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  • SWASTIKATHE NAZI TERROR

  • SWASTIKATHE NAZI TERROR

    JAMES WATERMAN WISE

    NEW YORK • 1933HARRISON SMITH AND ROBERT HAAS

  • COPYRIGHT, 1933, BY JAMES WATERMAN WISEPRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    BY QUINN & BODEN COMPANY, INC., RAHWAY, N. J .

  • CONTENTS

    II Psychic Factors 21

    III Out of Their Own Mouths 3 3

    IV The Brown Terror 47V World Reaction 66

    VI Boycott 88

    VII The Cold Pogrom I00

    VIII What Can Be Done? 115

    Foreword 9

    I The Advance Guard of Hate 1 3

  • For mankind are one in spirit, and an instinctbears along,

    Round the earth's electric circle, the swift flash o fright or wrong ;

    Whether conscious or unconscious, yet Humanity'svast frame

    Through its ocean-sundered fibres feels the gush o fjoy or shame;-

    In the gain or loss o f one race all the rest haveequal claim .

    JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL

  • I :)

    FOREWORD

    Y DECREE ISSUED IN BERLIN MARCH 12) 1933) THENazi banner together with that of the Old Empire

    was proclaimed the flag of Germany . Upon it was in-scribed the Swastika-symbolizing hatred of the Jew-and in that sign the new German Government, withHitler at its head, declared and is waging official andrelentless war upon 600,000 of its own citizens.

    That war is the subject of this book . Its antecedents,its conduct, its effects, and above all its implications bearin a double sense on the contemporary scene. First, asthey affect, in common with events in all lands, thehighly intricate and closely related mechanism of inter-national life . Second, as they present an issue in humanvalues which includes but transcends the fate of GermanJewry, an issue which, made in Germany, must be meteverywhere .

    That the world is aware of these implications isclear from the far-flung and profound reaction to theevents of the last months. Quite apart from Jewishprotest, civilized opinion stands aghast at the reportsfrom Germany. Increasingly so . For these reports nolonger deal with the fierce attacks and brutal outrages

    9

  • I0 FOREWORD

    perpetrated upon German Jews during the first daysof Nazi accession to power . Concerning such reportsthere was, in the beginning at least, the possibility ofexaggeration and hysteria. Moreover, hideous as theywere, there was the explanation if not the excuse thatthese were the deplorable incidents of an overthrow ingovernment, concomitants of a tragic but temporaryperiod of transition .

    Days have lengthened into weeks, weeks into months .But despite an iron rigidity in censorship, the reportsfrom Germany to-day are infinitely more alarming thanthe first so-called atrocity tales . They no longer tell ofStorm Troop attacks upon civilians in the streets, ofhomes invaded, of individuals subjected to indescribableindignities, of terror and sudden death in the night .These have not ended. But they sink into insignificancecompared to the reports which now come from Ger-many-not despite censorship but with its full sanction :Reports vaunting the organized, open campaign againstGerman Jewry upon which the Nazi Government hasembarked.

    This campaign to-day engages the attention of allpeoples. Not yet fully informed as to its exact natureand extent, they evidence a growing sense of uneaseand concern . For it embodies concepts which the worldhad considered as archaic and outgrown as the belief inwitchcraft. Since such concepts, however, have becomeboth the central fact and the dominant mood in thepolity of a great nation, an attitude toward and a courseof action on them must be adopted.

    If that attitude is to be informed and that course a

  • FOREWORD

    I I

    wise and just one, it is necessary to present more factsthan are yet widely known, to coordinate these facts,and to relate them in historic perspective and to con-temporary events. To that cnd there are included inthis book, sections which trace the background of thepresent situation as well as the psychologic factors whichplayed so large a part in producing it .

    While all that follows is in the hope of explicatingthat situation, its essence may be stated here . It is theattempt on the part of an overwhelming majority touproot and extirpate a minority group from its midst .The manifest injustice of the Versailles Peace Treaty,the unwillingness of the German people for democracy,the economic crisis in which Germany finds itself, theinnate and inbred German love of the imperial and theimperious-are obvious and potent factors in the pres-ent situation. But they are only its background . Theforeground is the minority phobia which provides theNazi Government with political principle and economicprogram, with immediate objective and ultimate aim .It is the dominant motif of the New Germany .

    The minority in question happens to be Jewish . Iuse the word happens advisedly . For, if the configura-tion of German life is such that the minority there sub-jected to the delenda est formula must be the Jew, itmight well, under other circumstances and elsewhere,be a wholly different racial or religious or nationalgroup. Thus the situation which the German Govern-ment creates as it wars upon the Jew is potentially ap-plicable to minorities of all kinds and in all lands . Espe-cially to America-whose genius consists in the will of

  • 12 FOREWORD

    differing groups to struggle together toward commonobjectives-the German situation presents a grave warn-ing. The Swastika of Hitler's Jewish hatred constitutesa challenge alike to all majorities and minorities hold-ing that the common right to existence and equality isbasic to any civilization worthy the name .

  • ITHE ADVANCE GUARD OF HATE

    «"'~ S TUT NICHTS, DER JUDE WIRD VERBRANNT! 77 (IT.matters not, the Jew goes to the stake!) is a saw

    old alike in Teuton folk speech and political action . Thepeople chosen by destiny to provide a scapegoat formankind, has nowhere so fully discharged its tragicfunction as in Germany. Not that other lands havefailed to make use of their Jewish minorities in likefashion. Or that both in Europe and Americaa there havenot been parties and leaders who have sought andgained power by exploiting hatred of the Jew . But Ger-many provides the classic instance of this phenomenon .There it took its modern and scientific source ; there itdeveloped a philosophy, a vocabulary, and a vogue.This background must be recalled and understood fullyto gauge the character and strength of the weaponforged and to-day being wielded by Hitler with devas-tating effect.

    Anti-Semitism-the very name which to-day connotesactive hatred of the Jew-was coined in Germany somefifty years ago. Its sponsor was the then new science ofethnology which propounded the theory that Jews were

    13

  • 14

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    members of the Semitic, as opposed to the Aryan peo-ples, and that their psychic and spiritual traits were ofnecessity hostile to and unassimilable with one another.This deduction was accompanied by scientific strictureson the inferior nature and origin of the Semites, andequally scientific eulogies of the superior characteristicsand destiny of the Aryans . In 1872, Friedrich von Hell-wald, writing in the weekly journal Ausland, stated :

    The Jews are not merely a different religious com-munity, but-and this is to us the most important fac-tor-ethnically an altogether different race . The Eu-ropean feels instinctively that the Jew is a strangerwho immigrated from Asia. The so-called prejudiceis a natural sentiment. Civilization will overcome theantipathy against the Israelite who merely professesanother religion, but never that against the raciallydifferent Jew. The Jew is cosmopolitan, and possessesa certain astuteness which makes him the master ofthe honest Aryan. In eastern Europe the Jew is thecancer slowly eating into the flesh of the other na-tions. Exploitation of the people is his only aim.Selfishness and lack of personal courage are his chiefcharacteristics ; self-sacrifice and patriotism are alto-gether foreign to him .

    Hundreds of articles, pamphlets and books echoedand elaborated this thesis in the years that followed .The amazing popularity it gained may be ascribed tothe social and political trend of the German times . Ex-treme nationalism, then rampant in every country ofEurope, was whipped into a very frenzy by the German

  • THE ADVANCE GUARD OF HATE 1 5nationalists. Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu, French Catholicscholar, wrote :'

    The nineteenth century will rank in history asthe age of nationalities. National feeling, followingabruptly upon the cosmopolitanism of the eighteenthcentury, constituted the chief strength of the hun-dred years that followed the Revolution . Under ourvery eyes, and largely, through our exertions, ittransformed Europe, working miracles the like ofwhich history could not recall ; bringing the deadback to life, and making the halt walk again . It isdangerous to have so formidable a power arrayedagainst one ; and in more than one country the Jewshave realized this by experience . The experience wasdue to no fault of theirs; it was one they could notavoid or avert . National feeling, over-excited by itstriumphs or by its sufferings, was bound, in its pas-sion, to assail the men of alien blood, and who-insome instances but a short while before-had arrivedfrom foreign countries. Every nation resents the pres-ence in its body politic, of what seems to be a foreignelement. Thus it came about that, in Germany, Teu-tonic exclusiveness arrayed itself against the "Sem-ites ."

    Characterizing anti-Semitism as a German importa-tion, he continues :

    Our age has a liking for 1Parned formulas ; espe-cially is Germany fond of covering its hatred with a1 "Israel Among the Nations."

  • 16

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    scientific veneer. The theories which the conquerorof Alsace-Lorraine held in regard to race and nation-ality were made to apply to the sons of Israel . TheGermans bethought themselves that not only hadthe Jew no Teutonic blood in his veins, but he wasnot even of Aryan stock, or, as they say in Berlin, ofIndo-Germanic stock . He was considered an Asiatic,a Semite, brother to the Arab, cousin to the Cartha-ginian; by virtue of which fact there was no roomfor him beneath the Gothic wings of the Hohenzol-lern eagle. Rather was his presence in the midst ofthe Germans a constant menace to the genius of Ger-many, a danger to deutsche Kultur, the mother andnurse of modern civilization. And this cry of alarm,uttered by the Germany of Bismarck, reverberatedwith that peculiar resonance which the trumpet-blastsof victory give to the popular voice . The summonsthat issued from Berlin found an echo along the entirefrontiers of Germany .

