TRANSLATION OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN A THOUSAND SPLENDID SUNS:
A NATURAL SEMANTIC METALANGUAGE APPROACH
ADE ERAWATI SANGADJI
POSTGRADUATED PROGRAM UDAYANA UNIVERSITY
TRANSLATION OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN A THOUSAND SPLENDID SUNS:
A NATURAL SEMANTIC METALANGUAGE APPROACH
ADE ERAWATI SANGADJI
MASTER DEGREE PROGRAM LINGUISTIC STUDY PROGRAM IN TRANSLATION STUDIES
POSTGRADUATED PROGRAM UDAYANA UNIVERSITY
TRANSLATION OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN A THOUSAND SPLENDID SUNS:
A NATURAL SEMANTIC METALANGUAGE APPROACH
Thesis as a fulfillment to obtain
a Master Degree in Translation Studies,
Postgraduated Program, Udayana University
ADE ERAWATI SANGADJI
MASTER DEGREE PROGRAM
LINGUISTIC STUDY PROGRAM IN TRANSLATION STUDIES POSTGRADUATED PROGRAM
UDAYANA UNIVERSITY DENPASAR
This thesis has been examined on August 13th, 2013
Supervisor I, Supervisor II,
Prof. Dr. I Nengah Sudipa, M.A Dr. Ida Ayu Made Puspani, M.Hum. NIP. 195407311979111001 NIP. 196209161987022001
Head of Master Program in Linguistic Postgraduated Program
Director of Postgraduated Program Udayana University
Prof. Dr. I Nyoman Suparwa, M.Hum. Prof. Dr. dr. A. A. Raka Sudewi Sp.S(K) NIP. 19620310 1985 1 005 NIP. 19590215 1985102 001
This thesis has been examined by the Board of Examiners on August 13th, 2013
based on the Decree of Rector of Udayana University No.
1447/UN14.4/HK/2013, dated August 12th 2013
The Board of Examiners:
Chairman : Prof. Dr. I Nengah Sudipa, M.A
Secretary : Dr. Ida Ayu Made Puspani, M.Hum.
Members : 1. Prof. Dr. N. L. Sutjiati Beratha, M.A
2. Dr. Frans I Made Brata, M.Hum.
3. Dr. N. L. Nyoman Seri Malini, M.Hum.
PERNYATAAN BEBAS PLAGIAT
Saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini:
Nama : Ade Erawati Sangadji,SS NIM : 109016017 Program Studi : Magister (S2) Linguistik, Konsentrasi Penerjemahan, Program
Pascasarjana, Universitas Udayana Dengan ini menyatakan bahwa karya ilmiah tesis ini bebas plagiat.
Apabila di kemudian hari terdapat plagiat dalam karya ilmiah ini, maka saya bersedia menerima sanksi sesuai peraturan Mendiknas Republik Indonesia No. 17 tahun 2010 dan Peraturan Perundangan yang berlaku.
Denpasar, Agustus 2013
Ade Erawati Sangadji, SS
First and foremost, I would like to thank God, Allah SWT, the Almighty
for answering my prayers for giving me the strength in my life especially during
the completion of this thesis.
My gratitude are addressed to Prof. Dr. dr. A. A. Raka Sudewi Sp.S (K),
the Director of Postgraduated Program, Prof. Dr. I Nyoman Suparwa, M.Hum,
Head of the Master Program in Linguistic Department and all lectures and staff in
the master program in Linguistic Department who assisted me during my study.
I am heartily thankful to my First Supervisor; Prof. Dr. I Nengah Sudipa,
M.A and the Second Supervisor, Dr. Ida Ayu Made Puspani, M.Hum, for their
generous hours, encouragement, guidance and constructive suggestions from the
initial to the final level enabled me to develop an understanding of the subject.
I am indebted to my beloved parents, brothers and sisters for the great
understanding through the duration of my study. The last but not least, I wish to
express my love and thankfulness devoted to my husband and lovely Erssa for the
PENERJEMAHAN METAFOR KONSEPTUAL DALAM “A THOUSAND SPLENDID SUNS”
SEBUAH PENDEKATAN METABAHASA SEMANTIK ALAMIAH
Tujuan dari penulisan tesis ini adalah untuk menginvestigasi metafor konseptual dan cara-cara penerjemahannya serta menganalisis penerjemahan metafor dengan menggunakan teori Metabahasa Semantik Alamiah (NSM). Data metafor konseptual diambil dari novel berjudul A Thousand Splendid Suns dan terjemahan bahasa Indonesianya yang berjudul sama. Novel ini ditulis oleh Khaled Hosseini pada tahun 2007. Data metafor konseptual dalam penelitian ini mencakup kata dan frasa yang berisi ekspresi metafor konseptual. Pengumpulan data dalam tesis ini menggunakan metode dokumentasi yang disertai dengan teknik mencatat. Data yang telah terkumpul telah dianalisis secara deskriptif dan disajikan berdasarkan metode informal. Data metafor konseptual diidentifikasi berdasarkan klasifikasi metafor konseptual menurut Kovecses (2010). Cara-cara penerjemahan yang diterapkan dalam menerjemahkan metafor dideskripsi berdasarkan teori Larson (1998). Selanjutnya hasil penerjemahan tersebut dianalisis dengan pemetaan eksponen makna melalui teori Metabahasa Semantik Alamiah (NSM) oleh Wierzbicka (1996). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa terdapat sebelas metafor konseptual yang berasal dari domain sumber dan lima konseptual metafor yang berasal dari domain target. Penerjemah mengaplikasikan kelima cara-cara penerjemahan metaphor dalam menerjemhkan metaphor-metaphor tersebut. Dalam menganalisis metafor menggunakan teori Metabahasa Semantik Alamiah, terdapat dua klasifikasi besar; yaitu metafor yang diterjemahkan ke dalam bentuk metaphor and metafor yang diterjemahkan tidak ke dalam bentuk metafor. Kata Kunci : metafor konseptual, cara-cara penerjemahan, metabahasa semantik
alamiah, eksponen makna, makna metafor.
TRANSLATION OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN “A THOUSAND SPLENDID SUNS“
A NATURAL SEMANTIC METALANGUAGE APPROACH
The aims of this thesis are to investigate the conceptual metaphor and the ways of translation along with the analysis metaphor translation by using the Natural Semantic Metalanguage approach. The data of conceptual metaphor were taken from the novel entitled A Thousand Splendid Suns and its Indonesian translation. This novel was written by Khaled Hosseini in 2007. The conceptual metaphor data in this research comprises of words and phrases. The method of collecting data in this study was conducted by documentary method and note taking technique. The collecting data were descriptively analyzed and informal method of presenting data was implemented in this study.
The data of conceptual metaphor were described by applying the conceptual metaphor theory from Kovecses (2010). The ways of translation applied in the translation metaphor were described based on the theory proposed by Larson (1998). Moreover, the translations were analyzed through exponent mapping based on Natural Semantic Metalanguage theory proposed by Wierzbicka (1996). The result of this study indicated that there were eleven conceptual metaphors from source domain and five conceptual metaphors from target domain. The translator applied five ways of translation in translating the metaphor. in addition to analyze the translation of those metaphor by using Natural Semantic Metalanguage theory; there are two major classifications; metaphor is translated into metaphor and metaphor translated into non-metaphor imagery Key words: conceptual metaphor, ways of translation, Natural Semantic
Metalanguage, exponent mapping, metaphor meaning.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE ...................................................................................................................... ii TITLE PREREQUISITE .......................................................................................... iii APPROVAL SHEET ............................................................................................... iv BOARD OF EXAMINERS ...................................................................................... v PERNYATAAN BEBAS PLAGIAT ........................................................................ vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................ vii ABSTRAK ............................................................................................................... viii ABSTRACT............................................................................................................. ix TABLE OF CONTENT ........................................................................................... x LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................... xiv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 1 1.1 Background of Study ....................................................................... 1
1.2 Problems of Study ........................................................................... 3
1.3 Aim of Study ................................................................................... 3
1.3.1 General Aims .......................................................................... 3
1.3.2 Specific Aims.......................................................................... 4
1.4 Significance of Study ....................................................................... 4
1.4.1 Theoretical Significance .......................................................... 4
1.4.2 Practical Significance .............................................................. 4
1.5 Scope of the Study ........................................................................... 5
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW, CONCEPT, THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH MODEL ........................................................... 6 2.1 Literature Review ............................................................................ 6
2.2 Concept ........................................................................................... 10
2.2.1 Metaphor ................................................................................ 10
2.2.2 Translation .............................................................................. 10
2.2.3 The Natural Semantic Metalanguage ...................................... . 11
2.3 Theoretical Framework .................................................................... 12
2.3.1 The Conceptual Metaphor ....................................................... 12
184.108.40.206 Source Domain ........................................................... 14
220.127.116.11 Target Domain ............................................................ 18
2.3.2 Techniques in Translation of Metaphor ................................... 22
2.3.3 Natural Semantic Metalanguage .............................................. 23
18.104.22.168 Semantic Primitive ..................................................... 23
22.214.171.124 Reductive Paraphrase .................................................. 25
2.4 Research Model ............................................................................... 27
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD .................................................................... 28 3.1 Research Approach .......................................................................... 28
3.2 Data Source ..................................................................................... 28
3.3 Method and Technique of Collecting Data ....................................... 29
3.4 Method and Technique of Analyzing Data ....................................... 29
3.5 Method and Technique of Presenting the Analysis ........................... 31
CHAPTER IV TYPES OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR, TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES AND THE ANALYSIS OF METAPHOR TRANSLATION ................................................................................ 33 4.1 The Types of Conceptual Metaphor ................................................. 33
4.1.1 Source Domain ....................................................................... 33
126.96.36.199 The Conceptual Metaphor of Human Body ................. 34
188.8.131.52 The Conceptual Metaphor of Health and
Illness ....................................................................... 37
184.108.40.206 The Conceptual Metaphor of Animal ........................ 37
220.127.116.11 The Conceptual Metaphor of Plants .......................... 38
18.104.22.168 The Conceptual Metaphor of Building and
Construction ............................................................. 40
22.214.171.124 The Conceptual Metaphor of Machines and
Tools ........................................................................ 40
126.96.36.199 The Conceptual Metaphor of Games and
Sports ....................................................................... 41
188.8.131.52 The Conceptual Metaphor of Money and
Economy Transaction (Business) .............................. 42
184.108.40.206 The Conceptual Metaphor of Heat and Cold ............. 43
220.127.116.11 The Conceptual Metaphor of Forces ......................... 44
18.104.22.168 The Conceptual Metaphor of Movement
and Direction ............................................. 46
4.1.2 Target Domain ........................................................................ 48
22.214.171.124 The Conceptual Metaphor of Emotion ...................... 48
126.96.36.199 The Conceptual Metaphor of
Society/Nation .......................................................... 49
188.8.131.52 The Conceptual Metaphor of Time ........................... 50
184.108.40.206 The Conceptual Metaphor of Life and
Death ........................................................................ 51
220.127.116.11 The Conceptual Metaphor of Religion ...................... 52
4.2 The Ways of Translating Metaphor .................................................. 53
4.2.1 Keeping the Metaphor Language ............................................ 54
4.2.2 Translate the Metaphor into Simile Form ............................... 59
4.2.3 Substitute the Same Meaning of Metaphor ............................. 60
4.2.4 Keep the Metaphor and Explain the Meaning ......................... 64
4.2.5 Translate the Meaning of Metaphor without Keeping
The Metaphorical Imagery ..................................................... 64
4.3 The Analysis of Metaphor Translation ............................................. 70
4.3.1 Metaphor Translated into Metaphorical Expression ................ 70
4.3.2 Metaphor Translated into Non-Metaphorical
Expression ............................................................................. 93
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ............................................... 103 5.1 Conclusion....................................................................................... 103
5.2 Suggestion ....................................................................................... 104
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................... 106
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
SL : Source Language
TL : Target Language
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Metaphor in Encyclopaedia Britannica as cited in Kovecses (2010) is a
figure of speech that implies comparison between two unlike entities. It is an
expression that is used to denote something, not from a literal meaning, but from
a similar, figurative meaning.
