Home >Documents >PERSPECTIVES Savings Banks in India, Mexico, Tanzania and ... 56.pdf · Tanzania country report:...

PERSPECTIVES Savings Banks in India, Mexico, Tanzania and ... 56.pdf · Tanzania country report:...

Date post:25-Jul-2020
Category:
View:2 times
Download:0 times
Share this document with a friend
Transcript:
  • WHO ARE THE CLIENTSOF SAVINGS BANKS?

    A Poverty Assessment of the Clients reached bySavings Banks in India, Mexico, Tanzania and Thailand

    PER

    SPEC

    TIV

    ES56

    April 2008

  • WHO ARE THE CLIENTSOF SAVINGS BANKS?

    A Poverty Assessment of the Clients reached by SavingsBanks in India, Mexico, Tanzania and Thailand

    A study commissioned by the Consultative Group to Assistthe Poor (CGAP) and conducted by WSBI, in cooperation withOxford Policy Management (OPM).

    By Stephen Peachey

  • 4

  • WHO ARE THE CLIENTSOF SAVINGS BANKS?

    A Poverty Assessment of the Clients reached by SavingsBanks in India, Mexico, Tanzania and Thailand

    Table of Contents

    Foreword 7

    1. Executive summary 9A. Significant depth of outreach 9B. Active product use 11C. Direct distribution and the right incentives are crucial 12D. Conclusions 12

    2. Overview report 15A. Preface 15B. Framing the survey 16C. Key findings 18

    Significant Outreach 18Direct distribution is crucial 20Clients’ gender structure 20Socioeconomic reach varies by location 21Product use varies by socioeconomic type 22Methodology 22Use of accounts 24

    D. Conclusion 26

    3. Country reports 27A. Preface 27

    India country report: National Savings Institute (NSI) 29A. Overview 29B. Summary indicators of NSI’s outreach 30C. Detailed results of the survey at sample site level 31D. Grossing-up to estimate national outreach 35E. Differences in activity rates by poverty band 37F. Possible specific reasons for the NSI client profile 38G. Conclusions 40

    5

  • Mexico country report: Banco Nacional de Ahorro yServicios Financieros - BANSEFI 41A. Overview 41B. Summary indicators of Bansefi’s outreach 42C. Detailed results of the survey at sample site level 43D. Grossing-up to estimate national outreach 47E. Differences in activity rates by poverty band 49F. Conclusions 52

    Tanzania country report: Tanzania Postal Bank (TPB) 53A. Overview 53B. Summary indicators of TPB’s outreach 54C. Detailed results of the survey at sample site level 55D. Grossing-up to estimate national outreach 58E. Differences in activity rates by poverty band 60F. Conclusions 62

    Thailand country report: Government Savings Bank (GSB) 63A. Overview 63B. Summary indicators of GSB and Peoples Bank outreach 65C. Detailed results of the survey at sample site level 66D. Grossing-up to estimate national outreach 68E. Differences in activity rates by poverty band 70F. Conclusions 72

    6

  • 77

    I am happy to present a new building block in the series of studies in thefield of Access to Finance and Microfinance published by WSBI in thePerspectives series.1

    The study you are about to read demonstrates that savings banks are verylarge providers of financial services in all socio-economic segments, eventhe very poor. This means that savings banks hold great potential fordelivering accessible financial services for all.

    Another important lesson for all practitioners active in access to financeand microfinance is that direct distribution combined with the right set ofincentives is a crucial factor behind pro-poor outreach.

    These findings contribute to WSBI’s efforts in raising awareness on thespecial role savings banks fulfil in delivering accessible financial services intheir countries. In view of their outreach savings banks hold a greatpotential for the continuous expansion of access to finance worldwide.

    Chris De NooseWSBI Managing Director

    FOREWORD

    1 Perspectives 47: The provision of Microfinance services by Savings Banks: selected experiencesfrom Africa, Asia and Latin AmericaPerspectives 49: Access to Finance – What does it mean and how do savings banks fosteracces.Perspectives 50: Microcredit in Europe – The Experience of the Savings BanksPerspectives 52: Savings Banks and the Double Bottom-line: a profitable and accessiblemodel of finance.

  • 88

  • 9

    The World Savings Banks Institute (WSBI), in cooperation with OxfordPolicy Management (OPM), conducted a study commissioned by CGAP toanalyze the poverty level of clients reached by savings banks worldwide.The study examined how well savings banks reached clients at differentpoverty levels and how different clients use financial products. Four savingsbanks from India, Mexico, Tanzania, and Thailand were selected.Client surveys included a broad set of questions about each householdsituation based on CGAP’s Poverty Assessment Tool (PAT).2

    A. Significant depth of outreach

    The four savings banks are large providers of financial services intheir countries, and they each have significant outreach amongthe poorest households. They actually have a larger outreach amongthe poorest households than most other pro-poor institutions in theircountries. For example, although only 13% of NSI (India) clients areamong the poorest households, this percentage represents six millionpoor households.

    Each of the savings banks surveyed serve more women than men fromthe poorest households, even when they tend to have more male clientsoverall. The surveys also revealed a significant rural outreach thatmatches the rural share of the respective country’s population as a whole.

    1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    2. More information about CGAP’s PAT can be found at “Assessing the Relative Poverty ofMicrofinance Clients: A CGAP Operational Tool” http://www.cgap.org/portal/binary/com.epicentric.contentmanagement.servlet.ContentDeliveryServlet/Documents/TechnicalTool_05_overview.pdf

  • 10

    Nam

    eN

    SIBa

    nsef

    iTP

    BG

    SBN

    atio

    nal S

    avin

    gs In

    stitu

    teBa

    nco

    del A

    horro

    Nac

    iona

    lTa

    nzan

    ia P

    osta

    l Ban

    kG

    over

    nmen

    t Sav

    ings

    Ban

    ky

    Serv

    icios

    Fin

    ancie

    ros

    Coun

    try

    Indi

    aM

    exico

    Tanz

    ania

    Thai

    land

    Type

    and

    ser

    vice

    sG

    over

    nmen

    t sav

    ings

    -onl

    y St

    and-

    alon

    e ba

    nk w

    ith o

    wn

    Post

    al s

    avin

    gs b

    ank

    offe

    ring

    Full-

    serv

    ice re

    tail

    bank

    with

    ow

    npr

    ovid

    edsc

    hem

    e of

    ten

    acce

    ssed

    bran

    ch n

    etw

    ork,

    offe

    ring

    savi

    ngs,

    paym

    ents

    ,and

    sm

    all

    bran

    ch n

    etw

    ork,

    offe

    ring

    savi

    ngs,

    thro

    ugh

    post

    -offi

    ces

    savi

    ngs

    and

    paym

    ent s

    ervi

    ces

    scal

    e cr

    edits

    thro

    ugh

    its o

    wn

    paym

    ents

    ,and

    full

    rang

    e of

    cre

    dit,

    but n

    o cr

    edit

    bran

    ches

    and

    pos

    t-offi

    ces

    inclu

    ding

    micr

    ocre

    dit

    Num

    ber o

    f 55

    mill

    ion

    4 m

    illio

    n 1

    mill

    ion

    36 m

    illio

    nAc

    coun

    ts(1

    for e

    very

    16

    adul

    ts)

    (1 fo

    r eve

    ry 1

    7 ad

    ults

    )(1

    for e

    very

    20

    adul

    ts)

    (2 fo

    r eve

    ry 3

    adu

    lts)

    Num

    ber o

    f Loa

    nsN

    one

    Non

    e<

    10,0

    001.

    4 m

    illio

    n

    Num

    ber o

    f Out

    lets

    No

    bran

    ches

    506

    own

    bran

    ches

    and

    21

    ow

    n br

    anch

    es60

    0 ow

    n br

    anch

    es15

    0,00

    0 po

    st o

    ffice

    slin

    ks to

    loca

    l Caj

    as10

    5 po

    st o

    ffice

    s

    Clie

    nts

    -50

    mill

    ion

    adul

    ts-

    2.7

    mill

    ion

    adul

    ts-

    1.5

    mill

    ion

    adul

    ts-

    14 m

    illio

    n to

    tal a

    dults

    -

    6 m

    illio

    n in

    poo

    rest

    third

    -0.

    9 m

    illio

    n in

    poo

    rest

    third

    -0.

    2 m

    illio

    n in

    poo

    rest

    third

    -4.

    5 m

    illio

    n in

    poo

    rest

    third

    Tab

    le 1

    : Su

    mm

    ary

    pro

    file

    s o

    f th

    e p

    arti

    cip

    atin

    g s

    avin

    gs

    ban

    ks

  • Figure 1: Percentage of clients in socio-economic group

    B. Active Product Use

    The study revealed interesting data on client product use. The poorestclients in all institutions tend to use their savings accounts actively.For example, the poorest third of client from Bansefi (Mexico) arevery active savers, and their net savings equals those of the better-off households. For TBP (Tanzania) and GSB (Thailand), savings productuse is more evenly spread across the socio-economic spectrum thanis credit product use (that is, while all clients use savings products, creditproducts are mainly used by better-off clients).

