain death Brain death The functions of cerebrum and brain stem stop forever.
  • Slide 27
  • irreversible coma. cessation of spontaneous respiration. norpurposeful movement. absence of cephalic reflexes. absence of any electric activity of the brain. absence of cerebral circulation. Criteria for brain death
  • Slide 28
  • When cerebral function is lost, the reticular activating system and brain stem can maintain a crude waking state known as a vegetative state. Human Vegetable Human vegetable: Human vegetable: Terri Schiavo
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