    Such a cry of alarm could have arisen only in a na-tion uncertain of its national strength, unsure of itself .Homogeneous France or England could not have ut-tered it. The fantastic fear that the character of theGerman people and the unity of German life wereendangered by so small and powerless a group as itsJews, could have been felt only because that characterand unity did not yet truly exist. Bernard Lazare, inhis history of anti-Semitism, writes :'

    2 "Anti-Semitism : Its History and Causes ."

  • THE ADVANCE GUARD OF HATE 17Long ago, in Spain, the persecution of the Moris-

    coes and the Marranos was an attempt to eliminatea foreign element in the Spanish nation ; and in thesame way the Jews were regarded as a strange tribe,a horde of deicides, whose aim was by propaganda toinfuse their spirit into the Christian peoples, and, inaddition, to obtain possession of great wealth, the im-portance of which was becoming apparent even dur-ing the early years of the Medieval period . Anti-Semitism, at present, finds different expression fromthat of former times ; the charges brought against theJew have also varied, in that they are formulatedafter a different fashion and are given a basis of eth-nologic and anthropologic theory ; but the causes havenot altered appreciably, and modern anti-Semitismdiffers from the anti-Judaism of former times onlyin that it is more self-conscious, more pragmatic, andmore deliberate. At the bottom of the anti-Semitismof our own days as at the bottom of the anti-Judaismof the thirteenth century, are the fear of, and thehatred of, the stranger.

    Yet this fear and hatred were not confined to theignorant or the weak . "The Jew," wrote Richard Wag-ner, "is the plastic demon of the decline of mankind ."Nietzsche promulgated and popularized a philosophicparadox that the Christian character of the Jew andof Judaism threatened to corrupt the rugged virility ofthe Nordic superman. And Professor Heinrich vonTreitschke asserted that "even in the circles of besteducated men who ordinarily spurned every thought of

  • i8

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    religious intolerance with abhorrence, echoes to-day asif from one mouth `the Jews are our calamity.) )3The Assembly of anti-Semites summed it up when

    in Berlin on July 15, 18773 they declared that "theJew is about to strangle the native idealism of Old Ger-many ; the Jew threatens to corrupt German character,German fidelity, German purity, German probity ." AndLeroy-Beaulieu, recounting this pathetic plaint, com-ments with a not inexplicable sarcasm : "This seemssomewhat ridiculous to us outsiders ; all these Germanvirtues must be very insecurely grounded in the Ger-man heart if a handful of Semites are able to uprootthem."

    As a matter of fact, those who translated the theoriesof the ethnologists into a political program were neithernaive professors nor troubled musicians . Committed toreactionary and militaristic policies, they were astuteenough to recognize the potentialities of anti-Semitismas a means to their end. Combining the advantages ofa scientific jargon and a popular prejudice, it could beand was used against every liberal and democratic tend-ency in German life. Brilliantly camouflaged in thehands of Bismarck, violently paraded by Court Chap-lain Adolf Stoecker, and crassly exploited by countlessimitators, it became the stock in trade of German reac-tionaries before the War.

    That their violent diatribes and drastic proposals werenot translated into anti-Jewish action was due to threecauses. First, the general understanding that they them-selves did not expect to be taken too literally, that theirinveighings and denouncings were largely for election

  • THE ADVANCE GUARD OF HATE iq

    day consumption. Second, the resolute and unyieldingopposition of the liberal and socialist parties which-fully aware of the tactics of their foes--were deter-mined to defend Jewish rights as a first and strategicredoubt in their battle to maintain and advance the causeof a free and enlightened Germany . Third, the normaland even favorable economic conditions which made itimpossible to win the masses to the grotesque thesis thatthe welfare of the fatherland was imperilled by a scat-tering of obviously harmless fellow citizens.

    Yet, though no official or overt policy against the Jewwas adopted, there was evidence in plenty that the re-actionary party had not sown the seed of their ill-willin wholly barren ground . "Racial and cultural anti-Semitism met with great success," writes ProfessorIsmar Elbogen : 8

    Hardly any branch of science was free from anti-Jewish prejudices. Luminaries of science at the Ger-man universities brought up many generations ofacademic youths in this disgusting spirit and they im-mediately poisoned the minds of the masses and in-fected all the strata of society with their hatred . Socialas well as economic discriminations against the Jewsresulted, but the reaction which took place in the po-litical life was even more perceptible . Although thegovernment professed adherence to the constitution,acts d ty, by means of "administrative fraud," asTheodor Mommsen termed it, they tried to excludeJews from the possibility of holding state offices, re-

    ' "History of the Jews."

  • 20

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERRORfused to allow them to advance into leading positions,and kept them from military and naval careers .

    The crop of hatred resulting from this planting wasnot to be reaped until a war, a revolution, and an eco-nomic debacle had blinded the common sense andbroken the morale of the German people . There canbe no doubt, however, that the ceaselessly iteratedcharges of the anti-Semites sank imperceptibly but deepinto the German consciousness, there to lie fallow until,in a mood of bitterness and blind anger, their latentpower for evil was cynically evoked and deliberatelytransformed into a national mania.

  • 2PSYCHIC FACTORS

    W HEN THAT CLASSIC PERVERSION OF WOODROWWilson's fourteen points known as the VersaillesTreaty was presented to Germany, Count Brockdorff-Rantzau protested, "We have no illusions as to the ex-tent of our defeat and the measure of our impotence .. . . We have no intention of absolving Germany ofall responsibility for the war . . . but we expresslyintend that Germany, whose people was convinced thatit was fighting a defensive war, should not be saddledwith the whole responsibility."

    But Germany was as helpless to shed the guilt of waras she was to save her economic and territorial skin . Thetreaty that she signed retained unmodified the protestedArticle 231, stating with inescapable clarity that "theAllied and Associated Governments affirm and Germanyaccepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies forcausing all the loss and damage to which the Alliedand Associated Governments and their nationals havebeen subjected as a consequence of the war imposedupon them by the aggression of Germany and her al-lies." Thus on June 28, 1919, Germany stood in the

    21

  • 22

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    court of world opinion a confessed criminal among thenations. It was a burden too terrible to be borne .

    Had Germany won the war, the assumption of itsresponsibility would readily have been transformed inthe national mind into a claim of achievement. It wouldhave been epic . Laureates would have arisen to sing itspraises, legends would have been woven about its he-roes. Failing of this, the years 1914-18 appeared amonstrous and purposeless demonstration of barbarism,inacceptable as a concept, galling, intolerable .

    Implicit in the disproportionately cruel terms of thetreaty that Germany was forced to sign was the self-righteous unloading of guilt on to her by the Alliedand Associated Governments. Having thus routed thelast irksome vestiges of their own culpability from theirpolitical consciences, they were prepared to reestablishfriendly relations with Germany. Germany appearedwilling to reciprocate the friendship, but under the ex-ternalities of diplomatic and economic acceptance, sherejected and regurgitated the role assigned her. Thesin she had been forced politically to name and to con-fess became insupportably hideous . Had she not beentoo crippled and too disorganized within, she mightwith the waging of another war have proven her indif-ference to her guilty status. But denied this only safety-valve and unable longer to endure it, Germany castviciously about her for a whipping-boy . And found him,immemorially accredited, helpless to defend himself orto escape, within the boundaries of her land and themargins of her shame .

    It is difficult to convert content into aggression . Had

  • PSYCHIC FACTORS

    23

    the people of Germany been wellfed, sheltered andamused, they might conceivably have sublimated theirsense of guilt into the pursuits of prosperity. Had theybeen even normally employed, their signature on thedocument of guilt might gradually have resolved itselfinto a formal gesture . But Germany was racked fromwithin and without. Hands and bellies were empty .What had survived the war had been laid waste byrevolution. An inescapable feeling of unrest and a de-moralizing sense of fundamental insecurity obtained .There was a surfeit of the inactivity of despair . Thehigh suggestibility of the individual or the mass at sucha time is the recognized meat of party politics . Throughthe long tension of thirteen years the Nazis channelized,deepened and directed the river of spleen .

    Any accessible minority people would have servedthe purposes of scapegoatism. But Hitler recognizedthe peculiar qualifications of the Jew for the part . Asidefrom the indispensable fact of its minority status, Ger-man Jewry was inevitably the object against which allthe self-loathing, humiliation and physical hunger ofGermany could vent itself . Long in the land, deeply inand of its culture, a familiar of its political and scientificthoroughfares, yet racially distinct, the Jew was a Ger-man and he was not. Of exactly the proper proportionof identity and difference, he provided the perfect ob-ject for a transference of guilt . It is tragic and ironicto note that the very effort of the Jew to be assimilatedinto the German genus betrayed him most completelyinto the hands of his enemies . Even in early childhoodmimicry is recognized as a stimulus of rage. It is argued

  • 24

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    that in mimicry one may perceive one's own flaws inanother and strike out against them with no pain to theego. Thus the most successfully assimilated Jew becamethe likeliest target for the Nazi, and his willingness toabandon his own as bespoken by his assimilability, madethe violence of the Hitlerite seem rather a furtheringof suicide than the murder which it was .