Metaphors are used in language every day. Poetry and entire novels can
get very creative in their use of metaphors to provide parallels of meaning in a
non-literal way. The use of metaphors by authors is a way of illustrating a point
without coming right out and saying it. It is a tool used to get the reader really to
think about something, to find new meaning in it and to see it from a different
angle. It makes the reader enter a different sphere, a different way of thinking.
Another reason that metaphors are important to people is that the
expressions that use are part of our cultural consciousness, formed over the
course of time. When people say that “my heart is broken into pieces”, everyone
knows what the phrase means. The metaphor expresses the sad feeling because of
losing his lover. It is a collective understanding of a community that uses English
language. As metaphors illustrate the body mind connection, from cognitive
linguistic point of view, Kovecses (2010) defined that a metaphor understands
one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. In other words,
Kovecses differentiates the domain of metaphor into source domain and target
This step then simplifies the analysis and understanding of metaphor. As
previously done by Mahendra (2011), the mapping of the meaning of metaphor
she highlighted leads to the fact that the conceptual metaphor in source domain
replicated to the metaphorical expression in the target domain. For instance, in
I’m feeling up, in the source domain up refers to movement and direction element
and it is reflected to the emotion element in the target domain that means
happiness as up is considered something positive.
Translating metaphor is not an easy process but it is possible to do it. The
translator should figure out the equivalent meaning from the Source language text
(SL) to the target language text (TL). The translator needs to transfer the meaning
of metaphor using appropriate expression since the metaphor is not only relying
on the meaning but also the sense beyond the meaning. This kind of expression
furthermore translated in the correct language system in TL. It will develop
perception of the readers and effect them after reading either the SL novel or the
translated one. To meet the objective above, some proper techniques should be
applied to the process of translation.
Discussing the sense of the metaphor cannot be separated from the innate
conceptual system of the native language. As described above that metaphor
comes from human experience, culture and knowledge stored in human’s mind. It
strengthens the point of view of Wierzbicka (2002) who emphasized that
universal human concepts constitute the foundation of human understanding, and
to explain meaning across languages and cultures we need to rely on that
The universal human concept which is specifically called semantic
primitive is provided by Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) theory proposed
by Wierzbicka (1996). Dewi (2011) also emphasized NSM theory in analyzing
the emotion, and concluded that NSM is useful and applicable in determining the
closest equivalent of lexicon. For that reason, metaphor analysis by NSM
approach is expected to develop a different point of view in the analysis of
metaphor translation as natural as the original meaning and sense.
1.2 Problems of the Study
Based on the background above, there are some problems that need to be
analyzed in this research as follows:
1. What types of English conceptual metaphors are found in the novel “A
Thousand Splendid Suns”?
2. What ways of translation are implemented in the translation of conceptual
metaphor in the novel “A Thousand Splendid Suns”?
3. How are the English metaphors found in the novel “A Thousand Splendid
Suns” translated into Indonesian?
1.3 Aims of the Study
The aims of the study are divided into general aim and specific aim.
1.3.1 General Aim
Generally, this study aims at identifying and describing metaphors to
enrich the metaphor translation.
1.3.2 Specific Aims
Specifically, this study is intended:
1. To describe the types of metaphors found in the novel “A Thousand
2. To find out the ways of translating English metaphor into Indonesia.
3. To analyze the translation of English metaphors in the novel “A Thousand
1.4 Significance of the Study
Considering the aims of study as formulated above, then the theoretical
and practical significances of the study can be described as follows.
1.4.1 Theoretical Significance
This study is expected to give contribution to the translation studies,
especially in the field of semantic analysis. Theoretically, this study is expected
to support English-Indonesian translation studies applying the Natural Semantic
1.4.2 The Practical Significance
Practically, this study is intended to provide significant assistance to the
translation research in the future, particularly the use of the Natural Semantic
Metalanguage approach. Hopefully, this study can be used as a reference in the
learning the process of translation by showing the importance of Metaphor
translation techniques and NSM concept.
1.5 Scope of The Study
The scope of this study is limited to the conceptual metaphor found in
the novel “A Thousand Splendid Suns” and its translation analyzed using the
Natural Semantic Metalanguage theory proposed by Wierzbicka (1996) which
describes the mapping of meaning using the sixty four semantic primitives both
in the source and target languages.
LITERATURE REVIEW, CONCEPT, THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH MODEL
Studies of literary translation have been conducted by some researchers
Most of their studies use English as the source language and Indonesian as the
target language text. The thesis entitled “The Translation of Metaphor Found in
the Novel Eat, Pray, Love which was Translated into Makan, Doa, Cinta” written
by Mahendra (2011). She emphasizes the mapping of meaning and her analysis is
limited to the conceptual metaphor based on the understanding of conceptual
domain proposed by Kovecses. Her analysis contributes to the cognitive analysis
of metaphor. It encouraged this study to explore metaphors more deeply.
Another thesis is written by Wijaya (2011) entitled “Polisemi Pada
Leksem HEAD Tinjauan Linguistic Kognitif”. He agreed that naturally metaphor
is a fundamental cognitive process. It strengthened that the knowledge of source
domain is being mapped through the relevant prototypical understanding in the
target domain. Although this thesis is limited to the lexeme HEAD but the
overall study gives much contribution in enriching the meaning of head into
broader sense. It inspired this study to paraphrase the metaphor meaning more
Related to the metaphor translation techniques, the thesis entitled
“Strategies for translating into Indonesian English Metaphor in the Novel Master
of the Game”, Sudrama (2003) applies the translation strategy in general for
translating the metaphor. He agrees that metaphor is an extraordinary expression
that includes not only words but action and thought. On this stage, he focused on
the strategies applied or, in other words, the process of the translation. In his
study, he concluded that the majority of metaphors are translated into metaphors
(51%), metaphors into similes (28, 6%) and metaphors into non-figuratives (20,
4%). This quantity implies that translating metaphor from the source language
into the target language which automatically occurs in different cultures and
languages is possible to be done.
Moreover, related to the theory of the Natural Semantic Metalanguage,
many studies have been conducted. One was written by Pratiwi (2010) in her
thesis entitled “The Semantic Analysis of Negative Emotion Lexicon in the Novel
“A Stranger in the Mirror” and its Translation “Sosok Asing Dalam Cermin”.
She explains the emotion lexicon with its explication and her study makes the
analysis of negative emotion complete. However, this study is specifically
focused on the metaphor, another form in representing emotion, and it is not only
limited to the negative emotion.
Another study regarding the emotion lexicon which also used the NSM
theory is written by Dewi (2011) in her thesis “The translation of Emotions in the
Novel Eat, Pray, Love into Makan, Doa, Cinta: A Natural Semantic
Metalanguage Approach”. She analyzed the emotion concept through the NSM
theory. Her thesis contributes a lot by providing clear explanation of the emotion
based on the emotion concept of Wierzbicka. However, her study is focused only
on the emotion lexicon. Although her study used the NSM theory proposed by
Wierzbicka, and compared the differences with explication, the strength of this
study is based on the metaphor expression and it may not be limited to the
emotion lexicon, meaning that the NSM theory is described more widely.
An article from Wierzbicka (2002) entitled “The semantics of metaphor
and parable: Looking for meaning in the Gospels” in a journal Theoria et
Historia Scientiarum is also discussed in this sub section. According to
Wierzbicka, the problem in translating metaphor is compounded in cross-cultural
communication, because while the letter of the metaphor can often be translated,
the translated version may be baffling or deceptive. Therefore, she applied the
semantic primitive in explaining the metaphor meaning with four basic
assumptions. The first is the understanding of semantics as “to speak” to people,
which has ultimate goal to explain what something means.
The second is everything cannot be explained as the value of explanation
depends crucially on how self-explanatory our basic concepts are. In other words,
the explanatory value only manages to "define" or explain complex and obscure
meanings in terms of simple and self-explanatory ones. For example, there is no
point to try to explain the meaning of BEFORE in terms of the word like
"anterior", or the meaning of AFTER in terms of the word like "posterior". If we
do not know what BEFORE and AFTER mean, then we will not know what
"anterior", and "posterior" mean either.
The third assumption is that if one wants to explain meanings across
languages and cultures one has to rely on shared, that is, universal concepts, and
not on concepts which are culture-specific. The fourth assumption is that the
meaning of metaphors, too, needs to be explained, and that it can be explained in
non-metaphorical language, using the same simple and universal concepts in
terms of which all other meanings can be explained.
By her explanation, the use of semantic primitive in describing the
metaphor meaning is possible to be done and the result will be as natural as the
original meaning. It challenges me to apply the approach to all the metaphors
founded in the data.
Another article written by Goddard (2008) entitled “The Ethnopragmatics
and Semantic of Active Metaphors” explains the metaphor into non-metaphorical
language using the same simple and universal concept in terms of which all other
meanings can be explained. He proposed that such metaphors have specific and
In other words, he claimed that ordinary expository metaphors such as
Unemployment is a contagious disease, Language is the best mirror of the mind,
and The past is a foreign country are not open to multiple interpretations, as
many theorists have claimed, but have identifiable meanings which can be stated
as semantic explications framed in the metalanguage of semantic primes.
It supports this study to analyze metaphors by describing and explaining
the universal concept by comparing the mapping of the meaning of the semantic
There are some concepts used to support the idea of translation, metaphor,
and the NSM theory in this study.
The word metaphor has come to mean a cross-domain mapping in the
conceptual system. Kovecses underlined metaphor through the idea of
conceptual metaphor based on the conceptual domain (A) as conceptual domain
(B). The conceptual domain (A), which is known as the source domain or the
source of which we illustrate the metaphorical expression to understand another
conceptual domain, is the basic context and situation based on cultural
experience. These are clearly and simply structured. While the conceptual domain
(B) is the domain that we try to understand through the use of the source domain,
the more abstract and complex contexts, to which the words in the source domain
This systematic identification of source and target domain is expressed by
what is termed as metaphorical mapping. It links two different domains, thus
structuring our experience, reasoning and everyday language. Mappings have
conventional characters, being a fixed part of the human conceptual system.
Many theorists has described and explained the translation theory. Larson
(1998) describes translation as “transferring the meaning without distortion the
meaning of the source language (SL) into the receptor language; meaning which
must be kept constant, even when the form of the source language changes as it is
turned into the form of the target language, it is called meaning-based translation.
The form here represents the grammatical surface structure of the language, while
meaning refers to the semantic deep structures.
A translation based on the semantic structure of the language takes also
the communication situation into consideration such as historical setting, cultural
setting, intention of the author, as well as the different kinds of meaning
contained in the explicit and implicit information of the text. Apart from
referential and structural meaning, situational meaning is presented as an
important element that would help the translator interpret the author’s culture or
the cultural information given in the text.
Furthermore, she differentiates literal translation from idiomatic
translation, stating that a good translator should try to translate idiomatically that
his translation will not sound like a translation, it shall sound natural in the target
language, taking care not to fall into “unduly free translations”.