    11

    NSI

    13% 28%

    59%

    BANSEFI

    32%

    35% 33%

    TPB

    14% 24%

    61%

    GSB

    32%

    26% 42%

    ■ Poorest third ■ Middle third ■ Better-off third

  • C. Direct Distribution and the Right Incentives are Crucial

    Distribution mechanisms appear to affect the extent of outreach. Both NSI(India) and TPB (Tanzania) rely on indirect distribution channels, and bothserve a greater percentage of better-off households. By contrast, Bansefi(Mexico) and GSB (Thailand), which have their own branch network, andthus direct distribution channels, have a client profile that more closelyreflects the population (that is, they serve a greater percentage of thepoorest households). While product design and physical accessibilityare important, direct ownership of distribution networks appearsto be a critical factor in reaching poorer clients.

    Incentives are also clearly important. Staff at Bansefi (Mexico) andGSB (Thailand) – the two banks with significant depth of outreach –know that the pro-poor products are helping to build a stronger clientbase into which they can sell other services. By contrast, the incentives forNSI (India) reward maximizing the value of savings – not the number ofcustomers reached – hence, the predominance of better-off clients inNSI’s customer base.

    D. Conclusions

    The study demonstrates that savings banks are very large providersof financial services in all socio-economic segments. They balancetheir breadth of outreach (the proportion of the population they serve)with a significant depth of outreach (reaching a large number of thepoorest households), especially in rural zones, but also in urban areas.This means that savings banks hold great potential for deliveringaccessible financial services for all.

    The study also reveals that financial institutions should lookcarefully into their distribution policies. An inexpensive and simplesavings account, a large distribution network, or simply adding a micro-credit component are important, but they are not enough to guaranteedeep outreach. The message emerging quite strongly is that directcontrol of customer interface (through the bank’s own channels) andhaving the right staff incentives in place are both needed to turn apassive commitment to universal access into an active reach into to thepoorest segments of society.

    12

  • 13

    Box 1: In a nutshell

    Size Matters: As large providers of financial services, savings bankshave a larger outreach among the poorest households than mostother pro-poor institutions.

    Significant Depth of Outreach: Savings banks have a significantoutreach among the poorest households in their countries, especiallyin rural areas and among women.

    Active Product Use: The poorest clients actively use their savingsaccounts.

    Direct Distribution and Right Incentives are Crucial: While productdesign and physical accessibility are important for financialinstitutions, direct distribution combined with the right set ofincentives seems to be the crucial factor behind pro-poor outreach.

  • 14

  • 15

    A. Preface

    The background to this study is earlier research by the Consultative Groupto Assist the Poor (CGAP) and then World Savings Banks Institute (WSBI)/European Savings Banks Group (ESBG) into the number of accountsbeing serviced across the developing world at a group of institutions thathave as part of their core mandate the expansion of access to finance forall. In some cases these institutions are explicitly established as microfinanceinstitutions but others stem from older traditions of postal banking,savings banking, agricultural and rural finance, credit unions andco-operatives. The earlier CGAP [2004]3 paper identified a total of some750 million account relationships at such institutions worldwide, andwithin this almost 50% were postal savings accounts and a further 20%an estimate of potential non-postal savings accounts. Later research byWSBI-ESBG4 greatly expanded CGAP’s original estimate and identified acombined total of postal and non-postal savings accounts across thedeveloping world in excess of one billion accounts. This brought the totalnumber of potentially accessible accounts to around 1 billion or enoughfor one in every two and a half developing world adults to have one.Clearly this is a huge potential platform for access to finance but just howmany of the relationships represented by postal and other savings bankaccounts really are with adults from the poorest households? This studywas commissioned by CGAP to address just that issue.

    2. OVERVIEW REPORT

    3. CGAP (2004), 'Occasional Paper N° 8 - Financial institutions with a 'double bottom line' -Implications for the future of Microfinance', CGAP, Washington, October 2004.

    4. WSBI (2006a), 'Access to Finance - what does it mean and how do savings banks fosteraccess', WSBI Perspectives Series N° 49, World Savings Banks Institute, Brussels, January 2006.

  • Four savings banks representing a good geographical spread and allmajor strands of the membership of WSBI were chosen to test exactlyhow many poor customers they reach and whether their poor customersuse the services on offer any differently than do better off customers.The tool used was CGAP’s PAT (Poverty Assessment Tool) applied for thefirst time across savings banks.

    This overview report summarises the findings of the study. Following thisreport, there are also four more detailed country reports for each of thefour WSBI members selected to participate in the study. Those institutionswere National Savings Institute (India), Banco Nacional de Ahorro yServicios Financieros – BANSEFI (Mexico), Tanzania Postal Bank and ThaiGovernment Savings Bank.

    The author gratefully acknowledges the excellent advice and input to thisstudy from staff and management at all four savings banks as well as thefour research agencies involved in each study. In addition the authorwould like to express his profound thanks for the unwavering support forthe study from CGAP and the Joint Secretariat of the European SavingsBank Group and the World Savings Banks Institute.

    B. Framing the survey

    The first stage of using the CGAP PAT tool was to choose the four savingsbanks to be representative of the spread of savings banks across thedeveloping world. This required capturing the four main institutionalstrands of WSBI’s membership:

    ■ full-service retail banks with own branch network and a range ofsavings and credit products;

    ■ stand-alone banks with their own branches, offering savings andpayments services but no credit;

    ■ distinct postal savings schemes and banks that usually cannot offercredits but sometimes do

    ■ government savings schemes often accessed through post-offices.

    The four participating savings banks were also chosen to give a goodgeographical spread and are profiled on page 10.

    16

  • National Savings Institute of India (NSI) is an example of a centralisednational savings scheme accessed mostly through post offices but alsostate banks and a small but growing number of private banks. The basicpassbook and certificated savings products are augmented by a numberof tax-advantaged products to foster longer term, higher value savings.NSI does no lending at all. One very specific feature of NSI’s operations isthat savings mobilisation is not controlled by NSI but undertaken byhome-visiting sales forces from the State Collectorates for Small Savings,which are incentivized on the volume of savings gathered at State level.In the case of India only one State – Andhra Pradesh – was chosen for thestudy as reasonably representative of both the country and NSI’s operations.

    Tanzania Postal Bank (TPB), like NSI, distributes its basic savings productsthrough an agency arrangement with the post-office and in addition,through its own branches. The postal savings bank is a form prevalentacross Africa and in common with many other African postal banks, thepost-office gives TPB a bigger network of outlets than the whole of therest of the banking system combined. TPB is unusual, however, in that itoffers savings and credit, including a group-based microcredit.

    Bansefi of Mexico is a reformed state savings bank now acting as theapex organisation for the local savings and credit movement in Mexico(so-called Cajas de Ahorro y Credito Popular). Bansefi itself, however,does no lending and only offers a mix of short-term and long-termsavings accounts as well as payments services. The offer includes specialaccounts designed for people receiving social payments, which can,nevertheless, be credited with other sources of income and funds to actjust like other savings/payments accounts.

    Government Savings Bank of Thailand (GSB) is one of three majorstate-owned banks. It has the role of fostering savings and providingretail credits to both individuals and small businesses and has the thirdlargest network of the banking system as a whole. As part of a widergovernment programme to tackle rural poverty in particular, GSB becameone of the channels for a number of government supported lendingprogrammes. The two most important of these were a revolvingvillage banking fund to support collective investment projects andthe Peoples Bank programme to provide entry-level microcredits toindividual entrepreneurs emerging from the collective, village-leveldevelopment effort.

    17

  • For each of these participating savings bank, three representative samplingsites were chosen – a metropolitan urban area (usually the capital city), aperi-urban area (a mid-sized town) and a rural area. The separate countryreports explain the sampling methodology. At each site some 150~200randomly chosen households were surveyed, as were 100 householdscontaining a savings bank client. All households answered the samequestionnaire on household structure, employment and schooling,nutrition, tenure and ownership of assets. The mix of each participatingsaving bank’s client base could then be identified.

    The tool used to do this was CGAP’s Poverty Assessment Tool (PAT)5,which gives a way of identifying where on the general spectrum ofsocioeconomic wellbeing in each country the clients of any financialinstitution are to be found. The mix of each participating saving bank’sclient base can then be presented as in the pie charts reproducedopposite. Each segment shows the proportion of each bank’s total adultclient base coming from the poorest third of all households (the blacksegments), the middle third (grey segments) or the best-off third (whitesegments). At the same time estimates can be made as to how manyadults are reached in total and, given the focus of this study, from thepoorest third of all households. These are shown for each participatingsavings bank in the text next to the relevant pie chart. The derivation ofthese estimates is explained in detail in the individual country reports thataccompany this summary report.

    C. Key findings

    Significant OutreachAll four participating savings banks reach significant numbersof adults from the poorest households. There are, however, cleardifferences in the balance of that penetration across the socio-economic spectrum. NSI India and TPB Tanzania show much morebias towards adults from better off households than do Bansefi,Mexico and GSB, Thailand. Interestingly, Bansefi reaches across thesocio-economic spectrum although it doesn’t offer any credit services,whereas adults from the poorest households are under-represented atTPB despite its group-based microcredit.