    More than a year ago the psychic bases of the presentJudeo-mania in Germany were brilliantly presented byDr. Nahum Goldmann, who wrote that 1 "the wholenew wave of anti-Semitism in Germany is an extremelycomplicated sociological phenomenon and comprisesmuch larger circles than the National-Socialist move-ment alone."Dr. Goldmann expounds with incontrovertible insight

    and clarity the factors prerequisite to an understandingof the success of the Nazi campaign against the Jew .His analysis follows :

    The fantastic rise and success of the National-Socialist party are plain evidence of the powerfulmotives which have given birth to and nourished it .Five or six years ago this party consisted only of asmall gang of fanatics and demagogues ; to-day it isnot only the strongest party in Germany, but also oneof the most important factors in European politics .The unbelievable extent of this movement indicatesthat petty negative motives like envy, greed, hatredcannot be made to account for the rise of Hitlerism .1 "The Psychology of German Anti-Semitism," Opinion, A

    Journal of Jewish . Life and Letters, March 21, I932 .

  • PSYCHIC FACTORS

    25

    To try to explain it as the product of such petty nega-tive forces alone would be not only too facile an ac-counting for this disagreeable phenomenon, but also,from a Jewish angle, self-deception . Some definitelypositive forces must have been at work to create notonly a new political party of millions of people, butto inspire them to a point of fanaticism.

    In trying to classify these various forces we areable to discern three different groups of motives. Thefirst group comprises old traditions, for German anti-Semitism is not an outgrowth of the present post-warperiod but a definite tendency which more or lesspermeated German life throughout the nineteenthcentury and made Germany the source of scientific,i .e., theoretical and ideological anti-Semitism . Thesecond group of motives embraces mass-psychologicalprocesses which, in the years since the armistice, be-long rather to the realm of pathology . The thirdgroup, which leads a great part of the German peopleto fight against Jewry, results from a new mentalattitude of the rising generation .

    The great influence traditionally exerted by anti-Semitism upon the German people throughout thenineteenth century has resulted from two main fac-tors. The first is the predominant position of Jews inGermany. There was hardly any country in the world-until a short time ago-in which Jewry played suchan important role and held a position so totally outof proportion to its numerical strength . German Jewsnot only exercised their influence in the economic and

  • 26

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    intellectual life of the German people, but even inthe political sphere they played an important roledespite the fact that they could not take any directpart in it. They did this rather indirectly by way ofintellectual influence through the formulation of newpolitical ideas, e.g., Marx and Lassalle as the creatorsof modern Socialism ; Stahl-though baptized, still aJew-as the founder of the Prussian ConservativeParty; and many Jewish publishers and politiciansas organizers of the Democratic party. This outstand-ing position in German public life has been one of thechief causes of the strong, "permanent" German anti-Semitism. The other factor which is more important,is based upon the peculiar psychology of the Germanpeople. It is a people of unique gifts, perhaps richerin its potentialities and specific abilities than anyother; as great in industry as in music, in practicalorganization as in abstract metaphysics, to instance thepolarity of its capabilities.

    But, even at this very day, the German people hasnot found the true outward form of its inward char-acter. . . . Here lies, perhaps, the intrinsic reason forthe innumerable difficulties which the German peoplehave again and again caused in European politics ; thereason also for its jumpiness and its incalculable posi-tion which the rest of the world rightly perceives asa source of incessant disturbance .

    I mention this because in it may be found the rootsof German anti-Semitism which has always been morea psychological than a purely economic or politicalmovement. It is characteristic of the extremely com-

  • PSYCHIC FACTORS

    27

    plicated, antagonistic, fermenting, and chaotic natureof the German people that it can so easily be influ-enced by other nations outside its frontiers and byminorities inside, at the same time that it is fightingagainst these very influences . The predilection of theGerman for everything foreign . . . is not onlyone of the recognized peculiarities of the psychologyof the German nation, but also an explanation of theamazing role the Jews have played in German cul-ture. . . . The people cannot help feeling thestrength of Jewish influence and trembles for thepurity of its own national genius. Hatred is alwaysa sign of inner weakness . Strong men and strong na-tions ignore the enemies or influences they reject ;whereas those who are not strong enough to resistthe influence of others have to endure it and hatethose who dominate them .

    . . . The deepest hatred in human relations is al-ways preconditioned by the closest intimacy. If welook upon German anti-Semitism from this angle, wecan distinguish it as a consequence of Jewish strengthand German insecurity. . . . It is fundamentally anexpression of mass-psychosis .

    This thought leads us to the second group of mo-tives for anti-Semitism in Germany : those arisingfrom the psychology of the German people afterthe war. Since 1918 the inner uncertainty, the tor-ment and the contradictions of the German characterhave been even more accentuated . The lost war hashad the effect of a neurosis on a great majority of

  • 28

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    the people. They suffer from the defeat as from anunfortunate shock upon soul and nerves . They can-not recuperate because they are mentally not strongenough to lose the war like gentlemen, to acknowl-edge the defeat to themselves, to forget it, and lib-erated from the consciousness of it, to turn the pageand start a new chapter of their history .

    This mental behavior of a majority of the Germanpeople is a most arresting and tragic case of mass-psychosis-the mental infection of an entire nation .The people resort in their suffering to a kind of reac-tion which is only too well known in psychiatry ; theyrefuse to admit to themselves the very fact whichcauses their suffering . Millions of people are livingnow in Germany who, despite the fact that they knowthat the Allies won the war, will not admit that factto themselves . At least they will not recognize it asthe outcome of a just and fair battle fought withequal weapons . The very thought that Germany couldhave lost the war is insupportable, and in this emer-gency they seek some means by which to explain afact that has obviously happened against the laws ofnature. Demoniacal forces must have been at work tobring it about and in the search for these forces theyseize on the Jews as the most natural objective . Forgenerations a great part of the German people hadbeen educated to see in the Jew the permanent scape-goat for its ills, and now the fact that the Jewish So-cialists played a leading role in the German revolutioncan also be used against them . Thus they were heldresponsible for the defeat as well as for every disad-

  • PSYCHIC FACTORS

    29

    vantage that had ensued from that debacle . Obviouslythis root of anti-Semitism will not be eradicated aslong as a major part of the German population suf-fers from the neurosis. This also accounts, more thanany other reason, for the depth of hatred, the pas-sionate rage, and the brutality of Hitlerism .Whoever has read any products of German anti-

    Semitic propaganda and literature in the last ten yearsmust be revolted by the bestiality of the insults andinvectives, by the confessions of feelings expressed inthese prints. It is hardly necessary to be a student ofpsychology to realize that such a phenomenon, if itoccurs in a nation of the spiritual and cultural levelof the German, can be understood only as a mass-psychosis, as a mental ailment of hundreds of millionsof people. If we could afford to disregard the prac-tical consequences of this mental poisoning, our reac-tion to this phenomenon would be pity rather thanindignation.

    Logical argumentation and proof by facts and docu-ments, that the Jews are not responsible for the de-feat and that the German revolution has been causedby totally different factors, have not the slightesteffect . The passionate propaganda campaign, launchedby Jewish organizations in Germany to combat anti-Semitism with statistics and documents, impresses usas rather naive . In the age of Freud it ought to beknown that mental ailments cannot be cured withlogic, since logical argumentation will make the pa-tient only more furious because he will feel the weak-ness of his position and is bound to react to it with

  • 30

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    more rigorous resistance and more acute hatred . Thispsychopathic situation is also the reason for the manycontradictions in the anti-Semitic accusations, some ofwhich, if seen from a logical viewpoint, seem to bealmost humorous in the way they annul, one another .Jews have caused the war and Jews have stopped it ;Jews are the masters of Capitalism and Jews are thechieftains of Bolshevism ; Jews dominate internationalpolitics and at the same time they are concerned withthe politics of Jewish solidarity only. It is not a ques-tion of logic or of proofs but rather of a diseased mindseeking a symbol for its hatred, an outlet for all itsrejections and aversions .

    Besides these two groups of psychological motives,we are aware of a third which, seen from a historicalangle, may be considered most important and dan-gerous. It is an entirely new phenomenon foundednot in psychopathic reactions but in spiritual and po-litical tendencies.

    A new conception of politics among a great part ofthe younger generation of the German universitiesexplains a great deal of the attitude of the leaders ofthe anti-Semitic movement. In previous periods theintellectuals of all nations, and especially the studentshad always been against anti-Semitism which, duringthe nineteenth century, had been the monopoly ofdemagogues, politicians, petty-bourgeoisies, and simi-lar elements. The intellectuals had always been lib-eral, youth always progressive, and both thereforeopposed to anti-Semitism. To-day, however, the sit-

  • PSYCHIC FACTORS 3 1uation is reversed in Germany-and not only in Ger-many. A considerable part of the intelligentsia is in-clined toward anti-Semitism and, what is much moreimportant, the major part of the student body ap-proves it. This vital fact means that anti-Semitismwill not quickly disappear from the German stage .These youths will only start to play their role inGerman life five or ten years hence, and will thenonly have their chance to implement their anti-Semitic tendencies .

    The change in the attitude of these classes is basedon a profound change in our cultural and politicalideology. The great political and social ideas of thenineteenth century-individualism, liberalism, democ-racy, toleration, in brief, liberty-are being con-sciously rejected. Contemporary youth has a newconception of the nature of the State which is morestrict and severe and disciplined . It tends in the di-rection of the collectivistic ideal . These youths acceptCommunism or Fascism-which have much more incommon than one might suspect at a hasty glance-and they certainly have in common the fight againstthe liberal ideals of the nineteenth century. The entireatmosphere of that liberal century is being ridiculed .Respect for minorities as well as toleration of dis-senters is depicted as developing a chaotic situationwhich must be vanquished by the lofty new concep-tion of the nature of the State.