2.2.3 Natural Semantic Metalanguage
TThhee NNSSMM tthheeoorryy iiss uusseedd ttoo eexxppllaaiinn tthhee sseemmaannttiicc pprriimmiittiivvee ooff mmeettaapphhoorriiccaall
eexxpprreessssiioonn.. IItt ccaann bbee uusseedd ttoo aannaallyyssee tthhee mmeeaanniinngg ooff aa wwoorrdd oorr pphhrraassee ccoonnttaaiinniinngg
tthhee mmeettaapphhoorriiccaall eexxpprreessssiioonn bbyy pprroovviiddiinngg aa ddeessccrriippttiioonn iinn ffoorrmm ooff rreedduuccttiivvee
ppaarraapphhrraassee.. Wierzbicka (2002) states that if one wants to explain meanings across
languages and cultures one has to rely on shared, that is, universal concepts, and
not on concepts which are culture-specific. Universal human concepts constitute
the bedrock of human understanding, and to explain meanings across languages
and cultures we need to rely on that bedrock”. The NSM approach has repeatedly
proved possible to confront the skeptics and to “define the indefinable”, i.e. to
explicate semantic nuances which have been claimed to be either impossible or
excruciatingly difficult to describe.
3.3 Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework of the study is a structure that can hold or
support the theories used in the study. It presents the theory which explains why
the problem under study exists. Thus, the theoretical framework is a theory that
serves as a basis for conducting research.
2.3.1 The Conceptual Metaphor
According to Noth (1985:1), metaphor has been used in both narrow and
broad sense. Metaphor, in a narrow sense, represents a particular trope among
others like in metonymy, synecdoche, hyperbole, etc. while metaphor, in the
broad sense, amounts to a cover term for all figures of speech. In its broad sense,
it refers to any figurative expression, including the transferred sense of a physical
word, personification of an abstraction, and application of a word or collocation
to what it does not literally denote. All polysemous words and most English
phrasal verbs are potentially metaphorical. Metaphor in this sense seeks its root
cause in the human mind and addresses the relationship between mind and
cognition. Therefore, it can be defined as a cognitive process facilitating human
Metaphor is viewed in a broad sense in this study, which is no longer a
mere rhetorical device but a mode of thinking. Metaphors connect two conceptual
domains: the target domain and the source domain. In the course of metaphorical
processes, the source domain corresponds to the target domain; in other words,
there is a mapping or a projection between the source domain and the target
domain. The target domain A is understood in terms of the source domain B.
Some entities of both domains are reversible and could be conceptualized
by the idea of abstract system of metaphor. One such case is the range of target
concepts under the overarching concept of complex systems. For example, a large
number of target concepts are characterized by the source domain of (heat of)
fire. Various specific kinds of actions, events, and states are understood as fire
(target domain). Correspondingly, there is simple sub metaphor intensity, that is,
heat (of fire). This simple metaphor is a mapping in such complex metaphors
such as anger is fire, love is fire, conflict is fire, or argument is fire. In all of
these, it is the central mapping that reflects the main meaning focus of the fire
metaphors, Kovecses (2010:145). The relationship between source domain, target
domain and both complex and simple metaphors is shown in figure 1.
Figure 1 Abstract System of Conceptual Metaphor
The metaphor identification within the study highlighted the mapping of
conceptual metaphor proposed by Kovecses (2010).
18.104.22.168 The Source Domain
The source domain consists of a set of literal entities, attributes, processes
and relationships, linked semantically and apparently stored together in the mind.
These are expressed in language through related words and expressions.
Kovecses (18-23 :2010) provide frequency sources as follows:
Source Domain Heat
Target Domain Emotion (Heat-Anger)
Complex Metaphor Anger is Fire
Corresponding Simple Metaphor (Intensity of Heat is Fire)
1. The Human Body
This source of domain is an ideal domain since people know very well, as
it is a part of our body. It makes all of the function of the body aspects
could be understood in the abstract target. For example: He faced the task.
2. Health and Illness
Both health and sickness could represent the metaphorical source domain.
For example: She’s fit for the job, (Suitability for Work is Health)
Human being is frequently associated or being understood in terms of
(assumed) animal’s properties. However, the metaphorical expression is
not exclusively limited to human being but also in such situation and
a. A parent needs an eagle eye and then to ferret out what’s going on.
(Person is animal, particular person is raptor that seizes on something/
is aggressive, burrowing, hunting animal)
b. It will be a bitch to pull this boat out of the water. (Bitch denotes any
The metaphorical concept of plant comprises various parts of plant
including the purpose of people cultivate plant either for eating, making
things or pleasure or many actions that perform in relation to the plants
such as the stages of growth. For example: He blossomed (Person is plant,
development of person is blooming of plant)
5. Building and Construction
It represents all static object of the house built by human being for shelter,
storage and work including other structure and its parts which are
considered common metaphorical source domain. For example: the case
is baseless (Case is a building, particular case is building without
6. Machines and Tools
Machines and tools are used in daily life for working, playing, fighting or
doing pleasure things. The activities of both machines and tools indicate
the metaphorical expression. For example: the evenings with him don’t
run smoothly (Human activities are machines, particular activities are
7. Games and Sport
It is a kind of play invented by human being to elaborate activities for
entertaining themselves. Any characteristic and properties utilized in
games and sport are commonly showed up for metaphorical purpose.
For example: When they misbehave he should call them on it (Parenting
is a game, a good parent is a vigilant game referee)
8. Money and Economy Transaction (business)
In human society, the economic transaction of various kinds that involves
money and commodities in general has been conducted in ages. The
commercial events comprise number of entities and actions such as
money, commodity and the handing money and commodity as well. For
example: She’s invested in that point of view (Perspective is economic
transaction, having a position on something which is staking money on
9. Cooking and Food
Cooking food is a series of complex process consisting of several
important elements such agent, recipe ingredients, action, and product.
These activities and all its parts serve as the source domain.
For example, at his house the kids are on the back burner (Parenting is
cooking, irresponsible parenting is letting the food cook itself).
10. Heat and Cold
Since we feel warm and cold of air temperature surround us, heat and cold
are categorized as basic human experiences. It is used metaphorically to
represent the attitude of people and things.
For example: If he showed more warmth it would help (Interest/affection
11. Light and Darkness
Other basic human experience is light and darkness. However, when it is
related to the metaphorical expression, the properties of light and darkness
often appears as the weather condition.
For example: Just a flicker of interest (Human attention is light/fire)
Forces are operating and affecting people’s life in many ways. Many
various kinds of forces such as gravitational, magnetic, electric and
mechanical are taking many shapes in the physical world as waves, wind,
storm, and fire and agent pushing, pulling, driving, or sending another
thing. These kinds of forces affect various changes in the thing acted on.
For example: He was induced to agree (Persuasion is physical force,
particular persuasion is invisible physical force).
13. Movement and Direction
Movement implies a change of location; therefore, it is associated with
direction; up and down, forward and backward. However, as a basic
human experience, it can be stationary (as in the case of shaking).
For Example: Her approach gives her the upper hand (Social
advantage/disadvantage is Up/Down)
22.214.171.124 Target Domain
The target domain tends to be abstract, and takes its structure from the
source domain, through the metaphorical link, or ‘conceptual metaphor’. Target
domains are therefore believed to have relationships between entities, attributes
and processes which mirror those found in the source domain. At the level of
language, entities, attributes and processes in the target domain are lexicalized
using words and expressions from the source domain. Kovecses (23-27:2010)
comprises the target domain into:
This domain involves the concepts of anger, fear, love, happiness,
sadness, shame, pride and so on. Therefore, emotion is known as superior
target domain. The source domain of emotion concepts typically involves
For example: He was bursting with joy
As well as emotion, desire is also comprehended by forces either in
physical or physiological forces like hunger and thirst. In a certain way, it
is also understood in terms of heat.
For example: I am starved for affection
3. Moral (morality)
Moral can be categorized into good and bad, honesty, courage, sincerity,
honor and their opposites and it is understood by means of more concrete
source concept. The source domain involves economic transaction, forces,
straightness, light and dark, including up-down orientation.
For example: That was a lowly thing to do
The human mind works are unlimited; therefore, people try to understand
the mind by resorting various kinds of metaphors.
For example: He hammered the point home
This concept is extremely complex since it involves the source concept of
person and family. Therefore, this complexity requires for metaphor
For example: The founding fathers of the country
Power is the character of politics. Political power is then conceptualized
as physical force. The additional aspect of politics can be understood by
means including games and sport, business and war.
For example: There was a great deal haggling over the issue
In metaphor, economy is commonly used in the source domain of
building, plants, journey (movement, direction).
For example: Germany built a strong economy
8. Human Relationship
The concept of human relationship is metaphorically viewed as plants,
machines and building since this kind of concept involves friendship, love
For example: They had to work on their relationship
Human communication involves a speaker and a hearer, and also the
message contains some meaning that shall be transferred from the speaker
to the hearer along some channel. Metaphorically, the linguistic
expression, meaning and the transfer of the message can be viewed as the
containers, object and sending.
For example: she gave me a lot of information
Although time is considered a difficult concept to understand, but the
major metaphor for the comprehension of time as an object that moves.
For example: in the following week
11. Life and Death
Life and death are metaphorically pervasive in literary works and used in
everyday language. Life is understood as a journey to some destination
and is metaphorically viewed as day, light, warmth, etc. Birth as a part of
life is conceived of as arrival, whereas death is typically viewed as
departure, night, darkness and cold.
For example: His father passed away
In religion, the key factor involves the view of God and the relationship
with God. God itself has a similar concept to the society/nation, as it can
be conceptualized as a person, a king, shepherd, father and the like. It
follows the metaphor that the believers view God’s children, sheep or
subject. Other experience as a part of religious subject involves such
notion as eternity, life after/before death in which it is metaphorically
viewed since people have no experience of them.
13. Events and Actions
Aspect of events and actions are often comprehended as movement and
force. Consequently, it includes such notion as change, caused purpose,
means and so on. Events and actions as superordinate concepts of
reading, making a chair, doing a project in a lab, plowing or any kind of
For example: you’re driving me nuts
2.3.2 Techniques in Translation of Metaphor
There are many reasons why metaphor cannot be translated directly as
proposed by Larson (1998:276). The first reason is the image, probably unknown
in the target language due to the different culture, geographical area etc. For an
instance, the people in tropical area are more familiar with the word as white as
seashells, than as white as snow which is more familiar to the people who live in
subtropical areas. The second, the topic of the metaphor is not always clearly
stated, for example, “the tide turned against the government”, the topic, and
public opinion is left implicit.”(Larson (1998:276). In addition, the point of
similarity is implicit and hard to identify, in some cases, it may be understood
differently in each culture. For example, pig in some culture means who is a
glutton while another culture means dirty. This problem makes metaphor seems
difficult to be interpreted in order to translate. It is difficult but it is possible.
Larson (1998: 279) has suggested ways to translate the metaphor as follows:
1. Keep the Metaphor language if only the receptor language permits. In
other words, the form, the natural meaning could be understood in
2. Translate the metaphor form into simile form by adding like or as, as this
form is the character of simile.
3. Substitute the same meaning of the metaphor by finding out equivalence
translation on the receptor language.
4. Keep the metaphor and explain the meaning especially the topic and the
point of similarity should be added.