    18

    5. More information about CGAP’s PAT can be found at “Assessing the Relative Poverty ofMicrofinance Clients: A CGAP Operational Tool” http://www.cgap.org/portal/binary/com.epicentric.contentmanagement.servlet.ContentDeliveryServlet/Documents/TechnicalTool_05_overview.pdf

  • 19

    Figure 2: Significant outreach

    ■ Adults from poorest third of households ■ Middle third ■ Better-off third

    Who is Reached? Participating Institutions’ Distributionand Product Range

    Own branches only 2.7 million adults 14 million total adults0.9 million in poorest third 4.5 million in poorest third

    Limited own branches+ agency network 1.5 million adults

    0.2 million inpoorest third

    Only using agents 50 million adults(mostly postal) 6 million in poorest third

    Distribution Savings only Payments, Full retailsavings and bank

    Services limited credit

    BANSEFI, Mexico

    TPB, Tanzania

    32%

    35% 33%

    14%

    61%

    24%

    NSI, India

    13%

    59%

    28%

    GSB, Thailand

    32%

    26% 42%

  • Direct Distribution is CrucialNSI and TPB both rely mainly on indirect distribution while BansefiMexico and GSB have their own branch networks. The method ofdistribution is crucial for reaching poor clients–probably evenmore than the range of services offered. Pro-poor programmesrun by savings banks with their own branch networks and dedicatedstaff, can be internally as well as externally, marketed. This can givethese savings banks an explicit pro-poor dimension to the moregeneral commitment that all savings banks have to providing accessto financial services for all.

    Clients’ Gender Structure Looking at the gender structure of the client base shows that all thesavings banks surveyed serve more women than men from thepoorest third of households even where they service more maleclients overall. The contrast in gender structure is particularly visiblein India but also in Tanzania. Women significantly outnumber menamong clients drawn from the poorest households. Howver, in boththese cases penetration of poorer households is much lower thanpenetration of better off households.

    By contrast, Bansefi in Mexico and GSB in Thailand both have a broadoutreach across the socioeconomic spectrum particularly amongwomen.

    Another common feature is that the participating savings banksgenerally have banking relationships with only one adult in eachclient household.

    Table 2: Female~Male split of client base – all client householdsand those in the poorest third compared

    All h’holds Poorest

    NSI, India 29:71 85: 15

    TPB, Tanzania 30:70 55:45

    Bansefi, Mexico 76:24 77:23

    GSB, Thailand 68:32 66:34

    20

  • Table 3: Average number of clients per client household –all households and the poorest third compared

    All h’holds Poorest

    NSI, India 1.05 1.00

    TPB, Tanzania 1.18 1.13

    Bansefi, Mexico 1.10 1.15

    GSB, Thailand 1.41 1.37

    Table 4: Penetration at household level versus adult level –poorest third of households only

    H’hold level Adult level

    NSI, India 10% 3~4%

    TPB, Tanzania 8~9% 4%

    Bansefi, Mexico 10% 4%

    GSB, Thailand 62% 31%

    Socioeconomic Reach varies by LocationAll the savings banks surveyed have a significant rural outreachthat is at least as marked as that of the population as a whole.

    Looking specifically at NSI, India, adults from the best-off householdsare very strongly over-represented at the peri-urban location and showa similar (albeit less marked) bias at the rural location. A similar patternemerges for TPB in rural and peri-urban Tanzania. Both locations show amarked over-weighting towards the better off and the stronger biasis evident at the rural location where TPB entirely relies on the post-office for distribution. By contrast in metropolitan Dar-es-Salaam,where TPB relies more on its own branches, no obvious bias is seen.

    Table 5: Rural share of all adults and clients comparedby savings bank and country

    All adults Clients

    NSI, India 73% 78%

    TPB, Tanzania 82% 80%

    Bansefi, Mexico 43% 43%

    GSB, Thailand 67% 71%

    21

  • A very different picture emerges for Bansefi, Mexico. In all threelocations the client base matches the relevant local population profile,despite those profiles differing markedly. This is all the more remarkablegiven Bansefi’s low overall penetration, which could so easily allow itto get diverted into serving one particular sub-segment.

    GSB, Thailand shows a similar capacity to match its client base to thelocal population profile despite these profiles differing markedly bylocation. This is unsurprising given how large a bank GSB is. It reachestwo thirds of all Thai households and it would be much moresurprising is if it could do this by focusing on particular socioeconomicsub-segments of the population.

    Extra details at sampling site level strengthen and nuance the firstsignificant finding of the study that distribution strategy is crucial to asavings bank’s capacity to reach across the socioeconomic spectrum:

    ■ TPB’s best penetration of adults from the poorest householdsoccurs where it has the most control of distribution;

    ■ Bansefi shows that combining an explicitly pro-poor savings &payments account with control of distribution allows even a smallsavings bank to reach the poor;

    ■ and GSB shows that large full-service retail savings banks matchlocal population profiles.

    This means that control of distribution combined with pro-poorproducts allows savings banks to match local socioeconomicprofiles and deliver universal access country-wide.

    Product Use varies by Socioeconomic TypeWhen it came to linking survey results to data on client product use,the study revealed interesting differences in the sort of relationshipeach savings bank has with its clients.

    MethodologyFor NSI India, its outsourced distribution means that it has noindividual client data at all. TPB Tanzania has a client database butthe contact details are limited to postal not physical addresses.Matching just on name, age and post-box proved impossible.

    22

  • Nevertheless, in both countries it was still possible to find outsomething about how actively clients from different points along thesocioeconomic spectrum access available services. This was done bysampling separately a selection of clients intercepted at post-officesor branches of the participating savings bank and comparing thesewith clients found in randomly sampled control group households.

    Table 6: Socioeconomic profile of active versus all clients –NSI India

    Active All clients

    Poorest third 18% 13%

    Middle third 22% 28%

    Best-off third 60% 59%

    Table 7: Socioeconomic profile of active versus all clients –TPB Tanzania

    Active All clients

    Poorest third 12% 14%

    Middle third 36% 24%

    Best-off third 53% 61%

    Table 8: Socioeconomic profile of credit versus savings clients –TPB

    Credit Savings

    Poorest third 7% 14%

    Middle third 15% 24%

    Best-off third 78% 61%

    Both pairs of distributions match quite closely – certainly withinthe bounds of statistical significance. A greater contrast is evidentbetween TPB’s personal credit and savings clients.

    Much more was possible at Bansefi, Mexico, where contact detailsgenerally included a physical address, although at the rural sampling sitethese were often not specific enough to find clients in poorer areas.6

    23

    6. It was possible to overcome the weaknesses of the contact details in rural Mexico throughweighting. Households at non-specific addresses with no client in them had a similar profileto those households at non-specific addresses where a client could be traced. This lattergroup was weighted up accordingly.

  • Use of AccountsThe first comparison made was to look at how many accounts clientsfrom the poorest third of households used and what sort of savingsbalance they were building up as against averages for clients from thebest-off third of households. What is striking is how actively clientsfrom the poorest third of households use their accounts and howmuch net new saving they do.

    The need of the poorest to accumulate savings in accounts that canalso handle short-term payments turnover is evident from thedifferent mix of products held by the two groups.

    There were some problems at GSB Thailand with the quality ofrecorded contact addresses but fortunately it had very good recordsof client national identity numbers. This allowed robust electronictracking of clients despite GSB’s very large client base.

    It was then possible to make comparisons between those clients thatonly save and those that borrow in some way, as well as betweenthose borrowing from GSB and those borrowing under the PeoplesBank microcredit scheme.

    Clearly the Peoples Bank microcredit scheme reaches furthest into thepoorest households but the GSB savings product is solidly distributedacross the socioeconomic spectrum and even some of its own lendingproducts reach the poorest households (albeit with very lowpenetration).

    Table 9: Bansefi client use of savings accountsby socioeconomic band

    Poorest Best-off

    Number of accounts 1.1 1.4

    of which zero balance 1% 18%

    zero turnover 10% 15%

    Transactions per year 18 9

    Average balance US$70 US$135

    Net saving in year US$45 US$ 45

    24

  • Table 10: Bansefi mix of accounts held by clientsocioeconomic band

    Poorest Best-off

    Pro-poor transactions a/c 56% 38%

    Ordinary transactions a/c 37% 29%

    Long-term savings a/c 7% 33%

    Table 11: Socioeconomic profile of savers versus borrowers –GSB Thailand

    Savers only Borrowers

    Poorest third 38% 23%

    Middle third 38% 37%

    Best-off third 24% 40%

    Table 12: Socioeconomic profile of Peoples Bank versusGSB borrowers

    Peoples Bank GSB only

    Poorest third 50% 8%

    Middle third 34% 37%

    Best-off third 16% 55%

    Table 13: GSB client use of savings accounts by socioeconomicband

    Poorest Best-off

    Accounts per saver 1.2 1.5

    of which zero balance 11% 10%

    Average balance US$230 US$430

    One reason that the Peoples Bank microcredit reaches its targetmarket is that it is delivered by specialist mobile loan officersoperating out of the main GSB branch network. These are equippedwith hand-held devices that allow them to undertake all relevantbanking operations while with the client. As a result, the profile ofPeoples Bank borrowers via GSB is the mirror image of GSB’s ownborrowers and 90% of the Peoples Bank borrowers have a GSBsavings account.