    This is the most profound cause of the attitude ofthe major part of the German intelligentsia againstthe Jews. Very rightly they feel that the Jews are

  • 32 SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    the natural born champions of these ideals . Jews as aminority are ready to fight and to die for them.Wherever the state demands the hundred percentstandardization of its citizens, it must annihilate theindependent and individual existence of the Jews asJews-and the best example of this is provided bySoviet Russia which certainly is not deliberately orofficially anti-Semitic . Those German intellectualswho have established the theories and the ideologyof National Socialism and who are the spiritual lead-ers of Hitlerism are conscious of this fact . Their fightagainst democracy is identical with their fight againstthe Jews as the champions of democracy . Their rag-ing hatred against the "Jewish Press" is not hatredagainst Jews alone, it is equally directed against allliberal journalism .

    The causes and root of German anti-Semitism ele-vate the whole subject to the plane of a problem ofhistorical significance and also demonstrate its inter-national importance . This is really one of the greatspiritual conflicts between the eternal ideals of lib-erty, toleration, and liberalism on one side, and na-tional militarism, collectivism and dictatorship on theother. The battle has run its course through all his-tory and now has again become the central problemof our day.

  • 3OUT OF THEIR OWN MOUTHS

    «

    HE GERMAN HAS NOT THE SLIGHTEST NOTION OF.how a people must be misled if the adherence of

    the masses is sought," wrote Adolf Hitler in 1924.'The phenomenal rise to power of the Nazi party is ex-plained in this cynical boast of political sophisticationby its leader . Since first he made it, he has supplied themost thorough and effective instruction in the art ofdeliberate misleading which history records .

    It is in the light of this boast that Hitler and themovement which is interchangeable with him, must beviewed. His is no case of misguided fanaticism in a naiveand untutored man. Hitler is fully aware of the ab-surdity and mendaciousness of his propaganda . Farfrom hiding or denying, he revels in it . "To win thesympathy of the broad masses," he wrote, "you musttell them the crudest and most stupid things ." He hasand does .

    We have already seen that the German stage wasset and the actor-audience impatient for any illusion

    1 "Mein Kampf" (My Struggle), by Adolf Hitler. Quotationdeleted from 12th edition, 1932 .

    33

  • 34

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    through which it might forget its misery and despair .Magic, strong and black, was required, and the magicianwho sways the German scene to-day was ready to fur-nish it. His recipe was an old and simple one . Nothing,he held, could rouse the nation from the slough ofdespond in which it had sunk save a common purpose .And since any positive or creative purpose was by thevery nature of the times precluded, he chose to uniteGermany by means of a common hate : hate of the Jew.

    The story of that hate is Hitler's history . By meansof it he captured the first Munich beer-hall audienceswhich supplied the nucleus of his party . And, as theincreasing response of his followers confirmed theshrewdness of his choice, he made it the foundationand the capstone of his "unalterable" party program .Resorting to it as an escape whenever otherwise insolu-ble problems arose, widening its scope to include everyaspect of domestic politics and international relations,deepening its intensity to the point where uncheckedviolence seemed the inevitable channel for its expression-Hitler attained his goal.

    This is set down neither in depreciation of the man'sability nor power. No estimate of the present GermanChancellor could be more incorrect than that of an in-competent nonentity swept to incongruous heights bythe illogic of events. Even the showmanship and theforensic effectiveness which have been advanced as hisonly leaderlike qualities, fail to explain his career . Theymerely divert attention from the Jew hatred which hehas made his medium; they serve only to allay the fears

  • OUT OF THEIR OWN MOUTHS 35of those who will not recognize the dimensions of hisevil .

    To gauge the present status of the war being wagedby the Nazi Government against the Jews of Germany,its campaign of approach must be traced . Originatingwith Hitler's calculated formula of hate, it establishedits object as a point of reference for all the ills thatGerman flesh or spirit was heir to . In its earliest andcrudest stage the campaign may be termed scape-goatism, impure and simple . Edgar Ansell Mowrer,for ten years Berlin correspondent of the Chicago DailyNews, depicts it thus :'

    If Germany lost the war, the Jews betrayed it .If the Kaiser and the grand old order had to go,

    the fault lay with the Jewish revolutionaries .If money vanished during the inflation, look for it

    in the pockets of Israel .If you were unemployed, you need merely note

    how many Jews still had good safe jobs. If as lawyer,physician, scientist, professor, teacher, artist, successdid not smile upon you, it was because the Jews hadtaken the best for themselves.

    When a high school youth failed in his mathe-matics, it was because Jewish influence in Germanschools caused overimportance to be laid on numbersand rationality : true Germans "think with theirblood."2 "Germany Puts the Clock Back," by Edgar Ansell Mowrer,

    1933 .

  • 36

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    If a shopkeeper went broke, the proper coursewas to break the windows of the Jewish departmentstore. If a manufacturer could not keep up with tech-nical methods, the fault lay with Jewish usurers inthe banks. For whereas German capital is "creative,"Jewish capital is "appropriative."

    In short, if girls went wrong and religion decayed,if Germany paid reparations to negroid French andgreedy Americans, if abortion became common andarchitects built flat roofs and the rumba swept theglobe, the fault of it all lay with the Jews!

    Aided by his lieutenants, Feder and Goebbels, Hitlerspeedily graduated from this comparative kindergartenof hatred . They orientated their instrument of ill-willupon every issue confronting the German people . Thuson the vexed question of banking and the interest onloans, the Nazis discovered a profound if elusive dis-tinction between two types of capital . The one theylabeled Jewish, the other Christian . The Christian orschaffendes capital was defined as employed in industrialand constructive enterprises . The Jewish or raffendescapital was described as pertaining to loans, mortgages,etc., and therefore parasitic. Despite the obvious diffi-culty that Jewish and Christian capitalists were indistin-guishably engaged in both varieties, it became a partyfetish that, on assumption of power, "Christian" capitalwas to be safeguarded, "Jewish" expropriated .

    No weapon in the armory of hate was more cleverlyemployed than the bogey of Marxian revolution . Thenatural antipathy of the German spirit to radical change,

  • OUT OF THEIR OWN MOUTHS 37

    the insular position which since the war had been foistedon the nation, the repellent yet attractive proximity ofthe Communist experiment-all were concentrated anddirected upon the menace of the international Jew. Forwas not the Jew the international people par excellence ;had not Russia been dragged into Communism byJewish conspirators ; were not Jews in Germany andelsewhere disproportionately active in the organizationof labor; above all, was not the evil genius of interna-tionalism-Marx himself-a Jew? In a frenzy of non-sequitor, Hitler affirmed, "If the Jew wins over theworld with the help of the Marxian doctrines, thentheir crown will be the wreath of death for mankind. . . so I believe in the spirit of the Almighty Creator .I shall defend myself against the Jew, I shall fight forthe work of the Lord!"

    Most ingenious of all the mechanisms employed inthe Nazi campaign was its approach to the religiousquestion. To denounce Judaism as an inferior faith anda subversive creed, as Christian apologists had done inall ages, did not suffice. Not only must Judaism be de-stroyed but Christianity must be purged of all Jewishaspects. The practical difficulties of this purification-inview of the land, language, race and faith of the authorsof the Old and New Testaments as well as the centralfigure of Christianity-failed to discourage the Nazi cru-saders. The true Jesus, it was discovered, following thehints of Houston Stewart Chamberlain, was "throughand through un-Jewish, rather he was Indo-Germanic,he was German!" And Christianity, to be genuine, musttherefore be revised to harmonize with its founder's new

  • 38

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    nationality. "Nordicus" comments on this transforma-tion as follows : a

    It is modestly admitted that Christianity has at-tained its true worth through the Germanic charactergiven it through the Reformation . . . . This heroicTeutonic spirit rather than Christianity based uponlove will be the new keynote. Christ's doctrine of for-giveness and loving thine enemy are obviously out ofplace in a country that must preach eternal enmity tothe "French swine ." Nazi pastors will be expected todilate upon the heroic character of the ancient Ger-man gods-even though they be heathens-since theyexpress the real, aggressive, positive Christian spirit .The love-thy-neighbor-as-thyself Christian will betaboo. Any portion of the Christian doctrine thatsmacks too much of Jewish influence must be for-gotten .

    As the Nazi philosophy developed, the gap widenedbetween the cross of Christian love and Hitler's Haken-kreuz of hate.

    The keystone of this structure of hatred was of coursethe obsession of race and blood. Thomas Mann, in the"Magic Mountain," introduces a debauched and degen-erate character whose only justification for existence inhis own eyes is that, whatever else his shame, he is atleast not a Jew. Hitler set about inculcating a not dis-similar sense of pride in the German people. Divided,disorganized, and disunited, Germany could at least find

    s "Hitlerism, the Iron Fist in Germany," by "Nordicus."

  • OUT OF THEIR OWN MOUTHS 39solace in its Aryan blood . Into this citadel let no Semitepenetrate .