5. Translate the meaning of metaphor without keeping the metaphorical
2.3.3 The Natural Semantic Metalanguage
The basic idea of the NSM approach is that we should try to describe
complex meanings in terms of simpler ones. Therefore, there are some theoretical
concepts in its application, two of them are the major concepts that are associated
with this study, and they are semantic primitive and reductive paraphrase
126.96.36.199 Semantic Primitive
The NSM theory is underlined by the one basic assumption that the
meaning cannot be described without the semantic primitive. The first criterion
of semantic prime is a linguistic expression whose meaning cannot be
paraphrased in any simpler terms. A secondary criterion (on the hypothesis of
universality) is that a semantic prime should have a lexical equivalent (or a set of
equivalents) in all languages. These twin criteria mean that the number of
expressions which can be entertained as candidates is rather small – because the
vast majority of linguistic expressions can readily be shown to be either
semantically complex and/or language-specific (Goddard 2001). There is also a
third consideration: taken as a whole, the metalanguage of semantic primes is
intended to enable reductive paraphrase of the entire vocabulary and grammar of
the language at large to be comprehensive.
The semantic primitive is indefinable and can be explicated from the
natural language which is the only way in presenting meaning (Wierzbicka,
1996:31). Consequently, it is possible to explain the complex meaning to the
simpler one, since there is a consistency of semantic features in the semantic
The NSM model has changed gradually since it was first advanced in the
early 1970s. In Anna Wierzbicka's 1972 book Semantic Primitives, only fourteen
semantic primitives were proposed and in her 1980 book Lingua Mentalist, the
inventory was not much bigger. Over the 1980s and 1990s, however, the number
of proposed primes was expanded greatly, and has now reached a total of sixty
four. The latest of the sixty four concepts or universal human concept proposed
by Wierzbicka (2010) launched at University of New England official website
explains the semantic primitives as follows:
The set of universal human concepts (Wierzbicka 2010)
[Substantives:] I, YOU SOMEONE, PEOPLE/PERSON
SOMETHING/THING, BODY [Determiners:] THIS, THE SAME, OTHER/ELSE [Quantifiers:] ONE, TWO, SOME, ALL, MANY/MUCH,
LITTLE/FEW [Evaluators:] GOOD, BAD ] Descriptors:] BIG, SMALL [Mental predicates:] THINK, KNOW, WANT, FEEL, SEE,
HEAR [Speech:] SAY, WORD, TRUE [Actions, events and movement:] DO, HAPPEN, MOVE, TOUCH [Existence, location, specification and possession:] BE (SOMEWHERE),THERE IS, HAVE,
BE (SOMEONE/SOMETHING) [Life and death:] LIVE, DIE [Time:] WHEN/TIME, NOW, BEFORE, AFTER,
A LONG TIME, A SHORT TIME, FOR SOME TIME, MOMENT
[Space:] WHERE/PLACE, HERE, ABOVE, BELOW, FAR, NEAR, SIDE, INSIDE
[“Logical" concepts:] NOT, MAYBE, CAN, BECAUSE, IF [Intensifier, Augmenter:] VERY, MORE [Rational Substantive] KIND OF, PART OF [Similarity:] LIKE/AS/WAY
188.8.131.52 Reductive Paraphrase
In stating the meaning of a semantically complex word we should try to
give a paraphrase composed of words which are simpler and easier to understand
than the original. This method of semantic analysis is called "reductive
paraphrase". Reductive paraphrase prevents us from getting tangled up in circular
and obscure definitions, problems which greatly hamper conventional
dictionaries and other approaches to linguistic semantics. No technical terms,
neologisms, logical symbols, or abbreviations are allowed in reductive paraphrase
explications– only plain words from ordinary natural language.
Assuming that reductive paraphrase can be made to work as a method of
analyzing meanings, then metaphor should be explained in a non-metaphorical
language by using the same simple and universal concepts in terms of which all
other meanings can be explained.
2.4 Research Model
The Chart of Research Model
Translation of Conceptual Metaphor in Thousand Splendid Suns
SL: ENGLISH METAPHOR
PROBLEM 1. What types of conceptual metaphors are found in the novel “A
Thousand Splendid Suns”? 2. What ways of translation are implemented in the translation of
conceptual metaphor in the novel “A Thousand Splendid Suns”? 3. How are the English metaphors found in the novel “A Thousand
Splendid Suns” translated into Indonesian?
Method Qualitative Approach (Sudaryanto, 1993)
Theories: 1. From Kovecses, 2010. Regarding the
conceptual metaphor which defined source domain and target domain.
2. From Larson, 1996. Regarding the five ways of translating the metaphor.
3. From Wiersbicka, 1996. Regarding the use of exponent mapping of semantic primitives in Natural Semantic Metalanguage theory
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD
The research method of this study deals with research approach, data
source, method and technique of data collection, method and technique of
analyzing data, and method and technique of presenting the analysis.
3.1 Research Approach
This is a library research referring to the finding and collecting support
information from various kinds of references, books, journals, thesis or articles
that has significant relation to the research and the study.
The approach used is qualitative because this research underlined the
English metaphor translation and its translation.
The data were taken from the novel entitled A Thousand Splendid Suns
by an Afghan-American author, Khaled Hosseini, published by Penguin Group
USA Inc. Time magazine has placed this novel on the number three in the Top
10 Fiction Books of 2007. The source language of the novel is English and
translated into many languages, one of them is Indonesian. The Indonesian
version is entitled A Thousand Splendid Suns, translated by Berliani M.
Nugrahani and published by Qanita in Jakarta 2008. By seeing the year of the
translation the metaphor expressions are expected still up to date. Although the
novel is written in English but the nuance of this novel is full of Afghan culture.
This novel expressed the way of Afghan women fight for their life during
the war and rebellion that occurred at that time. The way the writer presents the
metaphor of afghan culture through the western point of view is stimulating to be
discussed. Meanwhile, the unit of translation could be in the form of word,
phrase, or sentence, as small as possible, as long as necessary, that contain
3.3.Method and Technique of Collecting Data
The method used documentary method which is applied by documenting
the data containing metaphors in the source language and their translations. The
choice of this method is in accordance with the type of the data source. To
support this study, the data were collected by close reading the whole text
repeatedly both the source language and the target language then identifying the
metaphor by taking note, in order to have comparison analysis. Finally, the data
containing metaphors were rendered, classified and analyzed.
3.4.Method and Technique of Analyzing Data
The method used to analyze the data was the descriptive method
supported by the qualitative-descriptive technique proposed by Sudaryanto
(1993:62). The steps of data analysis are as follows:
1) The conceptual metaphors were classified into source domain and target
2) The metaphors were put in column between the SL and the TL completed
with the entire sentence to differentiate the ways of translation metaphor.
3) The metaphor translations were analyzed using the Natural Semantic
Metalanguage approach in the application of sixty four human concepts
proposed by Wierzbicka (1996).
4) The metaphor translations were compared to see the differences or the
The conceptual metaphor from the target domain of time, dragged. It is
broken down into a complex system of Time is a Motion. As part of the complex
system time is motion, dragged can be formulated in simple metaphor as time
passing is an observer’s motion over a landscape. It states that times are fixed
locations and the observer is moving with respect to time
She remembered all too well how time had dragged without him. (Part 21 page 150)
Dia masih bisa merasakan bagaimana waktu merayap dengan amat sangat lambat tanpa adanya Tariq (Part 21 page 190)
From the five ways of metaphor translation, the translator tend to keep the
metaphorical meaning, dragged known as a slow motion which has similarity in
terms of meaning to the word merayap. However, the difference of both lexical
items is on the method as people did this thing by doing a slow mode of
locomotion on hands and knees. Besides keeping the metaphorical meaning of
dragged, the translator added the words sangat lambat. This kind of adverb
strengthened the sense of the metaphor. Therefore, the effect of the metaphor was
well transferred to the readers in TL.
Dragged can be mapped through the exponent as follows:
Dragged involves motion of something slowly and as if with great effort. It also
shows proceed for an extended period of time when people say dragged people
think of something. When they think of something, they know that dragged is
moving slowly. This kind of thing happened within period of time. People did
this thing by walking without lifting the feet. Similar to dragged, when people
say merayap people think of something. When they think of something, they
know that merayap is moving slowly. This kind of thing happened within period
of time as well. The similarity of the exponent mapping between dragged and
merayap shows that the translation can be accepted in the target language reader.
3.5 Method and Technique of Presenting the Analysis
According to Sudaryanto (1993:145) there are two methods in data
presenting, the formal and informal. The formal presentation presents the data
analysis using number, statistics, table, graphic and etc, while the informal uses
description in details, complete and comprehensive. As this study is using the
descriptive qualitative method, the data are presented using informal method.
The presentation of the data analysis is divided into three:
1. The conceptual metaphor classification based on the source domain and
target domain is presented according to the classification proposed by
2. The ways of translation metaphors are identified based on the ways
proposed by Larson (1998).
3. The analysis of English Metaphor Translation
The analysis is presented through the exponent mapping of English
metaphor and its translation into Indonesian which is presented by
applying the NSM theory proposed by Wierzbicka (1996).
The technique of presenting the data is as follows:
She remembered all too well how time had dragged without him (Part 21 page 150)
Dia masih bisa merasakan bagaimana waktu merayap dengan amat sangat lambat tanpa adanya Tariq (Part 21 page 190)
CHAPTER IV TYPES OF CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR, WAYS OF TRANSLATION
AND THE ANALYSIS OF METAPHOR TRANSLATION
This analysis section is concerned with the translation of metaphor in the
novel entitled “A Thousand Splendid Suns”. The classification of metaphor
reffered to the conceptual metaphor based on the theory proposed by Kovecses
(2010) is needed prior to identify of the ways of translating metaphors as
suggested by Larson (1998). The analysis of the translation should be continued
by the application of the Natural Semantic Metalanguage approach proposed by
4.1 The Types of Conceptual Metaphor
The types of conceptual metaphor can be categorized into source domain
and target domain. Kovecses, 2010 explained that source domain A is replicated
to target domain B, in simple form He defines source domain A is target domain
4.1.1 Source Domain
Source domain furthermore classified into the conceptual metaphor of
human body, health and illness, animals, plants, building and construction,
machines and tools, games and sport, money and economy transaction, heat and
cold, forces and movement and direction.
184.108.40.206 The Conceptual Metaphor of Human Body
There are nine conceptual metaphors related to the Human Body found in
the novel that can be mapped. Those are, headed, ask for my hands, I only have
eyes for you, noor of my eyes, sultan of my heart, shoulder, feet, hands, and foot.
Those nine metaphorical expressions above represent the conceptual metaphor of
human body. As physical basis, those are parts of human body. Kovecses
(2010:23) emphasized this concept to the function of the body aspects. It can be
replicated and understood in the abstract target domain.
- The flock of women and children who were headed the same way. (Part
10 page 64).
Headed, based on the context implies the meaning of to go to one
destination (same way). “To go” implies the movement from one location
to another one. “Headed”,as the source domain A of conceptual metaphor
of the Human Body, reflects the abstract form of the target domain B as
the movement or action.
- “Well, no one’s come to ask for my hand” (Part 16 page 113)
Hand, from the source domain A of the Human Body is represented by
the target domain B as the form of human relationship concept of
accompanying, the same concept can be found in the context of holding
hands, which involved the concept of personal relationship, friendship,
and intimate relation. Ask for my hand then explicits the meaning of
asking for companion, or getting together.