    25

  • It is clear from all this that adults from the poorest households can bereached with a combined savings and payments account. The exactform probably does not matter too much but it must genuinelymeet both needs and it must be presented in a way that makesclear its usefulness to this target market. There are also further clearindications that the way credit products are distributed throughsavings banks is the main factor determining whether or not theyreach the poor. In a poor developing country such as Tanzania with ageneralised shortage of consumer credit, just launching a group-basedmicrocredit appears to be a way of the better off informally employedgetting the same access to credit as is generally only available to thesalaried. By contrast, even though the Peoples Bank microcredit is moreexpensive than ordinary GSB credits, it reaches its target market becauseit is delivered directly to that market but in a way that also opens upsavings services.

    D. Conclusion

    This study has shown that the CGAP PAT methodology allows a savingsbank to better understand the balance between its breadth of outreach(what proportion of the population it serves) and the depth of itsoutreach (whether it truly serves the poor as well as the better off).

    Of particular value to practitioners are the indications from this studythat just having an inexpensive and simple savings account and a bigdistribution network (as in India for example) is not enough to guaranteereally deep outreach. Nor is it enough to add a few specialist microcreditproducts to a traditional range of savings and payments products (as inTanzania). The message emerging quite strongly is that someelement of direct control of the customer interface is needed toturn a passive commitment to universal access into an active reachdownwards to the poorest segments of society.

    Incentives are also clearly important – staff at the two banks with significantdepth of outreach (Mexico and Thailand) know that the pro-poorproducts are helping to build a stronger client base into which they cansell other services. By contrast, in India, the incentives are aboutmaximising the value of savings not the number of customers reached,hence the predominance of better off men in NSI’s customer base.

    26

  • 27

    A. Preface

    The present country reports were built around CGAP’s Poverty AssessmentTool (PAT)7, which gives a way of assessing where on the generalspectrum of socioeconomic wellbeing in each country the clients of anyfinancial institution are to be found. In particular the technique is a costeffective way of assessing whether a financial institution provides trulyuniversal access to households spread evenly across the socioeconomicspectrum or whether it is more a niche player dealing with householdsfrom only one part of the spectrum. Based on surveyed penetration thestudy estimated the overall outreach each savings bank has within itshome country (i.e. the total number of households and adults served).It also estimated depth of outreach (how many of the poorest householdsand adults are served). A secondary objective was to identify whichproducts were used by clients and whether this differed by socio-economic status.

    Surveys were commissioned from professional market research agenciesin each country with a mix of randomly sampled households and clienthouseholds asked a broadly standard set of questions about their socio-economic situation. Sampling was always done in three types of location(metropolitan, peri-urban and rural) to capture any geographicdifferences in poverty levels as well as the typical spread of savings bankbranch networks. The results of the surveys were then gathered andanalysed using the PAT tool to place each client household in one of threesocioeconomic groups (the poorest third of households, the middle thirdor the best-off third).

    3. COUNTRY REPORTS

    7. More information about CGAP’s PAT can be found at “Assessing the Relative Poverty ofMicrofinance Clients: A CGAP Operational Tool” http://www.cgap.org/portal/binary/com.epicentric.contentmanagement.servlet.ContentDeliveryServlet/Documents/TechnicalTool_05_overview.pdf

  • After identifying differences in the relative socioeconomic mix of clienthouseholds and calculating the percentage penetration of the savingsbank in each group, other socioeconomic characteristics such as genderand location were analysed. Then, where data allowed, the analysis ofproduct use was undertaken.

    The following country reports present the findings for National SavingsInstitute (India), Banco Nacional de Ahorro y Servicios Financieros –BANSEFI (Mexico), Tanzania Postal Bank, and Government Savings Bankof Thailand.

    28

  • INDIA COUNTRY REPORT:NATIONAL SAVINGS INSTITUTE (NSI)

    A. Overview

    The National Savings Institute of India is an example of a centralisednational savings scheme accessed mostly through post offices but alsostate banks and a small but growing number of private banks. The basicpassbook and certificated savings products are augmented by a numberof products with different tax features aimed at fostering longer term,higher value savings. NSI does no lending. Distribution and servicing ofproducts is not controlled by NSI but subcontracted to State Collectoratesfor Small Savings plus the Post Office and partner banks. NSI does, however,handle product design and some high level marketing. Postal savingsaccounts are by far the most significant of the products in numbers termsand the focus of this study – 55 million accounts are recorded as open8;about one account for every 13 adults.

    Sampling the whole of India was not practical within the budget of thisproject and the State of Andhra Pradesh was chosen as reasonablyrepresentative of both the country and NSI’s operations. Andhra Pradeshis India’s fifth largest state both by population and geographical area,and home to some 76 million people at the time of the last census(2001). About three quarters of these live in rural areas. The state capital– Hyderabad – ranks sixth among India’s large, million-plus cities.Sampling took place in the capital and in a typical peri-urban district maintown – Nizamabad – and in Nizamabad’s surrounding rural areas.

    The survey indicates mixed breadth of outreach by sample site. At house-hold level this ranged from 6% in Metropolitan Hyderabad through 23%in Peri-urban Nizamabad rising to 26% in rural areas. Reflecting the factthat in client households NSI typically only has an account relationshipwith only one member, of that household, penetration of adults is lower– rising from 2% for Metropolitan Hyderabad through 7% for peri-urbanNizamabad to 9% in the rural area. This would give a weighted marketpenetration of about 8% or one in every 12 adults – not inconsistent withthe accounts-based figure given above.

    29

    8. CGAP (2004), «Occasional Paper N° 8 – Financial Institutions with a «Double Bottom Line»:Implications for the Future of Microfinance», CGAP, Washington, October 2004.

  • In terms of depth of outreach, the survey also indicates a mixed picture.In Metropolitan Hyderabad at one extreme, NSI penetration was arelatively even but low 5~7% across all households. In rural Nizamabadpenetration of the poorest third of households was 11%, which doubledto 24% among the middle third and doubled again to 46% among thebest-off third. Peri-urban Nizamabad had an even more skewed profilewith 48% penetration of the best-off households against 5~8% penetrationamong the poorest and middle thirds respectively). Weighting thepenetration rates of the poorest third of households across all three sitesgives a combined penetration rate of about 10%. Overall, this meansthat NSI probably reaches around 6,5 million of the poorest third ofhouseholds and through them almost 4% of all adults in those pooresthouseholds.

    B. Summary indicators of NSI’s outreach

    This survey indicates that NSI reaches 24% of all households in India and10% of all adults. NSI typically has a relationship with just one person ineach household and these are predominantly men. The overall rural~urbanprofile matches very closely the rural~urban profile of the country asa whole.

    Turning to depth of outreach – i.e. how many of the poorest householdsare reached – NSI’s penetration of the poorest third of households ismuch lower than its penetration across the whole socioeconomicspectrum. As a result its penetration of adults from the poorest third ofhouseholds is also much lower than its penetration of the whole adultpopulation. The striking difference, however, comes in the gender mix ofthese clients from the poorest households, in which women dominatestrongly. The rural~urban split is even more marked than for the wholeNSI customer base.

    The overall effect of these patterns of penetration is that the proportionof NSI client households coming from the poorest third of all householdsis half the proportion coming from the middle third of households, whichin turn is half the proportion coming from the best-off third. Moreover, thisdoubling and then doubling again of penetration is entirely a result ofrecruiting more male clients.

    30

  • Table 14: Key penetration indicators for all GSB client householdsand those among the poorest third

    All client households Poorest third

    % households reached 24% 7%

    % adults reached 10% 4%

    Clients per household 1.05 1.00

    Female~male ratio 29:71 85:15

    Rural~Urban ratio 78:22 89:11

    Figure 3: Overall weighted mix of client householdsby relative poverty

    C. Detailed results of the survey at sample site level

    As already indicated, households were surveyed at three main sites:

    ■ five mixed urban sampling points in state capital Hyderabad;■ nine peri-urban sampling points in Nizamabad district main town;■ and sampling in nine villages in the surrounding Nizamabad District.

    At each of these sites a control group of 170 randomly selected householdswas surveyed to gather the data needed to identify the generalsocioeconomic spectrum.