    With the slogan, "No Jew can be a German!" Hitlerset about the regeneration of the fatherland . The statewhich he visioned was to be a "racial" one . Its unity(and here lies its basic difference from Italian Fascismwith which it claims kinship) was to be a unity of blood .Alfred Rosenberg, philosopher of the Nazi movement,outdid even his leader when he rhapsodized over "thebelief embodied in the sublime knowledge that Nordicblood represents the mystery which has replaced andvanquished the ancient sacrament."'

    Having solved the racial mystery-a task whichscience rejects as impossible-the Nazis turned to incor-porating their hate of the Jew into a concrete politicalprogram. The document in which this is accomplishedand which may be described as the constitution or rather,the repeal of the constitution of the New Germany, isdivided into twenty-five sections . Of these, seven dealdirectly with the disenfranchisement, the pauperization,and the expatriation of German Jewry . A detailed andan illuminating analysis follows : 5

    Point number 4 : "A citizen can be only one suitedto the state . The latter can be only one who has Ger-man blood, without regard to confession . No Jewtherefore can be a person suited to the state." Herethe rights and duties of citizenship are denied the4 "The Myth of the Twentieth Century," by Alfred Rosen-

    berg ." "Hitlerism, the Iron Fist in Germany," by "Nordicus ."

  • 40

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERRORJew. Under a Hitler regime he must live as a non-citizen .

    Point number 5 : "Any one not a citizen can live inGermany only as a guest and must remain under leg-islation for foreigners ." In other words, Jews can bedeported at the will of the government, since they donot enjoy the privileges of citizenship and are classedas foreigners .

    Point number 6 : "Only the citizen has the right todetermine the guidance of the state . Therefore wedemand that every public office, no matter what kind,whether in the Reich, state or county, be filled onlyby citizens." Thus the Jew is summarily shoved backinto the Middle Ages and refused the right to voteand to hold office. The rights granted him by theGerman Constitution are to be changed-in somemanner.

    Point number 7: "We demand that the state beobliged first of all to give the citizen a chance to earnhis livelihood. If it is not possible to sustain theentire population of the country, citizens of foreignnations (Nicht-Staatsburger) are to be deported." NoGerman must be unemployed in the Hitler-Reich. Inorder to elevate the jobless into economic paradise,all Jews having jobs or earning a livelihood mustmake way when Germans blessed with pure Aryanblood live on the dole . Jewish business men, doctors,lawyers, professors, all may be deported if there beany unemployment whatsoever. Where this army ofJews will be sent is not made clear .

    Point number 8 : "Further immigration of non-

  • OUT OF THEIR OWN MOUTHS 41

    Germans is to be prohibited. We demand that allnon-Germans who have immigrated to Germany sinceAugust 2, 1914, be forced to leave the Reich imme-diately."

    Point number 23 : "We demand a legislative battleagainst conscious political falsehoods and their diffu-sion through the press . In order to make possible thecreation of a German press, we demand that

    "(a) All editors and co-workers of newspapersappearing in the German language must be personssuited to the state (Volksgenosse) ;

    "(b) Non-German newspapers must have the per-mission of the government in order to appear . Theymust not be published in the German language ;

    "(c) Legislation must prohibit the financial par-ticipation of non-Germans in German newspapers ; ifthis be disregarded the guilty newspaper will bebanned and the non-Germans immediately deported ."

    Thus according to the program the press, regardedas an important factor in the political control of Ger-many, must be cleansed of all Jewish influence . Everynewspaper criticizing Hilter's anti-Semitic policy willbe muzzled if the least bit of Jewish backing befound.Point number 24: "We demand freedom for all

    religious confessions in the state, in so far as theseconfessions do not offend the morality of the Germanrace." There will be freedom of religion in the HitlerReich, that is, for all except Jews .

    Points 4 to 8 (concerning rights and duties of citi-zenship), point 23 (concerning the press), and point

  • 42

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    24 (concerning religion), are aimed directly at theJews. In the rest of the program: points i to 3, for-eign policy ; points I I to 13, administration of justice ;points 14 to i g, industrial program ; points 2o to 22,education and administration of youth ; and point 25,administration of the state, the problem of anti-Semitism remains as a fundamental principle .

    Such is the new Hymn of Hate which Hitler intonedand with which he captured control of the German Re-public. Lest it seem strange that this program was of solimited and negative a kind one need only recall thequotation with which this chapter opened. At all events,save for the general desire to rebuild a mighty nation,there is no other organized, intelligible, unified conceptadvanced by the Nazi Party. For on economic pointswhere its paradoxes and contradictions are not whollymeaningless, the program, "stands foursquare for noth-ing at all." Oswald Garrison Villard says of it : 6

    Hitler's economic views are vague and contradic-tory, not to say childish, and always subject to changewithout notice. . . . One of his many utterances onthe gold standard reads thus : "For Germany thisquestion is not important anyway, since we have butlittle gold!" Soon, however, he stated after all hedid have some ideas about the proper gold policy ofGermany, but "our economic ideas are something wedo not propose to uncover now. They are, if youplease, patented." . . It would be hard to find aclearer case of the ignorance and the shallowness of6 "The German Phoenix," by Oswald Garrison Villard . 1933

  • OUT OF THEIR OWN MOUTHS 43this man who assumes that he alone is entirely fittedto lead Germany out of her troubles .

    Indeed, the Nazi Party has frequently been madeuncomfortably aware of the hash of Nationalism, Capi-talism, Socialism, and even Communism which makesup its program. In a moment of revelatory candor,Joseph Goebbels, its chief of propaganda, lamented, "IfI had founded the party I should not have put outany program at all." Can there be any wonder that theNazi leaders turned ever and again to the sure groundof Hitler's intuition concerning the efficacy of hate? Onthat rock the Nazi church is founded .

    Having secured the theoretic bases of the movement,Hitler set out to translate its tenets into action . TheGerman people must be given a foretaste of the sweetsof victory which a despoiling of the Jew would bring.Those who were amazed at the outbreaks which coin-cided with Hitler's final victory have but to consult therecord to learn that no act committed since that datewith official connivance but can be paralleled in thepreceding years. Everett R . Clinchy, Secretary of theNational Conference of Jews and Christians records :'

    Actual past experiences wherever National Social-ists obtained control of municipal provincial Govern-ment has shown the determination to carry out theanti-Jewish policies outlined in their program . WhenNational Socialists were for a time in control of theGovernment of Thuringia, the Jewish method ofslaughtering animals was forbidden, and the National7 "The Strange Case of Herr Hitler," by Everett R . Clinchy.

  • 44

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    Socialist Minister of the Interior, Frick, now a mem-ber of the Cabinet of the Reich, introduced in thepublic schools of the province the recitation of prayersin which appeals were addressed to the Almighty torid the country of the "enemies of Germany." Inother places, National Socialists dismissed Jewish ac-tors, opera singers, university professors and publicofficials . National Socialists in the Prussian Diet intro-duced a statute providing for the confiscation of theproperty of East European Jews who entered thecountry after August 1, 1914.

    In a list of one hundred criminal acts committedagainst Jews in the year 1932, the following instancesare chosen almost at random.'

    6.-January 24th :-The University of Berlin wasclosed on account of renewed anti-Semitic riots .Jewish students were injured and had to betaken to the hospital. As they were carried outfrom the hall on stretchers, the Nazis accom-panied the stretcher bearers chanting the song,"Jewish Blood Spurts from the Knife." Morethan forty students, women among them, wereinjured.

    15.-March 11th:-Nazi attacks upon Synagogueshappened during services in Duesseldorf andEmden and the homes of the Rabbis were at-tacked. In Duesseldorf the Nazis fired shots atthe windows of the Synagogue, smashing the

    8 "Anti-Semitism in Germany in 1932," by Dr . Trude WeissRosmarin.

  • OUT OF THEIR OWN MOUTHS 45panes and through this opening proceeded toaim missiles at the congregants .

    28.-May loth :-The first act on the part of the Nazileaders who won a victory in the recent dietelections at Anhalt was to adopt a measure com-pelling Jewish children to imbibe Christian edu-cation. The diet abolished the separation of re-ligious education from the State Schools andintroduced compulsory Christian education forall children attending State Schools.

    44.-June loth:Three Hundred Nazis marchedthrough the streets of Breslau and terrorizedJewish passersby, shouting, "Let the Jews go toPalestine." The Nazis attacked a Jewish funeralprocession just opposite the Police Headquar-ters. They shouted : "Here one Jew is leavingfor Palestine, and we will soon get rid of therest ."

    68.-August i ith :-A bomb was discovered in aSynagogue in Cologne . Police arrived in timeto remove the bomb before it exploded . ManyJews were attacked at the gate of another Syna-gogue in Cologne.

    8o.-August 3oth :-A 25o-year-old Cemetery inAschersleben was desecrated . A number of thetombstones were removed and some weresmashed.

    As Nazi strength increased and government authorityrelaxed, the record grows blacker. Hitler had written,"If you fail to see your name maligned in the Jewish

  • 46

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    press in the morning you made no good use of yourtime yesterday ." Conversely, his followers deduced andwere explicitly instructed that anti-Jewish violencewould be munificently rewarded in the hour of partyvictory. The conclusion was a foregone one .

    1 have chronicled this campaign of hate, and recordedthese instances of persecution occurring before Hitler'saccession to power, not so much for what they were asfor what they portended. What followed was inevitable.A doom had been invoked. A broken and embitterednation had been "misled" for ten years toward Der Tag.Not as of old Der Tag of open combat against an equalfoe-but of pillage, of rapine and of murder committedone hundred against one upon defenseless men, womenand children within Germany's own border .