- “You know.” “Know what?” “That I only have eyes for you.”(Part 23
Eyes as the source domain A of the human body as a means of seeing or
paying attention to and it could be understood in the abstract target
domain B of desire. Eyes in this context represent the meaning of strong
attention that contains emotion and passion of infatuation or even
- “Tell her she is the noor of my eyes and the Sultan of my heart.” (Part 46
Noor is an Arabic word that means light, noor of my eyes meaning the
light of my eyes. The target domain B is emotion as light reflects
happiness. Kovecses (2010: 97) states that light as opposed to dark is
valued positively; the light metaphor also highlights the positive
evaluation of happiness. Sultan is known as the ruler, sovereign of a
Muslim country, heart is the locus of feeling and intuition. The
combination of both as Sultan of my heart metaphorically means the
sovereign of the feeling and intuition, as a ruler who has power to control
feeling, life and emotion.
- Laila had to shoulder more and more of the chores. (Part 20 page 140).
Shoulder, a part of the body is used to carry on something. Therefore, in
the abstract form of the target domain it represents a physical strength or
- They would help them with money and food for a while, until they could
get on their feet (Part 21 page 148).
Feet are conceptualized to a thought in the target domain as being
autonomous. It belongs to the thought as it is very subjective to determine
- When the hands finally showed eleven-thirty, Mariam pocketed the
eleven pebbles and went outside (Part 5 page 29).
It is not the hands that are referred to by the time but the experience of
human being who always wear watch on their hands. The next
explanation in the text “finally showed” then represents the time as
limited source. It means that time is considered something that is difficult
to find. Thus, we cannot waste it unwisely or by doing something useless
for our lives. Then hands replicated into the target domain as Time is a
- A glorious new era in history of our country is a foot. (Part 15 page 100)
Foot metaphorically in this data is different from feet that we talked about
previously. Foot as the lowest part of the human body implies the end of
the old era and leads to the meaning of hope to the new era. Therefor foot
in this context replicated to the target domain of desire (hope).
220.127.116.11 The Conceptual Metaphor of Health and Illness
One conceptual metaphor found in the novel is related to health and
illness. This conceptual metaphor relies on the way of illness.
- He seemed to take pleasure in not being welcome here, in infecting this
female atmosphere with his half-grinning, masculine irreverence (Part 23
By this context, there are different groups of atmosphere; they are female
and the one that in the text is defined as masculine irreverence as male
atmosphere’s entity. Infecting is from the source domain of illness as a
means of affect in a contagious way. The metaphorical expression of this
word is structured in the target domain as a kind of action. Therefore the
abstract system in target domain belonged to Events and Action.
According to the context, “He” communicates a disease or in this case
conveys his masculine irreverence to the community (female atmosphere)
that he enters to. This kind of action leads to a disturbing behavior
experienced by the community.
18.104.22.168 The Conceptual Metaphor of Animals
There are two conceptual metaphor of animals found in the novel. They
are toothless lizard and the lion of Panjshir. These metaphors compare the human
behavior with animal behavior.
- On the evening the toothless lizard comes to ask for your hand. (Part 16
The concept of human is animal from the source domain replicated into
target domain of morality, specifically bad morality. In this case, lizard h
is structured as “human behavior is animal behavior”. Lizard behavior is
responsive to heat, light, food and sex. In the text lizard referred to male
entity as, metaphorically, heat could be referred to love and anger, light
for happiness; as love or anger, happiness, food and sex are the character
of male. Then toothless lizard represents a male that has no such
- That’s the kind of brave young men your brothers were, Laila, that
Commander Massoud himself, the Lion of Panjshir, God bless him,
would oversee their burial (Part 20 page 140).
The Lion of Panjshir belongs to the source domain of animal. As well as
the toothless lizard, the conceptual metaphor is structured as means that
“human are animals”. It is also shared the same target domain of morality.
However, in the context, the Commander Massoud is compared with lion
in terms of courage, as in the battle his spirit enables him to face danger
or pain without showing fear. Therefore, metaphorically, the courage is
compared to the courage of lion as a brave predator in the jungle.
22.214.171.124 The Conceptual Metaphor of Plants
Three conceptual metaphor plants are found in the novel. They are
flourished, growing and seed. These three metaphors also represent the step of
plant development which start from the seed, grow and flourish.
- How blessed that their children had flourished in their wombs, lived to
squirm in their arms. (Part 14 page 91).
According to Kovecses (2010: 129), metaphorically, flourished is the
successful or appropriate development of complex system of growing
plant. In the text, flourished is describes as the stage when child is
growing in their mother’s womb. The stage involves the relation of the
child and the mother that explains the concept of how the target domain of
the human relationship occurred.
- She thought of what was growing there, and happiness rushed in like a
gust of wind blowing a door wide open. (Part 13 page 87).
Plants in conceptual metaphor are defined as a complex abstract system
by Kovecses (2010:128). Growing structured as a complex system
becoming larger is a plant growing bigger. In the text what is growing
refers to a fetus inside the mother’s womb or simply metaphorically that
people are plants as their action performed in relation to the plants or in
this case the ability of growing.
- “You see, I knew your mother before you were born, when she was a little
girl and I tell you that she was unhappy then. The seed for what she did
was planted long ago, I’m afraid. (Part 6 page 43).
The emotion reflected from the target domain is unhappy, as it is shown
from the text. It is explained that the unhappy situation occurred a long
time ago; it strengthens that it was the starting point to sow the seed as the
first stage in planting.
126.96.36.199 The Conceptual Metaphor of Building and Construction
In the novel, one of the conceptual metaphors of building and
construction is found. This metaphor compares the passion to the kind of
construction, in this case, well.
- His patience with Zalmai was a well that ran deep and never dried.
(Part 40 page 289).
Well as a one of building and construction entailments, known as a deep
hole or shaft dug or drilled to obtain water through the floors of a building. In the
target domain of emotion, the depth represents the patience as it is shown on the
188.8.131.52 The Conceptual Metaphor of Machines and Tools
The conceptual metaphor for machines and tools in the novel relies on the
machine or the part of the machine and the performance of machine. In the novel,
there are three conceptual metaphors that can be found. They are wheeled, ink
their legend and bulldozed.
- “I won’t forget tomorrow,” mammy was saying behind her. “I promise.”
“You said that yesterday.” “You don’t know, Laila.” “Know what?” Laila
wheeled around to face her mother. (Part 17 page 123).
An abstract concept of machine in conceptual metaphor is stated in
Wheeled in terms of the working of machines. As a simple machine that
rotates, it will change directions as if revolving on a pivot. As in the
context of Laila’s Mammy is talking behind her, Laila wheeled in
responding what her Mammy said to maintain the eye contact with her
Mammy as by the text Laila is curious to know what will her Mammy say
later. It shows that the target domain of thought plays its role in the
metaphorical expression of wheeled.
- The parchment on which Mammy meant to ink their legend
(Part 20 page 140)
Apart from the working of machine, another abstract concept of machine
in conceptual metaphor is to maintain (the efficient working of) machine
or tools). Even in the text it is not explicitly mentioned about the pen as a
tool but the substance to maintain the tool (ink) is clearly explicate. So the
use of metaphorical expression in the text is to maintain for what is called
legend. In the target domain, maintenance issue can be categorized as the
action caused purpose.
- “She had this laugh. I swear it’s why I married her, Laila for that laugh. It
bulldozed you. You stood no chance against it.”(Part 21 page 147).
The target domain of this conceptual metaphor is referring to the action of
the machine. Bulldoze, as proceed to operate bulldozer to move, flatten,
demolish, destroy; therefore, the machine is called bulldozer. When
bulldozed is stated in the text, this means that “the laugh” has power to
demolish the hearer.
184.108.40.206 The Conceptual Metaphor of Games and Sports
The conceptual metaphor of games and sport is rarely found in the novel.
Puppet is a conceptual metaphor of games that exist in the novel and it could
represent the tools of games played by children.
- “Najibullah is the Soviet’s puppet president.”(Part 21 page 150)
In the target domain, power is one of the characters of politics. A
president should have a power over his government and nation. Puppet is
one of entities of a game that represents a character that can be played by
somebody else. It is somebody else’s property. When children are playing
puppet they tend to speak on behalf of the puppet, give the puppet name,
direct the puppet and make the scene of what they want. When the text
tried to compare a president with a puppet, metaphorically it explains that
the president has no power but the one behind them that is taking control
of him is the real president or, in this case, is the Soviet Union.
220.127.116.11 The Conceptual Metaphor of Money and Economy Transaction
There are two conceptual metaphors of money and economy transaction
found in the novel. They are expense and cost. Both are related to economy
- How they made small harmless jokes at each other’s expense.
(Part 18 page 128)
Expense in economy transaction is defined as the amount paid for goods.
In the text, it is described that after one performed joke, the other one
should pay with another joke in return. The concept of this metaphor as
economy transaction is something spent to perform a joke and it should be
reimbursed by another joke. It reflects the action of a self-propelled
motion in the abstract system in the target domain.
- Laila is happy here in Murree, But it’s not an easy happiness. It is not
happiness without cost. (Part 46 page 369)
When cost is defined as the total spent for goods or services including
money and time and labor. In the text the way in which Laila fight for her
life is the cost of the happiness she got in return. Metaphorically, cost
means the value measured by what must be given, done or undergone to
obtain something (happiness). It is replicated in the target domain of
thought that everything has price, and how much it costs depends on the
value of a thing
18.104.22.168 The Conceptual Metaphor of Heat and Cold
In the novel the conceptual metaphor of heat and cold is represented by
the concept of heat. There the conceptual metaphor of heat is expressed by the
metaphor warm. However, it is categorized into two typical of conceptual
metaphors of heat since it has two different meanings. The first meaning
expresses the emotion of shame and the second expresses the emotion of love.
- When she thought of him this way she was overtaken with guilt, but also
with a peculiar, warm sensation that spread upward from her belly until it
felts as if her face were glowing pink. (Part 23 page 161)
Warm as an indicator of heat in the source domain in the text is the
abstract system of sudden increase in intensity in the degree of heat. The
increase in degree is described in the text determined by the phrase
“…spread upward from her belly until it feels as if her face were glowing
pink”. The emotion in the target domain specifically refers to shame.
Shame is defined as the effect as “she was overtaken with guilt”. In this
increase in emotion “her face was glowing pink” people tend to blush
when they feel embarrassed.
- It’s a chilly overcast day, but it’s warm next to Tariq. (Part 26 page 184)
Unlike the metaphorical meaning of warm above, the word warm here
signifies the emotion of love in the target domain. The abstract complex
system is relationship-love. Affection and love are conceptualized in
terms of heat and fire. It does not physically affect the writer but it shows
a relationship between Tariq and Laila that comfort Laila whenever she is
with Tariq and it means that this expression will give some happiness and
calmness to the receiver.
22.214.171.124 The Conceptual Metaphor of Forces
There are many repetitions of conceptual metaphor of forces in the novel.
In the novel, there are about five conceptual metaphors. It can be classified by
natural forces and physical forces. AS natural forces, they are stormed out, a
wave of affection and flooded while physical forces are squeezed and pressed
- Mariam watch as he stormed out of the living room. (Part 15 page 102).
In the target domain, anger is a storm metaphor. This abstract complex
system is exemplified by the expression such “anger is wave”, Kovecses
- Dread pressed down on her chest.(Part 15 page 102)
Pressed down in the source domain is a physical force and conceptualized
into the emotion in the target domain. The emotion of terror (dread) lives
in part of the human body (chest). Therefore, this metaphorical
expression provides the depiction of how people use their body-based
experience in terms of “container” metaphor. Kovecses (2010:41) states
that emotions are commonly said to be private and heavily dependent
experiences being inaccessible to others. Given that people experience
their bodies as containers, thus emotions are kept inside the people’s body
- A wave of affection overcame Laila (Part 21 page 146)
Forces, metaphorically take shape on physical word, like wave, storm,
and fire (Kovecses, 2010:22). Affection is a positive emotion of liking.