    31

    13% 28%

    59%

    ■ Poorest third ■ Middle third ■ Better-off third

  • Unfortunately, it proved impossible to secure contact lists to sampleseparately NSI client households (because all aspects of individual clientmanagement, apart from complaints, are outsourced to NSI’s agents,mainly the post-office). Fortunately, however, NSI’s overall penetration ofperi-urban and rural households was sufficiently large to generaterandom samples of 50~60 client households in these two sites against atarget of one hundred. While this is not ideal, and does mean there is agreater margin of error on the socioeconomic profiles discussed in thisreport, there is nothing to suggest a systematic bias in those profiles.Moreover, sampling of client households based on intercepting NSI clientsusing post-offices revealed broadly the same profile as identified in thetruly random sub-sample of NSI client households in the random controlgroup sample. Metropolitan Hyderabad presents more problems.Penetration is almost certainly very much lower there than in theperi-urban and rural areas where there is less competition from othersuppliers of retail financial services. The small sub-sample of 11 NSI clienthouseholds drawn from the Hyderabad control group showed noparticular pattern of socioeconomic bias. The larger intercept sample showedmuch more of an upmarket bias (similar to that seen in peri-urbanNizamabad). No adjustment has been made to the random data,however, as the weight applying to the metropolitan sample is quite low(only 7% of total). All that would result from adjusting the Hyderabaddata is that the up-market bias already identified in the whole NSI clientbase would be slightly strengthened.

    Figure 4 shown here plot three sets of percentages. The lighter columnsshow the percentage of all households that fall into the poorest, middleor best-off thirds on a national grading. The darker columns show thepercentages of NSI client households graded in the same way.

    The most important finding from this analysis is the really markedoverweighting of households from the best-off third of all households inNSI’s peri-urban client base and the still significant albeit less dramatic,overweighting of similar households in its rural client base. This is over-weighting such that NSI reaches nearly half of households in the best-offthird of all households in these sites. It is this that gives NSI its overallbias towards better off households shown in the summary indicatorsof outreach. The control group shows the two urban samples skewedsomewhat towards the best-off households and away from the poorestand middle third of households whereas the rural sample is skewedtowards the poorest and middle third of households and away from thebest-off households.

    32

  • This fits with other poverty estimates which also suggest that, when morethan just official income statistics and definitions of the poverty line areused, Andra Pradesh is reasonably representative of India as a whole.9

    Figure 4: Client and general household mix by socioeconomic band

    33

    100%

    67%

    33%

    0%

    Poorest5%

    Middle5%

    Best-off7%

    INDIA Metropolitan urban

    Perc

    ent

    of s

    ampl

    ein

    eac

    h ba

    nd

    Percent penetration

    9. On this there are mixed indicators but overall it looks as if Andra Pradesh is fairly averageas regards the incidence of rural poverty but the incidence of urban poverty might beslightly above national averages. The Household Consumer Expenditure (1999-2000),however, confirms the latter proposition but actually shows less than half the nationalincidence of rural poverty but an article by Jaya Mehta (2004) ‘Alternative Economic Survey2003-2004’ uses nutritional data from the same household survey source to show thepoverty line no longer equates to the same nutritional intake as it did in the base year fromwhich it is calculated. With very many people living just above the poverty line in AndhraPradesh the incidence of rural poverty jumps from a low 10% if just the official povertyline is used, to a very high 89% if a poverty line that sustains calorific intake is calculated.The equivalent jump in rural poverty at national level is from 27% to 75%. The purposehere is not to question official staistics but to use the two analyses to show how even thedistribution of near poverty across the vast middle of the rural population, which makescalculating proportions of the population suffering poverty very dependent on exactlywhere the poverty line is drawn. For the purposes of this paper, however, the official andadjusted estimates of rural incidence of poverty average at around half for both AndhraPradesh and all India suggesting no very great difference in the distribution of poverty.The averages for the two measures of the incidence of urban poverty are 45% forAndhra Pradesh and almost 40% for all India, again, no great difference. This sharp jumpbetween the official and adjusted measures does, however suggest that some of thepenetration that NSI achieves among the middle third of households is probably reachinghouseholds experiencing only marginally better socioeconomic conditions than thepoorest third of households.

    ■ Control group■ NSI client households

  • Figure 4: Client and general household mix by socioeconomic band

    34

    100%

    67%

    33%

    0%

    Poorest5%

    Middle8%

    Best-off41%

    INDIA Peri-urban

    Perc

    ent

    of s

    ampl

    ein

    eac

    h ba

    nd

    Percent penetration

    100%

    67%

    33%

    0%

    Poorest11%

    Middle24%

    Best-off46%

    INDIA Rural

    Perc

    ent

    of s

    ampl

    ein

    eac

    h ba

    nd

    Percent penetration

    ■ Control group■ NSI client households

    ■ Control group■ NSI client households

  • D. Grossing-up to estimate national outreach

    This is a multi-layered calculation and has to be done first at householdlevel because CGAP’s Poverty Assessment Tool identifies the relativesocioeconomic positioning of households not individuals. Nevertheless, itis the number of poor adults reached that is of most interest to thoselooking at the issue of access to finance, so calculations are also done forpenetration of adults living in households.

    The workings for overall breadth of outreach – i.e. the total numberof households and adults served – are as follows:

    ■ Census of India10 measured the number of rural households at138 million in 2001 and the number of urban households at 54 million.

    ■ The PAT survey data indicates that NSI reaches 26% of rural householdsand an average 18~19% of urban households, which suggests intotal some 46 million households are probably served by NSI(24% of all households). This is a very significant figure as the sameCensus of India data indicates only 68 million or 36% of allhouseholds use any kind of banking services at all. It is not clearwhether post-office savings are included in with banking servicescensus definitions but given NSI’s bias towards better off householdsit is seems likely that there must be some significant overlap. For thebetter-off banked households, NSI must therefore be a significantelement of their access to savings services. For the rural householdsand poorer households it reaches, however, NSI may be the only routeof access possible but it is not possible to be definitive about this.

    ■ In terms of the number of adults served, the above estimates of totalhouseholds served need multiplying by the average numbers of clientsper client household revealed by the PAT survey. For NSI’s clienthouseholds in rural areas the overall average number of clients perhousehold is 1.05 and for client households in urban areas exactly thesame average emerges. This would suggest that in total some 48million adults are probably served by NSI or some 6,5% of alladults.11 This figure is very close to the 55 million accounts recordedas open and suggests very little multiple account holding or dormancy.

    35

    10. Census of India (2001), ‘Table S00-020: Number of households availing banking services /Having each specified asset’

    11. The estimated percentage share of all adults served at national level (6.6%) is lower thanthe 7.8% weighted average share in the PAT survey because of different rural~urbanweightings within Andra Pradesh and all India.

  • Moving onto depth of outreach the estimates are as follows:

    ■ Assuming that the original choice of Andhra Pradesh was notunrepresentative of all India, for which there is some evidence, thenthe Census of India 2001 household numbers can be split in the sameproportions as the PAT survey to give the number of households in thepoorest third of all households nationally. This would mean thatnationwide there should be 50 million rural households (36% of total)and 14 million urban households (26% of total) at broadly the samelevel of poverty as the poorest third of households in the PAT survey.

    ■ In rural areas NSI reaches just over 11% of the poorest third of house-holds and just over 5% of the poorest third of urban households.Combining these at a national level suggests that NSI probably reachesalmost 6.5 million of the poorest third of households at anational level.

    ■ Among the poorest third of NSI client households captured in thesurvey not one incidence of more than one client per household wasencountered at any of the three sampling sites. Therefore, the estimateof the number of adults in the poorest third of householdsreached by NSI is also probably just below 6.5 million.

    ■ Within the total number of adults reached in the poorest third ofhouseholds the PAT survey data indicates a strong predominance offemale clients (outnumbering male clients by a ratio of almost six toone. This suggests that at a national level the total number of womenin the poorest third of households reached by NSI is probablyaround 5~5 million.

    ■ Neither of these figures is trivial but both are modest compared toNABARD’s estimates of 50 million members using self-help groups, themain route the poor, particularly poor women, use to access financialservices in India.

    ■ It could be argued that some allowance should be made for some ofthe middle third of households served by NSI not being much betteroff than the poorest third. This could potentially sharply increase NSI’sestimated depth of outreach because it has twice the rate of penetrationamong the middle third as among the poorest third. But, that higherpenetration appears to be coming mostly from the surge in servingmen, which in turn seems to be linked to NSI’s overall up-market bias. Therefore, it is almost certainly not legitimate to add in all the extraclients reached in the middle third of households.

    36

  • At most, perhaps another 5~6 million poor but not the pooresthouseholds might be added, bringing the total to around 12 million,which although not large in the context of a country as big as Indiawould still make NSI a major player in an otherwise quite fragmentedIndian microfinance industry.

    E. Differences in activity rates by poverty band

    One of the secondary aims of this study was to try and link client recordswith the survey results to identify any differences in activity rates andpatterns of product use by poverty band. This was not done in Indiabecause NSI controls neither the recruitment nor the servicing ofindividual clients (see below for more explanation of this).

    Figure 5: NSI client households by poverty band and sample status

    To get some idea, however, of any difference in activity rates a number ofadditional surveys were done of households containing clients interceptedat a post-office during the survey period. This is not a random sampleunlike the client households that were found as part of the randomcontrol group survey (and on which all the analysis in sections precedingthis one has been based). As it happens, the non-random client interceptsurvey did not reveal a markedly different socioeconomic profile from thatevident for randomly found client households. While this says nothing aboutabsolute activity rates it does suggest that poorer NSI clients probablyuse its services neither more nor less actively than better off clients.