  • 4THE BROWN TERROR

    N THE SHADOW OF AN APPROACHING DOOM, MEN TENDto deny its reality. When the world declared war in

    19 14, the conflict was of such proportions that it wasscientifically demonstrated and universally accepted thatit could not continue more than six months . When Hit-ler came into power, it was commonly held, both in andout of Germany, that the terror which he and his partyhad prophesied and promised could not transpire. Yettranspire it did-to an extent which even those whodreaded it most had not dared to fear ; on a scale whicheven its conjurers had not dared to hope . For morethan a decade the Nazis had sown the winds of hatred .Within a fortnight of their victory the whirlwind ofviolence and bloodshed had been reaped .

    One is loathe alike to read as to recount what tookplace. Its evil savor and its harrowing details blanch theheart. Yet to omit them were to falsify the record .Whatever the ultimate verdict of mankind, it is needfulto set down and to make known these outrages andatrocities . No milder terms can be applied . Nor can thejustified disrepute into which these terms fell after the

    47

  • 48

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERRORWar be suffered to obscure the facts. Even though manyof the atrocities then reported have since been dis-credited as propaganda, it does not follow, as the NaziGovernment adroitly suggests, that propaganda andatrocities are synonymous . Whether or not they havebeen so in the past, they are so no longer in Germany .

    The evidence of outrages and atrocities committedagainst Liberals, against Communists, and in greatestmeasure against Jews, is incontrovertible . Apart fromthe sworn testimony of victims and attested depositionsof refugees, the reign of the Brown Terror is recordedin the despatches from Germany by foreign corre-spondents of the press of the world. These men are notthe foes either of the German people or of its presentgovernment. They have no political, racial or religiousax to grind. Many of them have established homes andpersonal ties in Germany. They know that the goodor ill-will of the Government can lighten or maketheir work infinitely harder . And in the last monthsthey have been made acutely aware that any unfavorablereports will jeopardize not only their professionalactivities but their personal safety . Yet it is from themthat the most damning evidence comes .

    Faced by this evidence and the deep resentment itevoked throughout the world, the Nazi Governmenthas had recourse to three devices . First, a blanket denialof all charges. Goering, who is Prussian Minister of theInterior, declared on his assumption of office : "I refuseto turn the Police into a guard for Jewish stores." Twoweeks later he categorically denied all outrages andstated, "Not a single Jewish shop in Germany is pre-

  • THE BROWN TERROR

    49vented from doing business. Not a single synagogue hasbeen damaged. Not a single Jewish cemetery has beendespoiled."

    Since this demonstrably false statement reassured noone, and since the press despatches to other countrieswere too numerous and too unanimous to brand aswholesale falsehoods, the Nazi Government took asecond tack. Goebbels, Minister of Public Enlighten-ment and Propaganda, according to the Berlin corre-spondent of the London Times, "confirmed all that theresponsible foreign press has published-namely, thatthere have been beatings, killings, and house visitationsby private individuals ." He called attention to the fact,however, that the Nazi accession to power had beenmore in the nature of a national revolution (Hitler in-sists it was a strictly constitutional proceeding) than achange in government. Thus it was inevitably attendedby certain untoward "incidents" of which Jews had beenthe victims, but for which the Nazi Government couldin no wise be held accountable. This, despite the factthat all revolutionary activities had been conducted bythe Nazi Party and its Storm Troops .

    Finally, it was urged that the "incidents" in questionhad ended ; that they had been maliciously distorted byenemies of Germany and that they could be dismissed asgross exaggerations of the facts . In this defense theNazi Government had one ally-the natural disinclina-tion of the human mind to credit as possible the newswhich came from Germany. Despite this will to dis-believe, however, there can to-day be no question thatthe atrocities and brutalities reported from Germany,

  • 50

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    far from being exaggerated are incomplete and under-stated accounts of what took place .

    There is the incriminating fact of the iron censorshipwhich exists in Germany to-day. That censorship isexercised in two directions . First, upon the German pressitself. The special correspondent of The ManchesterGuardian writes that "there is not a word in the Press .Any newspaper that dares to give even a hint of thetruth would share the fate of hundreds of newspapersthat have been totally ruined by the terrorist dictator-ship." Moreover, the Government has made everyeffort to block the foreign correspondents of Germanyin their attempts both to ascertain the facts and to com-municate them. Under such circumstances what con-clusion is possible save that the little that has come tolight is proof not of more but of less than the wholetruth.

    Even more damaging to the claim of exaggeration, isthe silencing fear on the part of the victims that anyword they may utter will bring further and yet moreterrible reprisals. This holds true, not only for thosestill in Germany, but even of the statements of refugees,and of letters mailed from beyond the German border-full of fear lest what they say or write may causethose who still remain in Germany further anguish .

    Whatever the Nazi Government may say concerningexaggerations, it will be months and perhaps years be-fore the full measure of the Brown Terror may beappraised. But it is already certain that that terror willprove in degree and in extent to be even worse than theworld yet knows or than is here recounted .

  • THE BROWN TERROR

    5 1

    Before citing the evidence a word must be said as towho constitutes the victims . They are for the most partJews. Despite the political antagonism of Hitler toCommunists and to Liberals, the largest measure ofofficial rage has been directed against Jews . This hasbeen both in line with the Nazi policy which we havetraced, and because Jews furnish the easiest and mostobvious targets. Too, Jews have been victimized re-gardless of the political party to which they belong .Liberal and radical Gentiles of all groups have sufferedunder Hitler. But the most conservative of Jews havebeen no less subjected to the Brown Terror than themost radical of Communists .

    It is not possible to give here a detailed and completeaccount of what took place following the election ofMarch 5 and Hitler's appointment to the Chancellor-ship. The nearest analogy is to be found in the ancientTeutonic custom of Freinacht-the customary night oflicense granted to warriors by their commander after avictory, a night in which order and discipline wereabandoned in an orgy of bloodlust and revenge .

    The analogy is inadequate, however, since the NaziFreinacht lasted not for a night but for weeks. Noris its end yet in sight . Thus in a cable to The New YorkTimes dated March 25, Edmund Taylor writes :

    On the nights of March 9 and io, bands of Nazisthroughout Germany carried out wholesale raidscalculated to intimidate the opposition, particularlythe Jews. As hundreds have sworn in affidavits, menand women were insulted, slapped, punched in the

  • 52

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    face, hit over the head with blackjacks, dragged outof their homes in night-clothes and otherwisemolested.

    Most of these incidents have been admitted by theauthorities, but officially they asserted they were car-ried out by irresponsible hands. Reliable witnesses,however, declare that in the literal sense of the wordthere were no mob scenes at all . Perpetrators of theoutrages were all uniformed Nazis .

    The following more detailed accounts of what trans-pired are divided into two main groups. The first con-sists of reports and dispatches culled from the reputablepress of the world and in every instance carrying theauthority of a journalist of recognized standing . Thesecond comprises letters, statements, and affidavits ofthe victims themselves. In each case the identity of theindividual is known and the authenticity of the materialpublished is vouched for by the present writer .

    In a series of articles in the New York Evening Post,its special Berlin correspondent, H . R. Knickerbocker,describes the course and extent of the Brown Terror inthe following terms :

    An indeterminate number of Jews have been killed .Hundreds of Jews have been beaten or tortured .Thousands of Jews have fled .Thousands of Jews have been, or will be, deprived

    of their livelihood.All of Germany's 6oo,ooo Jews are in terror . . . .It is impossible to ascertain how many Jews have

    been killed . The newspapers are suppressed, the oppo-

  • THE BROWN TERROR 53sition is terrorized and the families of the victimswould be the last to utter a protest.

    It is only possible to estimate in the vague term"hundreds" how many Jews have been beaten, tor-tured and robbed . The only means of information isthrough personal knowledge, by word of mouth andin those cases where the Jews are of foreign nation-ality and have complained to their consulate .

    The foreign Jews whose consulates have protestedto the Foreign Office of maltreatment and savagetorture number around 15o. The Polish Embassyalone had an imposing list of affidavits to submit toHerr Neurath. They comprised more than roo in-stances wherein Jews had been attacked in their homesor places of business, robbed at the point of revolversand taken to torture chambers where men "in theuniforms of storm troopers" have beaten them withleaden balls. Nine American Jews were beaten orotherwise maltreated . Altogether, since the nativeJews outnumber the foreigners by roo to i, it is con-servative to estimate that during the first days of theterror "hundreds" of Jews were tortured .

    In the London Daily Herald of Monday, March 27,its special correspondent replying to the challenge ofGoebbels that no one "can name one single Jew thathas met his death in the course of the national revolu-tion" states :

    I am in a position to answer to-day the challengeof Dr. Goebbels, the Nazi Propaganda Minister, andto name more than "a single Jew" who has met his

  • 54

    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERRORdeath in the course of the national revolution . Firstlet me give three names, not one, to answer Dr .Goebbels.

    Max Neumann, a Jewish merchant from Konigs-berg, was seized by the local Nazis, taken to theirtavern and beaten until his body was one raw wound .Pepper was then spread on the wound and the muti-lated body was returned to the family. Fearing totake the victim to a Konigsberg hospital, the familyrushed Neumann to Berlin . He was admitted to thehospital there, but died of blood-poisoning on thethird day.