Therefore in target domain this natural kind of forces is replicated as
- Family had flooded the city on their frenetic rounds to visit relatives.
(Part 12 page 79)
Flood, is a natural force as means of something that people cannot
control. Flood contains water that has flexibility to spread over to every
place easily. “Family had flooded the city” means that as people spread
over the city, it will be full of the people.
- Her heart squeezed, and she was faint with sorrow at thought that this
afternoon Aziza would nap beside her. (Part 42 page 307)
Another metaphorical expression based on the source domain concept of
force is squeezed. As a physical attribute, squeezed becomes metaphorical
when heart becomes the signifier. The Heart as the center of emotion
automatically expresses the expression of squeezed as something which is
suffering or distressed.
126.96.36.199. The Conceptual Metaphor of Movement and Direction
This conceptual metaphor relies on the movement and direction. The
changes of movement and direction expressed in the metaphor can be found in
the novel such as battering, falling, falling over, falling apart and looking down.
- Her heart was battering with excitement (Part 5 page 30)
Movement and direction implies the change of location. Based on the
human experience, it can be stationary (as in the case of shaking).
Battering is known as striking repeatedly; this kind of movement shows
the change of location which can be up and down, left and right or even
forward and backward. Metaphorically, if “the heart was battering” then
it indicates emotion of the target domain. In the text the emotion is
- “You have a suitor, “Khadija said. Mariam’s stomach fell. “A what?” she
said through suddenly numb lips. (Part 7 page 46).
Fell defines as moving downward and lower,” stomach fell” represents
the emotion of being sad as the abstract system of conceptual metaphor
refers to the downward movement. The target domain will be emotion
(sad is down). This metaphorical expression used by the writer in
explaining the situation when Mariam were mourning after her mother
passed away and feeling rejected by her father. She had been having a
hard time lately and now she has a suitor.
- A silence fell over the room. (Part 7 page 49).
As well as the metaphorical expression above, fell over replicated the
target domain of emotion specifically sad is down. In text, this situation
occurs when they people in the room is receiving the news that one of
their relatives has passed away. The emotion of being sad is shown by the
word “a silence fell over” as they cannot say anything but express their
grief in silence.
- She was glad for the burqa, glad that Aziza could not see how she was
falling apart inside it. (Part 42 page 308)
Falling apart means becoming separated into pieces or fragments in the
target domain; it refers to the emotion as being sad is down. In the text
Laila tries to cover her sadness with her burqa as it could be shown on the
expression of her face.
- “What is there to learn?” she snapped toward Mariam. Mariam looked
down at her hands (Part 3 Page 18)
Downward movement represented by the word looked down implies the
emotion of the target domain (sad is down); it is performed by Laila when
her mother questioning her with under estimate expression.
4.1.2 Target Domain
The conceptual domain from the target domain is broken down into
another complex system. There are conceptual metaphor found in the novel, they
are: emotion, society/nation, time, life and death, and religion.
188.8.131.52 The Conceptual Metaphor of Emotion
Emotion is the major conceptual metaphor that occurs in the novel. The
interesting part is the point of view in seeing emotion which is not only
represented through the expression of emotion but also through other entities of
emotion such as the body as the container of emotion. Therefore, two of
conceptual metaphors of emotion are analyzed below to enrich the type of
conceptual metaphor that has been discussed in this thesis.
- Which she imagined as painful acts of perversity that filled her with dread
and made her break out in a sweat. (Part 7 page 49).
Emotions are commonly said to be private and heavily dependent on
experiences being inaccessible to others. Filled expresses the full of
emotion (dread) that lives inside. This word expresses the container
(human body is full of “painful acts of perversity”) that will lead to dread
feeling. The complex system this conceptual metaphor is referring to body
is a container of emotional states.
- She could barely contain her own happiness. (Part 26 page 183)
Contain means as being able to hold something. In the abstract system of
conceptual metaphor, happiness is considered having positive energy;
therefore, it should be up which is opposite to sad (sad is down). By this
context, contain is referring to the body as container of the emotional
184.108.40.206 The Conceptual Metaphor of Society/Nation
Through the data found in the novel, there is one conceptual metaphor of
society and nation; they are Malika and Dehati. This kind of metaphor occurred
as the expression of the hierarchy system within a community.
- “You may be the palace malika and me a dehati, but I won’t take orders
from you. You can complain to him and he can slit my throat, but I won’t
do it. “(Part 31 page 219).
The target domain of society is being understood in the complex system
of social activity or hierarchy. Malika and dehati are Arabic terms,
meaning queen and servant. Here in the text the social hierarchy of
malika and dehati are described to emphasize the meaning of control.
Malika is the one who should control dehati and dehati should obey
whatever is ordered by Malika. Laila is treated as a queen in the house
while Mariam is treated as a dehati.
220.127.116.11 The Conceptual Metaphor of Time
There are four conceptual metaphors of time found in the data. Those can
be comprised into two categories, time is money and time is motion. Time is
money is being analyzed through the metaphor spent while time is motion
represented by the metaphor came in, dragged and crawl.
- Tariq spent seven years in the Pakistani prison (Part 44 page 330)
Several verbs used in this conceptual metaphor (Time is Money) are
spend, invest, budget, profitable, cost and buy. Time has been claimed as
a commodity, where work is typically associated with the time as it is
usual to pay people by hour, week, month or year.
- Ramadan came in the fall that year,1974. (Part 12 page 77)
Time is understood in terms of its basic elements: physical object,
location, and motion (Kovecses, 2010:37). Came in determined by the
complex system of time is motion; the corresponding simple metaphor is
time passing which is motion of an object. It explains that the observer is
fixed and time is an object moving with respect to the observer. Time is
oriented towards its fronts in direction of motion.
- She remembered all too well how time had dragged without him
(Part 21 page 150)
As part of the complex system time, motion, being dragged is different
from the motion concept as previously analyzed using the term came in.
Being dragged can be formulated in a simple metaphor as time passing is
an observer’s motion over a landscape. It states that times are fixed
locations and the observer is moving with respect to time.
- It was with the sun’s westward crawl that Mariam’s anxiety really
ratcheted up. (Part 10 page 62).
Apart from being dragged, crawl corresponds to the simple metaphor as
time passing is an observer’s motion over a landscape. Time is fixed
location as the sun has to set in the west, the observer is moving with
respect to time by crawl.
18.104.22.168 The Conceptual Metaphor of Life and Death
There are three conceptual metaphors that related to the concept of life
and death. The first is fought, it represents the entity of the way what people do in
their lives, and how they survive. The other two are rest in peace and I’m gone,
both represent the idea of life and death.
- All I remember is, doctors huddled around the bed, calling for this and
that, alarms beeping, syringes all over the ground.“In the morning, the bed
was empty. I asked a nurse. She said he fought valiantly. “
(Part 28 page 203)
Fought, metaphorically represents the concept of complex system that
Life is Battle. In battle, fighting against enemy, but in this text fighting
against the wound that Tariq has. Hence, this expression highlights the
conflict of life and death.
- At last , she could end her vigils, and her sons could rest in peace
(Part 23 page 158)
Life is a journey as a complex system is a conventional metaphor for
birth, death and experience in between including ideas of travelling and
movement. In the text, death is not described as the end of a journey but
the stage of taking rest during the journey so that it is represented by the
words rest in peace.
- I’m all you have in this world, Mariam, and when I’m gone you’ll have
nothing. (Part 5 Page 27)
Gone in the text refers to death; however, as it is the complex system of
life is journey. The word gone is associated with the concept experience
22.214.171.124 The Conceptual Metaphor of Religion
In the conceptual metaphor of religion, the metaphor expression relies on
the concept of the creator and creation, and their relation. There are two
conceptual metaphors found in the novel, they are punishment reflecting the
relation between the creator and the creation. Mighty, the Great forgiver
represents the characteristic of the creator.
- Now she was the one sitting on the chair. Was this her penalty, then her
punishment for being aloof to her own mother’s suffering
(Part 28 page 204)
The complex system of the above conceptual metaphor is the relationship
with God. The background religion of this story is Moslem. Moslem
knows the concept that God will give reward every kindness performed
by His believer and punishment for the people who disobey His
command. As in the story, Laila is “being aloof to her mother suffering”
when her brother has passed away as shahid, someone who fights to
defend his believes. This action affects Laila so that she thinks that God
should punish her because of that.
- He is the Mighty, the Great forgiver. (Part 47 page 361)
The view of God is conceptualized into the Mighty who represents the
great power He has. While the Great Forgiver is also conceptualized that
He will forgive any mistake and sin if only His believers want to ask for
4.2 The Ways of Translating Metaphors
Identification of ways of translation metaphor below is based on the
theory from Larson (1996). From five ways proposed by Larson, only four ways
that can be identified from the data found in the novel. They are; keeping the
Metaphor language if only the receptor language permits, Substitute the same
meaning of the metaphor by finding out equivalence translation on the receptor
language, keeping the metaphor and explain the meaning and translate the
meaning of metaphor without keeping the metaphorical imagery.
4.2.1 Keeping The Metaphor Language
The metaphor is obtained from the following sentence.
1. “Tell her she is the noor of my eyes and the Sultan of my heart.” (Part 46 page 350)
“Katakan padanya bahwa dia adalah noor di mataku dan sultan di hatiku.” (Part 46 page 442)
The translator applied the technique of keeping the metaphorical
expression of SL when it was translated into the TL. This way is acceptable as
the natural meaning of this metaphor expression can be understood in the
receptor language. In TL, Noor is a borrowing word from Arabic language
which is spelled as nur meaning as cahaya or light. As well as noor, the word
sultan is recognized in the receptor language. Sultan means as the king of Islamic
kingdom. In some areas in TL the concept of sultan existed. Eyes and heart as the
conceptual metaphor of human body, is a universal concept that can be
understood in the receptor language. Both are played in the concept of the
function of the human body part.
2. On the evening the toothless lizard comes to ask for your hand. (Part 16 page 113)
Pada malam ketika kadal ompong itu datang untuk melamarmu. (Part 16 page 145)
As previously discussed above in the section of conceptual metaphor,
Lizard behavior is often associated with human characters especially male
characters. Toothless shows the lack of necessary force for effectiveness and it
makes the male have no power on his entities. In the TL, it is translated literally
into kadal ompong. The existing of kadal as an animal for all over the world has
the same character. This kind of character also exists in TL. Therefore the similar
concept of metaphor is acceptable in TL as the concept of this conceptual
metaphor also known in TL.
3. That’s the kind of brave young men your brothers were, Laila, that Commander Massoud himself, the Lion of Panjshir, God bless him, would oversee their burial (Part 20 page 140)
Kedua abangmu adalah pemuda yang gagah berani, Laila, Itulah yang dikatakan Komandan Massoud, sang Singa Panjshir, semoga Tuhan memberkatinya, yang mengawasi pemakaman mereka (Part 20 Page 178)
The Lion of Panjshir translated into sang Singa Panjshir. The concept of
animal, lion or in the TL known as singa is acceptable for the TL reader. In terms
of the characters of the animal both language have the same idea regarding the
courage and leadership. In many fables in TL singa is known as the king in the
4. “You see, I knew your mother before you were born, when she was a little girl and I tell you that she was unhappy then. The seed for what she did was planted long ago, I’m afraid (Part 6 page 43)
“Kau tahu, aku telah mengenal ibumu sejak kau belum ada, ketika dia masih menjadi seorang gadis kecil, dan aku bisa mengatakan kepadamu bahwa ketika itupun dia sudah tidak bahagia. Bibit dari apa yang ia lakukan sekarang telah tertanam sejak lama (Part 6 page 63)
The concept of seed is a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an
embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa. The material of
seed can be as kernel, small plants, a part of plant, and powder of plant. Seed is
the first stage of a growing plant process. The same concept of the material of
seed and the stage of growing plant process also occurred in the concept of bibit
in TL. Seed is lexically translated into bibit, fortunately the word bibit is the
metaphor expression that often be used in daily conversation in TL to express the
same sense as seed has.