    37

    100%

    80%

    60%

    40%

    20%

    0%

    Poorest Middle Best-off

    Perc

    ent

    of s

    ub-s

    ampl

    ein

    eac

    h ba

    nd

    ■ Randomly found■ Non-random intercepts

  • F. Possible specific reasons for the NSI client profile

    NSI’s products include very basic passbook savings accounts that can beoperated with no fee provided the equivalent of US$1 is kept in them andthat they are used at least once every three years. Moreover theseaccounts can be accessed through 150,000 post-offices nationwide.Moreover, it has an indirect sales force of 500,000 collectors of smallsavings that sometimes even provide collection services. So clearly bydesign NSI is a pro-access organisation. The question then is, why doesNSI have an up-market not a mass-market focus? The first point to makeis that in a country as large as India, providing savings services to thebetter off half of households opens a market of nearly 400 million adults,so the question should really be why does NSI have an upper-middlemarket focus not a down-market focus?

    The first reason could be that NSI has a primarily savings-mobilisationmandate and not a purely microfinance mandate; there are otherorganisations (such as NABARD) that have that mandate. Another moreimportant driver of its upper-middle market focus seems to be the waythe indirect sales force is motivated. As has already been noted, NSI doesnot control either the distribution or servicing of its products. Distributionis in the hands of the State Collectorates of Small Savings and servicingunder the control State Postmaster Generals; i.e. neither is managed evenat the same level of Government as NSI (which is an arm of the nationalMinistry of Finance). While the post-offices are probably relativelyindifferent as to who uses NSI services, the diagram overleaf makes itclear that the Collectorates of Small Savings are motivated to target thevalue of savings mobilised not number of customers reached.

    The key to this is the arrangement whereby any savings mobilised by NSIin any of the States of India are recycled back to the state concerned aslong-term development finance. Moreover, the Collectors of SmallSavings are paid by commission not fixed fees thus explicitly aligning theindividual motivational system with the governing agency’s state-levelmotivation to maximise the value of savings mobilised. Add to this the taxadvantaged nature of NSI savings products (almost all free of tax up to acertain limit and the contributions to some regular savings products taxdeductible as well), and the focus on upper-middle market customers ishardly surprising.

    38

  • Figure 6: The position of NSI within national and state-levelsavings mobilisation

    None of this is to say that collectors will turn away small savings from thepoor; some will undoubtedly facilitate the process and even go as far ascollecting savings for deposit in remote communities. But, the main salesthrust is to encourage higher value savings as that is what gets a collectorpaid. Similarly, the tax advantages of NSI products are beneficial to thepoor as well as the rich, in as much as they allow interest to be paid freeof any deduction for tax but it is well established that the mainbeneficiaries of tax free (let alone tax deductible) savings are usually theupper-middle socioeconomic groups.

    39

    Ministry of Finance

    Ministry of Posts

    State Postmaster Gen

    Post Offices - Tiered

    Agency Sales Force

    NSIIndia

    SingleTreasury

    A/c

    State Governments

    Collectoratefor SmallSavings

    Statepublic

    spending

    Exactly same amount asmobilised at State level

    gets returned tosupport State finances

    Actual fundsmobilised

    Data on fundsmobilised

    Agents bringnew clients and

    funds to P-Os co-ordinate

    runsCLIENTS

  • G. Conclusions

    NSI is a very big supplier of savings services, reaching nearly a quarter ofall Indian households and very nearly 50 million adults, but its customerbase is very much biased towards people from average or better offhouseholds. At a national level an estimated 14% of NSI client householdscome from the poorest third of households. This equates to some 6 millionsuch households making NSI a not particularly large supplier of bottom-end microfinance relative to its potential. Where NSI does serve the pooresthouseholds, the client base is predominantly women (by a factor of almostsix to one) but in its core upper-middle market this situation is reversed(with male clients outnumbering female clients by a factor of four-to-one).The reason for the upper-middle market bias lies in the mandate andincentive mechanisms used by NSI’s main distribution agents (the StateCollectorates of Small Savings), which puts value of savings mobilisedabove depth of outreach.

    40

  • MEXICO COUNTRY REPORT:BANCO NACIONAL DE AHORRO Y SERVICIOSFINANCIEROS - BANSEFI

    A. Overview

    Bansefi (Banco del Ahorro Nacional y Servicios Financieros) is a reformednational savings institution that also provides payments services. Bansefiitself does no credit business but is the Apex institution of those localsavings and credit institutions (Cajas de Ahorro y Crédito Popular) thathave accepted a new regulatory framework. Looking just at its ownbusiness, Bansefi services almost 3.75 million accounts and these breakdown into three broad groups – (i) a basic call account that can be usedto make payments as well as for short-term liquid saving; (ii) a special– Oportunidades – call account designed to receive social payments butthen also provide the functionality of the basic call account and (iii) long-term savings products, some of which are also targeted at the poor.Service is provided through 506 of Bansefi’s own branches across Mexicoplus a growing number of co-branded outlets at participating Cajas.12

    This study, however, just looks at Bansefi’s own business.

    Turning to the survey, sampling was designed to capture the very widedifferences between town and country in Mexico. Poverty is a predominantlyrural issue in Mexico, where about three quarters of the poor live.Overall, however, poverty is falling and the World Bank indicates justunder 20% of households now live below the national poverty line,13

    down from 40~50% after the financial crisis in the late 1990’s. Mexico isalso a very urbanised country, with 75% of the population living in thebroadest definition of urban areas14 and close to 60% living in majortowns and cities including Mexico City. This indicates up to half ofhouseholds outside the major urban conurbations could be living belowthe poverty line and this was confirmed by the sampling done for thisstudy. That sampling was done in three locations – a very mixed districtof Mexico City called Chalco, a city of 2 million people called Puebla anda rural town called Tixtla in Guerrero Province (neither advantaged bytourism or trade nor completely drained by outward migration).

    41

    12. One of the incentives for a Caja to come under the reformed regulatory regime is that theyget access via Bansefi to the technological platform needed to run some of its popularpayments services and accounts (particularly for receipt of social benefits and internationalremittances). These are accessed under a common branding called [email protected] de la Gente(www.lared-delagente.com.mx)

    13. World Bank - Mexico at a Glance – www.worldbank.org14. Source UN

  • The random survey shows Bansefi reaching about 1,5% of the adultpopulation but this takes no account of the fact that just over 60% ofclients in a surveyed client household are not declared as such bywhoever answers the questionnaire. Allowing for this, Bansefi probablyreaches about 3,5~4% of adults. This is almost exactly equal to thenumber of accounts it services divided by an average 1 accounts perclient and then divided by the adult population. Overall this meansBansefi probably reaches around 2.7 million adults in just under 2.5million households. Interestingly, for a savings bank with a relatively lowmarket penetration, this survey gives every indication that Bansefi deliversits universal access mandate – its client base has a near identicalsocioeconomic profile to the surrounding population at each of the threesampling sites. On the basis of all this, Bansefi probably reaches threequarters of a million households in the poorest third of all households andsome 900,000 adults from these poorest households.

    B. Summary indicators of Bansefi’s outreach

    This survey indicates that Bansefi reaches 10% of all households in Mexicoand 1.5~2% of all adults. As with many other savings banks, Bansefitypically has a relationship with just over one person in each household itreaches but on average Mexican households contain 2.5~3 adults, so theadult penetration rate is inevitably lower than the household penetrationrate. Bansefi’s client base is mainly made up of women and this appliesjust as much to the poorest third of households.

    Turning to depth of outreach – i.e. how many of the poorest householdsare reached – penetration rates are broadly the same as for the wholecustomer base. This reflects the close match between the socioeconomicprofile of Bansefi client households and that of all households at all threesurvey sites (see next section). Because poverty in Mexico is predominantly arural phenomenon, this means there is a marked rural:urban bias amongthe poorest households Bansefi reaches.

    42

  • Table 15: Key penetration indicators for all client households andthose among the poorest third

    All client households Poorest third

    % households reached 10.0% 9.3%

    % adults reached 3.8% 4.0%

    Clients per household 1.09 1.17

    Female~male ratio 76:24 77:23

    Rural~Urban ratio 57:43 88:12

    Figure 7: Overall weighted mix of client householdsby relative poverty

    C. Detailed results of the survey at sample site level

    As already indicated, households were surveyed at three sites. Two differenttypes of sample were taken at each site:

    ■ A random sample of 170 households (270 in Chalco) was surveyed ateach site to form a control group that gives the overall socio-economicmix against which the profile of Bansefi client households could becompared.

    43

    32%

    35% 33%

    ■ Poorest third ■ Middle third ■ Better-off third

  • The larger sample for Chalco reflected its heterogeneity and was onthe advice of the experienced market research company undertakingthe survey – CESOP.15 Within these samples small numbers of Banseficlient households (roughly eight per site) were traced and while theprofile of this sub-sample is not unrepresentative it is too small to usein profiling the Bansefi Customer Base.