    Kindermann, a Jewish youth from Berlin, was kid-naped by Nazi Storm Troops, taken to their housein North Berlin, and there beaten until he collapsed .The family did not know where the boy was untilthey received a letter informing them : "Your son isin the mortuary ." Kindermann was buried in the Jew-ish Weissensee cemetery. Whoever wishes can con-vince himself, as I did, of the truth of the story .

    Krel, a Jewish youth from Berlin, was taken to theNazi headquarters and there tortured to death . Thefamily was officially informed that Krel had com-mitted suicide by jumping out of the window fromthe fourth floor.

    I mention these three names only because they aredead. No more harm can be done to them . I have inmy possession the names and addresses of many Jewswho have been brutally mishandled, beaten, floggedbut not killed .

    I have spoken to a victim of one of these outrages,

  • THE BROWN TERROR 55a Jewish youth in the twenties. He was one of agroup of five Jews who were flogged until they wereunconscious. "I could count only until the tenthstroke," he said . "After that, I no longer knewwhether my own or some one else's body was beingbeaten into pulp with india-rubber whips ."

    In like vein is the dispatch sent by the representativeof the Jewish Telegraphic Agency from Berlin, Marchi8. He writes :

    The effect of Hitler's call for discipline is begin-ning to wear off. For several days after the publica-tion of Hitler's communique, violence subsided some-what in Berlin, although there were sporadic out-breaks in the provinces.

    Nazis yesterday attacked the Berlin slaughter-yard,maltreating a number of Schochtem (butchers), andinjuring one . There have also been a number of in-dividual attacks in the Jewish quarter of the Grena-dierstrasse. Individual Jews have been attacked, andthese assaults are continuing .

    Unknown persons entered a synagogue in theGrenadierstrasse and terrorized the worshipers . It wasonly the timely arrival of the police that saved theworshipers from violence.

    In parts of the provinces Nazi violence is of a moreserious character, if only because the police are ratherunwilling, or unable to interfere. At Munich, thevenerable Rabbi Baerwald was pulled out of bed atnight by unknown persons . He was dragged from thehouse and taken out into the street, where he was

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    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    placed against a wall by hooligans, who pointed riflesat him. The aged rabbi believed that his end hadcome when the leader ordered the others to fire .However, the hooligans, instead of firing, burst outlaughing . They then disappeared, leaving the rabbi,who had collapsed, unconscious on the street .

    This dispatch of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency is, in-cidentally, confirmed by the correspondent of the Chi-cago Tribune .H. R . Knickerbocker writing in the New York Eve-

    ning Post of April 5 attests the reliability of the follow-ing instances of the Terror : "All cases cited here areeither confirmed by personal investigation by the Eve-ning Post correspondent or are citations from affidavitsfiled with foreign diplomatic representatives ."

    I sat beside the sickbed of a young Jewish matronwho told me the following incident :

    On March i4-two days after the Hitler decreeagainst terror-four men dressed in the uniform ofthe storm troops broke into her home as she was onher way out. They threw her into a corner and pro-ceeded to demolish the apartment .

    She cried : "But I am not a Communist!" Theyanswered : "You're a Jew." Then one seized a knife,grabbed her arm and gashed again and again at herwrist. She screamed, but he kept on cutting. Thenthey must have become frightened, for suddenly allfour fled .

    She reached the telephone and called for help .Luckily he had failed to cut her artery . Afterward

  • THE BROWN TERROR

    57they called the police, and a detective exclaimed : "In-credible!" but he believed it when he saw her wrist .

    When this story first became known by word ofmouth most people exclaimed : "Incredible!" but theEvening Post correspondent is able to testify that hepersonally saw the wounds.

    March i5, about io o'clock in the evening uni-formed men took four Jewish guests from the CafeEnglaender in the Schoenhauserallee to a storm troopbarracks in the Schillingstrasse, where 400 marks oftheirs were confiscated . Their protocol reads, "Theywere beaten by the uniformed men with blackjacksuntil they were unconscious and when they revivedthey were forced to lick the blood from one anotherand from the table ."

    This last item should suffice . The protocols aresworn statements.

    Among the mass of depositions by the victims them-selves, it is possible to present only a few typical docu-ments. Yet they should prove ample . The first are in-cluded in a note recently submitted by the Polish am-bassador in Berlin to the German Government com-plaining of the attacks made on Polish subjects inGermany and demanding action . The text of the note isas follows :

    In Berlin :On March 8th, Isaac Gordan, of r9, Alte Schoen-

    hauserstrasse, was attacked at 8 P.M . by people inuniform, who beat him into an unconscious state withsticks.

  • 58 SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    On March 9th, Isaac Adler, of 5, Linienstrasse,and his son were terribly beaten . The windows of hisshop were smashed.

    The same day, in the Sachs Cafe, Hillel Celtbaum,of 16, Muenzstrasse, was beaten till he streamed withblood. Eight hundred and fifty marks which he hadon him were taken away from him.

    The restaurant of Moses Pariser at 12, AlteSchoenhauserstrasse was entered by persons wearinguniform, who beat the customers with rubber cudgels .They threw all the food off the buffet and threatenedto kill everybody, and then ordered the restaurantto be closed. Four days previously, at 2 P.M ., twelvepersons in uniform had hunted all the customers outof the same restaurant and had then demanded 250marks from Pariser for carrying out a police search .

    The same day, at 6 :45 P.M., Aron Lizband, of 31,Grenadierstrasse, was attacked in the Linienstrasse.He and his parents were terribly beaten till the bloodran down them. On the orders of the uniformedpersons he was compelled to close his shop .

    In Magdeburg :On March 8th, at i i o'clock at night six persons,

    some in uniform, entered the hotel of HannahBrzostowiecko . They fired a revolver and beat allthe visitors in the hotel lounge. Many were stabbedwith knives. Brzostowiecko's daughter, who wantedto call the police, was dragged away from the tele-phone, the furniture was wrecked, the windows weresmashed and a great deal of damage was done .

  • THE BROWN TERROR 59In Worms :On March 9th, Chaim and Moses Armianer and

    Herman Gruenbaum were called into the premisesof the Storm detachment of the Nationalist SocialistParty. They were beaten and were compelled to flogeach other . In addition, Gruenbaum was compelled topay 300 marks .

    The following letter was sent from Zurich by a dis-tinguished Berlin attorney after his escape from Ger-many

    Zurich, March 29, 1 933 .I thought it wiser for me, my wife and my child

    to come here for the present and to wait and see howthings would develop and whether I could return toBerlin and resume my practice. It is impossible for meto put into a few words everything that I have seenand heard and lived through in the last few weeksin Germany. I am a veteran of the war. Neverthe-less I had to listen to the shouts of "Jude Verrecke"of the organized bands of demonstrators marchingpast my house . Daily there were attacks upon peopleand kidnapings, the most terrible kinds of mistreat-ment of any number of people of my acquaintancewho were known to have Democratic or Socialisticviews, or simply because they were Jews . These latterare according to the view of those who have the powerin Germany now, ipso facto, criminals. In Berlin atthe present time it is barely possible for two peopleto speak aloud to each other. Every letter, every tele-phone conversation is watched. In spite of that, how-

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    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    ever, as is the case in all periods of tyranny, newstravels rapidly from mouth to mouth and when cer-tain statements are confirmed from various quarterswe know that they must be true. Naturally, in thecase of such reports, there are occasionally mis-statements or exaggerations. But on the whole theterrible reports are understatements rather thanexaggerations, for the simple fact that many ofthe victims or their relatives are afraid to mentionthem because they would be subject to further per-secution. The formal statements of the Centralvereinof German Citizens of the Jewish Faith and ofsimilar organizations are to be read only in thelight of this terror. In general the mildest threat isnow sufficient to compel a Jew living in Germany todo or say anything . When I left Berlin a few daysago I had the feeling that I was living in a conditionof a constant and continuous pogrom worse than thosethat once took place in Russia because there thepogrom started and ended at a definite time . You willprobably have heard by this time of the terriblepogrom in Koenigsberg of which the most importantand leading Jews of the community were victims .Here in Zurich I received from an absolutely reliablesource the confirmation of the terrible reports fromKoenigsberg. The relatives of the Jews who hadbeen attacked and wounded did not dare even to bringthe poor victims to the hospitals in Koenigsberg buthad to transport them to Berlin and many succumbedto their wounds in the course of the transportation toBerlin. It was only foreign protests, especially that of

  • THE BROWN TERROR

    6i

    America, which prevented even worse happenings, agreater number of kidnapings and bloody beatingsand possibly one big general pogrom .

    I beg you most fervently to withhold my name inpassing on the contents of this letter and for heaven'ssake not to allow my identity to be brought to light,as I may possibly have to return to Germany, and Iwould in that case certainly be lost . Therefore pleasemention my name to no one. Possibly I should nothave written this but how can I keep quiet at the sightof the blood of my people that remains unavenged .