5. When the hands finally showed eleven-thirty, Mariam pocketed the eleven pebbles and went outside (Part 5 page 29)
Ketika jarum jam akhirnya menunjukkan pukul setengah dua belas , Mariam mengantungi sebelas kerikilnya dan kembali ke luar (Part 5 page 46)
Hands. As part of human body has many functions. By the context, the
concept of hands relies on the habitual of wearing watch. Watch is worn by
people on hand therefore this concept based on human experience in SL language
when they say the hands finally showed eleven-thirty means the time on watch
showed eleven-thirty. Meanwhile, in TL it is translated into Jarum jam as time
determiner. Jarum jam is not specifically referred to watch but the component of
watch. The concept of time in TL is associated with the word Jam or in the SL
usually called as clock it can be watch or clock. Jarum jam become the
metaphorical expression and TL and acceptable to the concept of time that
mentioned in SL.
6. They would help them with money and food for a while, until they could get on their feet (Part 21 page 148)
Mereka akan mendapatkan bantuan uang dan makanan selama beberapa waktu, sebelum dapat berdiri sendiri. (Part 21 page 187)
Feet integrate into the rest of human body. The feet are initially mobile to
ultimately give us the stability that we need to move. When it is stable, it
becomes a rigid lever and facilities and unloading the kinetic chain. Feet should
be flexible and mobile or stable in the right time. The metaphor expression of
Berdiri sendiri in TL means being independent in the concept of thought and
attitude without any intervention and it is not determined by other parties.
SL is using feet to underline the concept of stability by the function of
feet, while in TL the word berdiri sendiri underlined the concept of
independence. Being independent means being free from control or influence of
another or others while stable means the quality of being enduring and free from
change or variation. However, difference did not change the sense of the context
situation. Therefore the translation is considered acceptable in TL.
7. The parchment on which Mammy meant to ink their legend (Part 20 page 140)
Perkamen yang digunakan Mammy untuk menggoreskan tinta legenda mereka (Part 20 page 178)
To ink in SL means writing, as ink concept in SL known as a liquid use
for writing. The SL is using ink as the material for pen, a tool for writing to
emphasize the sense of metaphor. The concept of ink which is in TL translated
into tinta is known as well. Due to tinta in TL did not automatically transfer the
sense of writing; therefore the translator is adding the word menggoreskan to
convey the meaning of writing. Therefore, the sense of metaphor is well
transferred to the respective TL reader.
8. “Najibullah is the Soviet’s puppet president.”(Part 21 page 150)
“Najibullah sama saja dengan boneka Presiden Soviet.” (Part 21 page 191)
The concept of puppet in TL is a small figure of a person operated from
above with strings by a puppeteer. The sense of metaphor directly pointed
Najibullah as the puppet and Soviet president is the puppeteer. In TL, the concept
of puppet is unknown. TL reader familiar with the word boneka or in SL it is
called doll. Boneka in TL means as a figure with hollow head of a person or
animal and a cloth body. It is intended to fit over the hand and be manipulated
with the fingers. As the puppet concept does not exist in TL, therefore the
translator is using boneka which has close meaning to puppet to preserve the
sense of metaphor.
9. She remembered all too well how time had dragged without him (Part 21 page 150)
Dia masih bisa merasakan bagaimana waktu merayap dengan amat sangat lambat tanpa adanya Tariq (Part 21 page 190)
Dragged here metaphorically means move slowly just like walking
without lifting the feet. This slow motion or performance determined the period
of time. In the TL, merayap means as move slowly just like walking with foot
and hand rest on the ground. The similar concept of dragged and merayap is on
the slow motion and less effort of walking. This similarity considers the
translation is acceptable in the TL reader since the sense of moving slowly within
period of time is preserved.
10. At last , she could end her vigils, and her sons could rest in peace (Part 23 page 158)
Akhirnya dia dapat mengakhiri tirakatnya , dan kedua anak laki-lakinya akan beristirahat dalam kedamaian (Part 23 page 200)
The concept of Rest in peace in SL came from the belief that death is
period of a pause for relaxation from the life on earth. This kind of concept is also
known in the TL reader. Therefore when it is being translated into beristirahat
dalam kedamaian, the sense of metaphor is preserved since the context is
equivalent between TL and SL.
4.2.2 Translate the metaphor into simile form
If a metaphor is a figure of speech that uses one thing to mean another and
makes a comparison between the two and the key words here are one thing
to mean another. A simile compares two different things in order to create a new
meaning. In this case, it is explicitly aware that a comparison is being made due
to the use of “like” or “as”. Through the data, there only one of metaphor is being
translated into simile form as follows:
His patience with Zalmai was a well that ran deep and never dried (Part 40 page 289)
Kesabaran rasheed pada Zalmai bagaikan sumur dalam yang tak pernah mengering (Part 40 page 362)
Well in SL known as a deep hole or shaft dug or drilled to obtain water or
oil or gas or brine. Metaphorically, by the context, the patience is being
compared to the well that ran deep and never dried. In TL the sense of metaphor
as comparison is preserved by transferring the form of metaphor into simile form
by adding the word bagaikan. Bagaikan if it is translated into SL it means “like”,
one of the criteria in simile form.
4.2.3 Substitute the Same Meaning of the Metaphor
In the novel, there are eight data found to describe the way of translation
1. “Well, no one’s come to ask for my hand” (Part 16 page 113)
“Tidak akan ada yang datang untuk melamarku” (Part 16 page 144)
Ask for my hand could be associated in many ideas based on its
function, to grab something or to do something (to help). In this context, it
is emotionally bound in a relationship as we can find people holding
hands to show the intimate relationship. Therefore, ask for my hand
metaphorically could mean asking for companion. In TL reader, the
concept of asking for companion especially in Moslem culture should be
started with proposal. In TL proposal or called as melamar is the first
stage before a couple want to get married. By the similar concept, the
translation is acceptable in TL reader.
2. The flock of women and children who were headed the same way. (Part 10 page 64)
Sekelompok wanita dan anak-anak yang sedang menuju tempat yang sama. (Part 10 page 88)
In SL, the metaphor headed is familiar word means travel in front of;
go in advance of others, or determine the direction of traveling. While in TL the
kind of metaphor headed is unknown. Therefore, when the translator translated it
into menuju, the meaning of direction of travelling is being conveyed.
3. Her heart was battering with excitement (Part 5 page 30)
1. Jantungnya berdegup kencang seiring rasa senang yang menggelegak di dalam dirinya. (Part 5 page 48)
Battering in SL means the act of subjecting to strong attack; it could be
strike violently and repeatedly. When the text says her heart was battering means
the heart is beating very fast. In TL, berdegup means beating, and this word is
well associated with the heart beat. The translator transferred the meaning of
battering into berdegup and the sense of fast is being expressed by adding the
word kencang which in SL means very fast.
4. A silence fell over the room. (Part 7 page 49)
Kesunyian menyelimuti ruangan. (Part 7 page 69)
The concept of fell over is collapse to the ground. When the text says A
silence fell over the room, means the people in the room is in silence. When it is
translated into menyelimuti which means cover in SL, the sense of fell over can
be meant as cover, so that the silence covers all over the room.
5. Tariq spent seven years in the Pakistani prison
(Part 44 page 330)
Tariq menghuni penjara Pakistan selama bertahun-tahun Part 44 page 417
The word spent, in the context means to stay somewhere, or to do
something during a period of time. When the context says prison means the place
to stay and seven years determine the period of time. The translation of spent in
TL is menghuni. Menghuni express the meaning of staying and the translator
added the word selama bertahun-tahun to emphasize the period of time.
6. Ramadan came in the fall that year,1974. (Part 12 page 77)
Pada tahun 1974, bulan Ramadhan tiba bertepatan dengan datangnya musim gugur. (Part 12 page 103)
The metphor came in means to arrive and if it is literally translated into
TL it will be tiba. However the sense of both came in and tiba is not limited to
the meaning to arrive, but metaphorically it means the starting or beginning of the
month of Ramadan.
7. All I remember is, doctors huddled around the bed, calling for this and that, alarms beeping, syringes all over the ground. “In the morning, the bed was empty. I asked a nurse. She said he fought valiantly. “ (Part 28 page 203)
Yang saya ingat hanyalah, para dokter mengerumuni ranjang, meneriakan ini dan itu, alarm berbunyi, jarum suntik berserakan. “Pagi harinya, ranjang di samping saya telah kosong, saya bertanya kepada perawat, Katanya, teman anda berjuang dengan keras.” (Part 28 page 255)
Fought is to contend in any manner; strive vigorously for or against
something. It is literally translated into berjuang. Berjuang has the same
concept with fought as both languages know this term.
8. I’m all you have in this world, Mariam, and when I’m gone you’ll have nothing (Part 5 Page 27)
Hanya akulah yang kau miliki di dunia ini, Mariam, dan kalau aku mati, kau tak akan punya siapa-siapa lagi. (Part 5 page 44)
I’m gone in the context of SL means passed away, no longer having or
seeming to have or expecting to have life. This metaphor expression shows deep
emotion rather than simply used the word passed away. However it is translated
into mati, which is directly meant by passed away. The sense of metaphor is not
4.2.4 Keep the Metaphor and Explain the Meaning
The fourth ways of translating metaphor from Larson is keeping the
metaphor expression and explain the meaning with regard the pint of similarity
and the image. There only one of metaphor expression that applied this way as
She was glad for the burqa, glad that Aziza could not see how she was falling apart inside it. (Part 42 page 308)
Dia lega karena mengenakan burqa, lega karena Aziza tak akan dapat melihat betapa hancur hatinya. (Part 42 page 387)
Falling apart means disintegrate, collapse, broken-down into pieces. In
SL it is not clear enough what part of inside her that was falling apart. However,
metaphorically this concept directly pointed to the feeling. When it is translated
into metaphor expression hancur in TL, the meaning is acceptable. However in
TL the translator added the word hatinya, to explain which part that is broken.
Hatinya or in SL known as heart in this concept represented the abstract feeling
of what in SL called inside it. The part inside her is determined as the heart and
hancur is describing the broken down fact of the feeling.
4.2.5 Translate the Meaning of Metaphor Without Keeping the
This way is a challenging ways to be identified as the metaphor
expression can be translated into another word which possible to be a non
metaphorical expression. The challenging part is the way sense is being transfer
to the TL and can be understood. The data found in the novel as follows:
1. A glorious new era in history of our country is a foot. (Part 15 page 100)
Sebuah era kejayaan baru Negara kami telah menanti. (Part 15 page 131)
The concept of foot in the SL relies on the function for walking, a manner
of moving; a step an initial point of or opportunity for entry. Some idioms in SL
put foot in a positive way as means of initial. For example: get (one's) feet wet
means to start a new activity or job, foot in the door means an initial point of or
opportunity for entry and best foot forward means a favorable initial impression.
As previously discussed above, foot generally mean as hope. In this context, foot
can be interpreted as get into a good situation after being in a difficult one. This
kind of concept of foot as hope is unknown in the TL. Therefore the translator
tried to emphasize the sense of hope by using the word telah menanti. Telah
menanti represent hope as this word conveys the image of promising situation.