    ■ Fortunately Bansefi client base records contain enough details toactively sample households where there should be at least one client.Sampling was carried out until one hundred client households hadbeen surveyed at each of the three sites.16 The anonymised andrandom client list used for this sampling was stratified to get arepresentative mix of clients by product use at each site (i.e. the rightmix of clients using the basic call account, the special pro-pooraccount and long-term savings accounts).

    The sites were chosen carefully to capture neither particularly well off norparticularly poor populations but still capture the metropolitan~peri-urban~rural contrasts that characterise Mexico:

    ■ metropolitan sample was taken in the mixed Chalco district ofMexico City;

    ■ the peri-urban site (Puebla) was chosen because it is a large cityoutside the capital with a mixed economy but not one of the majorindustrialised cities linked to cross-border trade within the NorthAmerican Free Trade Area;

    ■ the rural site (Tixtla in Guererro Province) was chosen to capture theagricultural dimension of the rural Mexican economy but is not somarginal as to suffer very heavy outward migration.

    44

    15. CESOP – Centro de Estudios Sociales y de Opinión Pública16. The client sampling did not work perfectly at all sites and particularly not at the rural site.

    The problems related to the prevalence of non-specific addresses such as just having theaddress of a condominium block within which a client lives in just one unit. In Chalco andPuebla, three quarters or more of the client households found contained a traceable clientbut in Tixtla less than 60% of so called client households sampled did so. This is not aninsuperable problem as the households with non-specific addresses but where neverthelessa client was traced had a very similar socioeconomic profile to households with non-specific addresses and no client could be traced. Thus the former group could be used asa proxy for all client households with non-specific addresses and this was done for thisstudy. The result is probably still unbiased socioeconomic profiles but increased margins oferror around the profiles obtained.

  • The charts shown here plot two sets of percentages. The lighter columnsshow the percentage of all households that fall into the poorest, middleor best-off thirds on a national grading. The darker columns show thepercentages of Bansefi client households graded in the same way. Themost striking result to emerge from this presentation is that thesocioeconomic profile of the Bansefi client base matches very closely thesocioeconomic profile of all households at each sampling site. This holdsdespite markedly different socioeconomic profiles at the rural versusurban sites. The two urban sites showed a generalised over-weighting ofbetter off households and underweighting of the poorest households;the complete reverse was true for the rural sample. This fits with what isknown about poverty in Mexico at a national level – it is predominantlyrural in nature. But Bansefi’s ability to draw such a socioeconomicallymixed client base, despite its limited overall market penetration (only10% of all households), is a very important finding. It might have beenthought that limited penetration would be indicative of a niche businessmodel but this study indicates strongly that it need not be so – even arelatively small national savings bank, as long as it is present in rural areas,can deliver a truly universal access mandate.

    Figure 8: Client and general household mix by socioeconomic band

    45

    100%

    67%

    33%

    0%

    Poorest Middle Best-off

    MEXICO Metropolitan Chalco

    Perc

    ent

    of s

    ampl

    ein

    eac

    h ba

    nd

    Share of client households in random sample - 1.9%

    ■ Random sample■ Client list sample

  • Figure 8: Client and general household mix by socioeconomic band

    46

    100%

    67%

    33%

    0%

    Poorest Middle Best-off

    MEXICO Peri-urban Puebla

    Perc

    ent

    of s

    ampl

    ein

    eac

    h ba

    nd

    Share of client households in random sample - 4.7%

    100%

    67%

    33%

    0%

    Poorest Middle Best-off

    MEXICO Rural Tixtla Guererro

    Perc

    ent

    of s

    ampl

    ein

    eac

    h ba

    nd

    Share of client households in random sample - 3.5%

    ■ Random sample■ Client list sample

    ■ Random sample■ Client list sample

  • D. Grossing-up to estimate national outreach

    This is a multi-layered calculation and has to be done at household as wellas individual level because CGAP’s Poverty Assessment Tool identifiesthe relative socioeconomic positioning of households not individuals.Nevertheless, it is the number of poor adults reached that is of mostinterest to those looking at the issue of access to finance, so calculationsare also done for penetration of adults living in households.

    The workings for overall breadth of outreach – i.e. the total numberof adults and households served by Bansefi – are as follows:

    ■ No adequate data was found for the total number of households splitin sufficient detail by urban versus rural domicile, so the starting pointwas the latest INEGI Population Census,17 which identified a total of70 million adults (i.e 15 and over) in Mexico. Of these 22% were inMexico City and the surrounding Distrito Federal. Detailed analysis ofthe size profile of sampled areas within the provinces of Pueblaand Guererro (where sampling for this study also took place) wasundertaken and this showed that just over 45% of the populationlived in towns over 50,000 in each province. This cut-off point alsorepresented a clear break-point in the distribution of population size bylocation within each province. This was therefore taken as the thresholdabove which a location counts as peri-urban as opposed to rural(although the latter would still include small rural towns). Taking allthese together, the total adult population of Mexico can be brokendown into 15 million adults living in metropolitan Mexico City,24 million living in peri-urban cities and towns and the remaining30 million in predominantly rural areas.18

    ■ Estimating what proportion of the adult population is served byBansefi can be done in two ways. The upper limit is set by the numberof accounts serviced – 3.75 million, which equates to just under 3%but this needs to be reduced by the average number of Bansefiaccounts held per client – which in this study comes out at a weighted1.4 for the whole sample. Making this adjustment brings the likelypenetration to around 3.8%.

    47

    17. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática(http://www.inegi.gob.mx/inegi/default.aspx)

    18. The exact split between metro-urban and peri-urban is open to debate as the latterincludes some very large urban agglomerations that could be moved across to the formerbut this would not affect the results of this study as the metro-urban and peri-urban socio-economic profiles are broadly similar with their overweighting of better off households andunderweighting of the poorest households.

  • The alternative approach is to look at the proportion of adults in therandom control group survey from this study that could be tracedthrough to Bansefi’s client lists. This came out at a weighted averageof 1.5% across the three sites but an adjustment needs to be madefor clients that are not declared by the survey respondent(approximately an extra 1% for every one declared client) andthis brings the estimated penetration also to 3.8% Although thisestimate carries quite a wide margin of error there is no reason tobelieve it is biased. Taking the two together it can be said thatBansefi’s penetration of the adult market is somewhere around3.8 percent or 2.7 million adults.

    ■ The sampling done for this study also allows penetration to becalculated separately for men and women. As already indicated, thenumber of women in the Bansefi client base outweighs the number ofmen by a factor of three to one. To go from this to differentiatedpenetration rates, a small adjustment has to be made for the slightdominance of women over men – 55:45 – in the adult population asa whole (which is a reflection of differential migration among adultsof working age). Taking these two ratios together it is possible to saythat Bansefi serves some 5 percent of adult females but only justunder 2% of adult males.

    ■ The sample size needed for the socioeconomic profiling in this study isnot big enough to give tightly defined estimates of adult penetrationby sample site. Nevertheless, the two approaches described above forestimating adult penetration gave no strong indication that it variedsystematically across the various types of location. Moreover, the highlevel result that there is a close match in socioeconomic profile at allthree sites indicates no reason why penetration should vary by site.Taking these two indications against an uneven spread of clients, thedefault assumption is that Bansefi’s penetration of the adultmarket is probably the same across the whole of Mexico.

    ■ To go from total adults to total households requires dividing the totalnumber of adults by the average number of adults per household(typically just short of three). To go from total clients to clienthouseholds requires the same approach and the client sampleindicates the average number of clients per client household at justover one. The end result of all this is to indicate that there arearound 24~25 million households in Mexico, of which just under2 million (or 10 percent) contain Bansefi clients.

    48

  • Moving onto depth of outreach – i.e. how many of the poorest thirdof households and adults from those households does Bansefi serve – theestimates have to be done separately for each type of location(metropolitan, peri-urban and rural) because poverty is so unevenlyspread in Mexico. The calculations are as follows:

    ■ Taking the estimate of total household numbers calculated above forall of Mexico (24~25 million), then there should be around eightmillion households in the poorest third.

    ■ Taking the total calculated number of Bansefi clients estimated above(2.7 million) and assuming these are spread across the country in linewith adult population (i.e. assuming even adult market penetration as wecan) and then dividing by average numbers of clients per client household(1.1) gives roughly 250,000 client households in metropolitan areas,390,000 client households in peri-urban areas and 480,000 in ruralareas. Applying the proportions of these that fall into the poorest thirdof households nationally (8%, 6% and 63% respectively for eachsample site) that come from the client survey for this study suggeststhat Bansefi probably reaches some 750 thousand of the poorestthird of households at a national level (or just over 9 percent ofall households in this poverty band).

    ■ Applying then the average number of clients per client household ateach sampling site (1.5, 1.0 and 1.1) then gives an estimate of thenumber adults in the poorest third of households reached byBansefi of almost exactly 900,000 (or 4 percent of all adults fromthe poorest third of households).