    In a letter published in The Nation under the title"Escaping the German Hell," by a correspondent forwhose authority and responsibility the editors vouch,occurs the following :

    You do not know how lucky you are, dear M ., tobe in the United States . If you had stayed in Ger-many, I assure you, you would now be among thedead. Two young men among my friends in Berlinwere arrested. Both families have been informed ofthe death of their sons . If they had been shot imme-diately after their arrest it would have been a terribletragedy, but the poor boys would not have had tosuffer infernal torture . Their brothers told me theywere terribly beaten up and brutally treated . One ofthese young men was a Reichsbanner man, healthy,tall, and strong. A week after his arrest his peoplewere informed that he was in the hospital on accountof a nervous breakdown ; some time later they weretold that he had died of heart failure. The other

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    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    young man was a journalist. Four days after his arresthis parents were informed that he had died of tuber-culosis and heart failure. In reality he was perfectlyhealthy and fit . I do not know what his political atti-tude was. His brother went to the morgue to take alast look at the corpse . It was covered, and he couldsee only the head, which showed distinct marks of aterrible beating. He insisted on seeing the wholebody and asked for a post-mortem examination. Thiswas refused in the following words : "If you don'tget the hell out of here and shut your mouth aboutthis, we'll do the same thing to you!" The bodieswere not returned to the families for burial .

    . . . The atrocity tales are in truth "tales," sincethe atrocities are committed behind closed doors inall secrecy. In the streets everything seems to bevery peaceful. However, in Berlin in the Friedrich-strasse, No . 132, there is a Nazi home in which thereis a room whose walls are all smeared with blood .Even the Nazi neighbors of the building are said tohave protested against the daily and nightly screamsand cries of the tortured victims . This report I re-ceived from Dr. L. M., who as a Berlin reporter hasheard the screams himself, and knows some of thevictims.

    The final document comes from an American womanand is sent from Paris :

    DEARFST FAMILY :You have received my cable telling you where I

    am. I have been through a horrible, horrible night-

  • THE BROWN TERROR

    63mare. Writing about it upsets me terribly. L. and H .were sent by God.

    Things in since Hitler came in were quiet .There was excitement in the air but nothing hap-pened. Friday night L. and H. and a few members ofthe family came to dinner. L. had a cold and was inbed. They all left about i i : oo o'clock. About t I : 15the bell rang furiously . I was already in bed. L. and Ijumped up frightened . We heard shouts saying if youdon't open the door we'll break it down . The porterdownstairs opened . Then our immediate door bellrang. L. said : "Who is it?" "Open, it is the police ."We opened the door, and five Hitler men in uniformentered, one with a bayonet . My God, my God, I amcrazy when I think about it. They asked if L. wasarmed. Of course he was not . Then they asked wherethe telephone was, and I pointed to the other end ofthe apartment. They thought I was going to use itso they threw me on the floor. It is all so horrible .I went to the bedroom where they were with L. Theyasked for our passports and as L. turned to get it,four of them jumped on him and beat him terribly .His head was cut open, his hand half broken. Theykept saying : "Jews, we hate you. Fourteen years weare waiting for this chance and to-night we will hangyou all."

    I kept begging them to stop . They left L. uncon-scious and came to me . I told them I was American.One of them struck me with a club and said why didyou marry a Jew. They wanted to enter J .'s room .I begged and pleaded and said my baby is an Ameri-

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    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    can. Again they shouted, "Jews, we hate you." Theytook my American pass, L.'s pass, and my Germanpass. After they got the passports they beat L . again.

    The nurse was off that evening and I alone . Theparents sleep at the other end of the house . It is amiracle they did not hear . I begged them not to gothere as the old lady has a very bad heart .

    How can I tell you what I went through? I got L .on the bed. His face I shall never forget . Bloodstreaming all over him, dazed and bewildered . Bythat time M . came down . We got a doctor, a Gentile,as we were afraid to call a Jew. He dressed hiswounds and wanted to take him to a hospital . It wasafter midnight and I tried to get the American Con-sul. After one hour I reached him . He called thepolice, but they are Hitlerites too . I was afraid theymight return. That night I shall not forget .

    In the morning L. went to the hospital . Whenthe parents found what happened the mother-in-lawgot a horrible heart attack . We thought she wasdying .

    Father-in-law prayed all morning . I went to theConsul with L. and they were all excited. I had tosign ten affidavits about what happened . The paperswere sent to the American Ambassador in Berlin .

    They tried to locate my passport at the Hitlerheadquarters but could not.

    The American Consul was marvelous . They gaveme a new passport immediately and told me to leave

    . They took me to the train, as it was dangerous .I am in Paris with H . and L. They are the most

  • THE BROWN TERROR

    65

    wonderful friends. Please thank them for all theyhave done for me and J . I shall stay here until thingsquiet down. Ask H. to show you L .'s pajama coatcovered with blood .

    God help the poor Jews who are not American. Ibelieve that my experience will help them, as it wasofficially reported .

    Hope you are all well . I am so tired . Love .

    Be careful not to mention names. It may bedangerous.

    So much for the evidence of suffering, the record ofpersecution . It is but a minute part of what is alreadyestablished by unassailable witnesses. It does no morethan hint at the muted anguish of those who darenot speak. And it is here collated and published, not inorder to harrow or incite, but because, while the peak ofthis bloody business seems for the moment to have beenpassed, it is not yet ended. Nor is there any assurancethat it will not again assume the same ghastly propor-tions. Up to now-save for denials and minimizations-the Nazi Government has given no sign of being awareof its responsibility for and in the matter . Until it does,the fact and the facts of the Brown Terror cannot bepermitted to pass from men's minds and hearts .

  • WORLD REACTION

    « HIS IS A MATTER OF INTERNATIONAL CONCERN,"Tdeclared Viscount Cecil speaking before the House

    of Lords of the barbarities perpetrated by the Nazisagainst the Jews of Germany. His word epitomized thereaction of mankind . Perhaps never before in historyhave the internal events of one country so swiftly be-come a matter of world import . A tidal wave of re-vulsion swept civilization into a storm of moral pro-test .

    In analyzing this world reaction, certain facts standout. Foremost, perhaps, its spontaneity and immediacy .It was inevitable that Jews in all countries would raisetheir voices and hands against the heavy wrong putupon their German brothers . It was predictable thatthey would call upon their Gentile fellow-citizens toparticipate in their efforts. But the non-Jewish worldneither waited that call nor needed the stimulus ofJewish example to arouse it . As immediately, as in-stinctively as though the victims had been of their ownraces and faiths, the nations responded to the ordeal ofGerman Jewry. In England, in France, in Italy, in

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  • WORLD REACTION

    67

    Russia, in Poland, as in America, non-Jews vied withJews in the expression of amazed indignation .

    Equally significant was the unanimity of the world'sreaction. It was not limited either to liberals or con-servatives. Lines of political demarcation like those ofcreed and nationality merged in a common protest . Thetribunes of world opinion-from Communist Russia toFascist Italy-spoke with a single voice . Nor was theirreaction formal or superficial. It bore no trace of theconventional politeness of indifference . Characterizedby profound concern, it expressed itself in blazing re-sentment. And it has not ebbed nor ended .

    It is possible here only to outline the nature and de-velopment of that reaction, since it found expression inall tongues and through such diverse channels asgovernment inquiries, religious pronouncements, and thepress. Typical of the last is this excerpt from The Man-chester Guardian of March Q :

    The rumors which have long been circulating of aNazi terror are given substance by the news whichreaches us from Germany; organized, authorizedmurder is both possible and common in Germany to-day. If there is not the open massacre which manyfeared before the election, there is a secret terror . Itsorganizers learn from Italy and Russia. "Auxiliarypolice" who make their prisoners sing a Nazi song be-fore they fill them up with castor oil or beat theirfaces out of recognition are doing better than theirprototypes. The sinister buildings in the Friedrich-strasse and the Friesenstrasse recall the quiet prisons

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    SWASTIKA, THE NAZI TERROR

    of the Moscow Cheka or that Rome Palazzo whereso many odious tortures were inflicted upon prisonersin 1923 and 1924 . How can a great and civilized na-tion like the Germans tolerate these horrors?

    And in America, The New York Times, in an edi-torial on March 30, entitled "The Larger Question,"stated :

    The German Nationalists are forcing the world tosee something more than a "Jewish question" in theReich. By their methods and manifestos they aretaking the matter out of the realm of narrow racehatred and making it appear one of humanity andcivilization itself. The proposal is not to deprive6oo,ooo people in Germany of their lives, but only oftheir livelihood. "You take away my life who takeaway the means by which I live ." There is to be,moreover, a sweeping condemnation of children toignorance as well as to starvation ; the doors of oppor-tunity are to be slammed in the faces of ambitious andtalented youth ; a whole series of medieval restric-tions and oppressions are to be revived . To crown all,if humane citizens of other countries venture to raisetheir voices against what seem to them barbarousmeasures, striking down the innocent along with theguilty, the victims are to be held as "hostages" untilforeign governments take steps to silence the ex-pression of generous and liberal sentiments. . . .

    The thing has already gone far beyond an attackupon a single race or religion . No appeal to age-longprejudice will suffice in a case like the present . Funda-

  • WORLD REACTION

    69

    mental issues of humane and civilized governmenthave pushed into the background the claims andcharges with which the ferocious agitation in Ger-many started. Feelings have been roused which tran-scend political boundaries or definitions of race . Nomatter what people are called, or what religion theyprofess, the modern world cannot sit by in silencewhen they are singled out for exceptional punishmentin the mass. Germans ought not to forget the outcryof the modern world over the Turkish massacre inBulgaria years ago. Sympathy and aid for Armeniansufferers and outlaws had nothing to do with theirdescent or language or religious beliefs. They werethought of as helpless human beings in the habita-tions of cruelty, and that was enough . It is enoughto-day