    E. Differences in activity rates by poverty band

    One of the secondary aims of this study was to try and link client recordswith the survey results to identify differences in activity rates and patternsof product use. This was possible in Mexico in some detail because of thecomprehensive client contact details kept by Bansefi and the structurednaming conventions used in Mexico. These made it practical to matchagainst names and age with a cross-check on address and scope for somefuzziness in the matching (i.e. not every detail had to match exactly butenough to avoid false matches).

    49

  • Once names were matched the household code could be attached to ananonymous algorithmic code that linked through client financialinformation and all other personal and household details could bedropped. This way it became possible to profile the use made of differentBansefi products by households of different socioeconomic types withoutbreaching client confidentiality. As already noted, the client list fromwhich client households were randomly sampled was stratified to makesure the mix of products used by each sample drawn at the three surveysites was representative of the business mix of the Bansefi branch at eachsite. All the survey had to do was identify the socioeconomic positioningof the clients generating that mix of business.

    Unlike all the other participating banks in this study, it was possible to linksurvey records to Bansefi’s own financial records without compromisingclient confidentiality. This shows clients from the poorest third ofhouseholds use long-term savings products much less than do the best-off third of households but they use their call accounts much moreactively than do the better off.

    The first finding from this analysis was that the pro-poor Opportunidadesaccount (designed to receive social payments) is used not just by thepoorest third of households but also by better off households in thesample. This is almost certainly because the benefits delivered this wayinclude an element of universal family benefit that can be claimed by thebetter off as well as the poor. But, what is clear from the table oppositeis that the pro-poor account is the dominant product used by adults fromthe poorest third of households, and the long-term savings products areused hardly at all.

    Perhaps not surprisingly the analysis also showed the poorest third ofhouseholds using fewer accounts and maintaining much lower averagebalances on their accounts than do the best-off households. But, the usethat the poorest make of the accounts they do hold is considerablygreater than that seen across accounts held by the best-off households– levels of inactivity are lower and the number of transactions peraccount per year is twice as high and this is generally true of all threemain product types (although the ordinary transactions account hashigher not lower levels of complete inactivity). Particularly interesting wasthe finding that the net increment in saving in the last year was as highfor the poorest third of households as it was for the best-off third.

    50

  • Table 16: Mix of accounts held by client households in differentsocio-economic bands compared

    Poorest Best-off

    Pro-poor transactions a/c 56% 38%

    Ordinary transactions a/c 37% 29%

    Long-term savings a/c 7% 33%

    Table 17: Account holding and use by client householdsin different socioeconomic bands compared

    Poorest Best-off

    Number of accounts 1.1 1.4

    of which zero balance 1% 18%

    zero turnover 10% 15%

    Transactions per year 18 9

    Average balance US$70 US$135

    Net saving in year US$45 US$45

    Perhaps not surprisingly the analysis also showed the poorest third ofhouseholds using fewer accounts and maintaining much lower averagebalances on their accounts than do the best-off households. But, the usethat the poorest make of the accounts they do hold is considerablygreater than that seen across accounts held by the best-off households– levels of inactivity are lower and the number of transactions peraccount per year is twice as high and this is generally true of all threemain product types (although the ordinary transactions account hashigher not lower levels of complete inactivity). Particularly interesting wasthe finding that the net increment in saving in the last year was as highfor the poorest third of households as it was for the best-off third.

    All this is yet more proof that where the poor have access to anaccount that they can use, it does get used and over time notinsignificant savings can accumulate.

    51

  • F. Conclusions

    Bansefi demonstrates that a savings bank with the right range ofproducts to deliver truly universal access can do so and serve the poor justas well as it serves the better off. In other words, small does not have tomean niche.

    Bansefi also demonstrates that the poor can be reached by savings andtransactions banking products and not just microcredit as it is oftenpresumed. Moreover, it demonstrates that if the product range includesan account designed to meet the needs of the poor it will be used bythem and indeed be used quite heavily and provide a home for the steadyaccumulation of savings.

    Crucial to this capacity to serve anyone from across the socioeconomicspectrum is a branch network that is truly nationwide and reaches intorural areas where poverty is often concentrated. It is this combination ofa pro-poor product and a geographically widely spread network thatmeans that Bansefi serves a significant number (900,000) of adults fromthe poorest third of households (to give some perspective to this figure,the whole of the recognised microfinance industry in Mexico serves intotal 2 million active borrowers).

    52

  • TANZANIA COUNTRY REPORT:TANZANIA POSTAL BANK (TPB)

    A. Overview

    Tanzania Postal Bank (TPB) was selected for the project as an example ofa separately established savings bank still operating closely with itsoriginal progenitor – Tanzania Post. This represents a crucial strand ofWSBI membership, quite separate from schemes that only mobilisesavings through an agency arrangement with entities such as postoffices. TPB runs roughly a million savings accounts. This compares to anestimate of 1 million total commercial bank accounts at the beginningof this decade and recent estimates of the total number of Tanzanianadults who have at some time held a bank account, of some 2 million.19

    Clearly therefore TPB is the major player in the market for retail savingsin Tanzania but its range is not limited to savings – it offers transactionsaccounts for small businesses and a range of card, credit and insuranceproducts. Nevertheless the savings business remains fundamental to itscorporate mission and its founding statutes are built around its specialrole in mobilising savings nationwide. Crucial to this is the ability ofordinary Tanzanians to access basic savings accounts at any one of155 post-offices nationwide as well as the bank’s own network of22 branches (where customers can mix ordinary savings business as wellas accessing the more sophisticated services). Taken together this networkof 177 outlets is almost as large as the combined branch network of thecommercial banking system (232 branches at end-200520).

    Turning to the survey, sampling was designed to distinguish between thecapital Dar-es-Salaam (where TPB has a network of six branches, otherurban areas (the district main towns, where TPB has its own regionaloutlets) and the almost entirely rural residual (where TPB services can onlybe accessed via the post office). In terms of both total householdnumbers and adult population metropolitan Dar-es-Salaam is about aslarge as all the peri-urban district main towns combined (each accountingfor 9% of the relevant mainland totals). The vast bulk (80 %+) ofhouseholds, adults and indeed the whole population live, however, in therural areas.

    53

    19. Source: Financial Sector Deepening Trust, Tanzania on http://dgroups.org/groups/FSDT-Tanzania

    20. Source: Bank of Tanzania Directorate of Banking Supervision’s Annual Report 2005

  • Income poverty statistics show a stubbornly high proportion (around 40%)of the rural population living on less than the amount needed to cover basicneeds (and half of these experiencing food insecurity). Peri-urban incomepoverty is not quite as widespread and improving slowly (just under 25%in 2001, down three percentage points in a decade). Lower still andfalling faster is metropolitan poverty in Dar-es-Salaam (around 17~18%in 2001 and on track to halve in two decades).

    Interestingly, the multi-factorial poverty ranking conducted for this studyshows a reversal of this relativity – randomly surveyed households rankedin the poorest third of all sampled households are over-represented inthe Dar-es-Salaam sub-sample and underweighted in the rural one.This suggests money buys the metro-urban poor a lower quality of lifethan it does in rural areas. Paradoxically it also means that poorhouseholds in Dar-es-Salaam are more monetised than poor ruralhouseholds and therefore have a greater need for banking services.

    B. Summary indicators of TPB’s outreach

    This survey indicates that TPB reaches about 20% of all households inmainland Tanzania and 8% of all adults. The vast bulk of the householdsreached are rural and the overall rural~urban split of households (81~19),matches almost exactly the mainland split of households by location(82~18). Within each household, TPB typically has a relationship with justone person and a significant majority of these clients (70%) are male.

    Turning to depth of outreach – i.e. how many of the poorest householdsare reached – penetration rates are much lower than for the wholecustomer base. This is not, however, universally true across the mainlandwith TPB achieving stronger penetration of the poorest households inDar-es-Salaam (see below).

    Interestingly, in client households drawn from the poorest third of allhouseholds, there is a modest pro-female bias in complete contrast to therest of the client base.

    54

  • Table 18: Key penetration indicators for all client householdsand those among the poorest third

    All client households Poorest third

    % households reached 21% 8%

    % adults reached 8% 4%

    Clients per household 1.06 1.03

    Female~Male ratio 30:70 55:45

    Rural~Urban ratio 81:19 65: 35

    Figure 9: Overall weighted mix of TPB client householdsby relative poverty

    C. Detailed results of the survey at sample site level

    As already indicated, households were surveyed at three sites – one inmetropolitan Dar-es-Salaam, one in a peri-urban district main town(Songea) and the third at a rural location (Marangu). Samples of equalsize were taken at each site, with three elements to each.

    55

    14%

    61%

    25%

    ■ Poorest third ■ Middle third ■ Better-off third

  • ■ A random sample of 170 households needed to form a control groupto give the overall socio-economic mix against which the profile of TPBclient households could be compared. Within this control group, onaverage, about one-in-five of all randomly surveyed householdscontained a client of TPB (and very occasionally more than one client).These randomly found client households form the basis of thesocioeconomic profiling discussed in this report.

    ■ Separate surveys were completed at the households of known TPBclients. These were found either through intercepts of clients visiting aTPB outlet or from contact detail

Click here to load reader

Reader Image
Embed Size (px)
Recommended