Even foot as metaphor expression is translated into a non metaphorical
expression in TL but the sense is still preserved, so that it affected the TL reader.
2. He seemed to take pleasure in not being welcome here, in infecting this female atmosphere with his half-grinning, masculine irreverence (Part 23 page 164)
Sepertinya dia justru senang karena berhasil mengacaukan ketenangan di tempat ini dengan tingkah selonongan dan seringaiannya. (Part 23 page 207)
Infecting in SL convey the meaning of to affect in a contagious way to
affect so as to imbue with similar feeling. As means of imbue, infecting in this
context tend to be negative influence. The sense of negative influence is the sense
that the translator probably would like to transfer. Therefore the word choice in
TL is mengacaukan. In mengacaukan, the meaning of imbue, and effect in
contagious way is included. So that the translator translated infecting into another
non metaphorical expression but keep the sense which is to affect in negative
3. She thought of what was growing there, and happiness rushed in like a gust of wind blowing a door wide open. (Part 13 page 87)
Dia memikirkan apa yang sedang terjadi di dalam perutnya, dan kebahagiaan pun melandanya,bagaikan angin yang meniup daun pintu hingga terbuka lebar. (Part 13 page 114)
Growing is a metaphorical expression from SL, and if it is translated
literally into another metaphorical expression in TL it will be tumbuh. The
interesting part is the translator prefer the word terjadi to tumbuh, even the TL
the metaphorical such tumbuh existed. by the context growing convey the
meaning that there is something which gradually growing, something specifically
alive. While in terjadi, convey the meaning something happened in general. The
sense of there is something alive does not exist. Therefore the sense of metaphor
is not transferred by the translator.
4. “I won’t forget tomorrow,” mammy was saying behind her. “I promise.” “You said that yesterday.” “You don’t know, Laila.” “Know what?” Laila wheeled around to face her mother. (Part 17 page 123)
“Besok aku tidak akan lupa lagi,” kata Mammy di belakang laila. “aku janji.” “Mammy juga bilang begitu kemarin.” “Kau tidak tahu Laila.” “Tahu apa?” Laila berpaling dan menatap wajah ibunya. (Part 17 page 157)
The concept of metaphor expression of wheeled in the SL as previously
discussed compares to part of a machine or tool or machine operation system.
The circular movement of the machine becomes the main concept of this
metaphor. In TL, the concept of this metaphorical expression is unknown.
Therefore the translator tends to translated into a non metaphorical expression
berpaling dan menatap. This two words express the movement as means of
turned and looked at in the SL. Even it is translated into non metaphorical
expression this translation is acceptable in terms the concept of moving.
5. How they made small harmless jokes at each other’s expense. (Part 18 page 128)
Dan bagaimana mereka saling melontarkan candaan. (Part 18 page 163)
In SL, expense hold of the meaning of something spent to attain a goal or
accomplish a purpose or a loss for the sake of something gained a sacrifice. It
brings the sense that there will be something in return. Something that one can
get as reimbursed. Melontarkan means release or issue something in abstract
form specially words. In SL used metaphor expense to describe the context
situation which the people in the text are mutually reciprocated jokes. The
translator tries to emphasize the meaning of expense into melontarkan which
means just release or saying the jokes, the sense of mutually reciprocated is being
transferred by the use of word saling. The additional word explained the non
metaphorical expression so that the TL reader can get the same effect.
6. Which she imagined as painful acts of perversity that filled her with dread and made her break out in a sweat. (Part 7 page 49)
Yang dia bayangkan sebagai penyimpangan yang menyakitkan,yang membuatnya ketakutan dan mencucurkan keringat. (Part 7 page 69)
Filled her in SL as previously discussed convey the concept body as
container for emotion. As container the sense of emotion is well understood in
SL. It showed the emotion of dread fill the body, the sense of dreadful is being
conveyed properly, as the reader can feel the emotion stated. While in TL, it is
translated into membuatnya. Membuatnya bring the idea of the effect.
Membuatnya sees the cause and effect in the same context. The cause in the
context is painful acts and the effect is dread. If only the translator would like to
preserve the concept of metaphor filled her, it could be translated into
membuatnya dipenuhi ketakutan dan mencucurkan keringat. By adding the
word dipenuhi, body as container of emotion is being conveyed. However, by
using the word membuatnya, the translation is still understandable for TL reader.
7. She could barely contain her own happiness (Part 26 page 183)
Dia tak mampu menekan kebahagiaannya (Part 26 age 232)
The concept of metaphor contain is a part of the concept which see body
as emotion container. The context metaphorically express that her body is be full
of happiness. It referred to the media or body as the container. If it is translated
into menekan, it referred to the way how to control the effect when body as the
container. menekan means there is something overload, therefore the act to press
it down which is menekan is appropriate to be used to avoid exploding. Even the
concept of body as the container is slightly conveyed by the word menekan, the
translation is acceptable in TL reader.
8. It was with the sun’s westward crawl that Mariam’s anxiety really ratcheted up. (Part 10 page 62)
Seiring pergerakan matahari yang semakin ke barat, kegelisahan Mariam pun semakin memuncak. (Part 10 page 85)
Crawl as a very slow movement is meant by the metaphor crawl in the SL
context above. It is compared to the people or animal that is moving slowly by
dragging the body. While it is translated into pergerakan, a non metaphorical
expression since it means movement, the sense of slow movement is not being
adopted by the translation. There is no further explanation in the context about
the manner of movement to transmit the metaphor meaning. If only the
translation could add more explanation such as Seiring pergerakan matahari
yang semakin lambat ke barat, the sense of metaphor can be acceptable.
4.3 The Analysis of Metaphor Translation
In this part, the English metaphor is being analyzed to the translation in
Indonesia by using Natural Semantic Metalanguage approach from Wiersbicka
which is described in exponent mapping. In general, the analysis are comprised
of two category, they are metaphor translated into metaphor and metaphor
translated into a non metaphorical expression.
4.3.1 Metaphor Translated into Metaphor Expression
This section, categorized the conceptual metaphor used in previous data
and analysis metaphor that translated into metaphor in general, so that the key
concept of exponent mapping and the translation can be analyzed deeper and as
original as possible according to the theory from Wierzbicka, 1996 specially the
use of sixty four semantic primitives.
1. Metaphor Sultan of my heart into Sultan di hatiku
Sultan of my heart is also said by Mariam as she feels of something
because she thinks Aziza has owned her love and heart accordingly, like the
Sultan who has power over the community, like the way Mariam thinks about
what she feels about Azizah. Because of this, Mariam wants to do something
if she can protect Aziza, since she does not know what she can do; therefore,
she wants someone (Laila-Aziza’s mother) to do something. Mariam thinks
like this as she feels something bad. She feels something like this because she
thinks something like this.
The concept of Sultan also exists in the TL; therefore, when it is
translated into Sultan di hatiku, metaphorically the meaning remains the
same, by the context of emotion that occurs in the text which leads to the
same exponent mapping like Mariam thinks of something, because of this she
wants to do something if she can; however, she does not know what she can
do. She wants Laila, Aziza’s mother to do something as she thinks something
bad will happen.
2. Metaphor hands into Jarum jam
Hands are part of the human body; everybody knows hands and their
function. It can be used to carry something, point out something, and grab
something, waving and etcetera that are useful for human activity. Besides,
hands are also a place to put on and/or wear on accessories like bracelets and
watches. Therefore, when people say hands people think about those things,
the function or the things worn on them. In the text when it is followed by
eleven-thirty then it determines hands as means of time determiner. Therefore,
the exponent mapping underlines the function of hands.
In its translation, hands become jarum jam, the similar concept is
retained. Everybody in TL knows jarum jam, when people say jarum jam,
they think about something (watch). Jarum jam is part of something (watch).
When people think about it people think about time. The exponent mapping
of jarum jam underlined on something as part of something. However, even
both metaphors emphasize different exponent mapping but they showed the
similarity as time determiner.
3. Metaphor I only have eyes for you into perhatianku hanya untukmu
I only have eyes for you can be understood in the following mapping,
Eyes is a part of human body. When people say eyes people think about the
ability in seeing. If people say see people will know what is happened. From
this concept, related to the text, a person (in the text is Tariq) says this to
Laila because Tariq has been seeing Laila for a long time as they grew up
together in the same environment. Tariq did something like this because he
feels something to Laila. If someone feels like this, the person cannot think
something else. Tariq wants Laila to know if he cannot think something else
because of Laila. Tariq thinks something good may happen if Laila knows.
When Laila knows this, Laila feels something very good. Tariq says
something like this.
Different from the SL, the translation implies another form of
component mapping with the phrase perhatianku hanya untukmu. When
people say perhatianku people think about something happened. It is
something good that was done by other people. As Tariq says this to Laila
because Tariq did something good to Laila now, as in the text both are
watching movies at the same time and it is the first time for Tariq to go to the
movie with a girl. Tariq does something like this because he feels something
to Laila, he wants Laila to know that Tariq cannot think something else now
because of Laila. Tariq thinks that something good may happen if Laila
knows about that. When Laila knows this, Laila feels something very good.
Tariq says something like this. The difference relies on the range of time. I
only have eyes for you underlined that the situation had happened for a long
time, and it makes Tariq unable to think something else for a long time as
well. While in perhatianku hanya untukmu, the time when the situation
occurred tends to be a present time, so the emotion is not as strong as the
phrase, I only have eyes for you.
In order to underline the sense of period of time, the translation could
be is appropriate if the translation will be “hanya kau yang menyita
perhatianku”. It can be paraphrased as Tariq says this to Laila because Tariq
has been seeing Laila for a long time, as menyita conveys the process within a
period of time. Tariq does something like this because Laila feels something
to Tariq. If someone feels like this, the person cannot think something else.
Tariq wants Laila to know if Tariq cannot think something else because of
Laila. Tariq thinks something good may happen if Laila knows. When Laila
knows this, Laila feels something very good. Tariq says something like this.
The word menyita explains the process taking time, it highlighted the period
of time lost in the previous translation.
4. Metaphor feet into berdiri sendiri
Everybody knows feet, the part of the body which physically supports
the body to stand. By the context, they would help them with money and food
for a while as a concept of assisting and supporting in a short time and
possibly after that they could get on their feet. It shows the positive effect
which means people did something good to other people so that something
good will happen after a period of time. Metaphorically, if people get on their
feet, they can move freely, independently in a certain period of time and
because of this something good will be happened to other people.
While berdiri sendiri is mapped as if people do this kind of thing, they
feel something good because they can move freely. People can do this
(Berdiri sendiri) because they want to do that, they want to do this because
they think something good will happen if they do that. From the exponent
mapping, it shows that berdiri sendiri relies on the effort of someone, the will
to do something good. The similarity of both metaphors are are relying on the
way they do everything by themselves without any support to move freely but
the concept on independence and great effort is shwed metaphorically in
berdiri sendiri. Therefore, berdiri sendiri conveyed more senses to the TL
5. Metaphor toothless lizard into kadal ompong
As mentioned above, lizard is a kind of animal that is responsive to
heat, light, food and sex. Tooth is a part of digest system of lizard used to
grab its prey and gobble it up. By this idea, food becomes the main point
here so when people say toothless lizard, people think about a kind of animal
that has no tooth. If it happened, the lizard would not have any food to eat. If
it happened in a long time something very bad would happen because the
lizard would die. It shows that tooth is everything for lizard to survive. This
universal concept occurs in the TL as toothless lizard is translated into kadal
ompong. Kadal is kind of animal that lives in TL. When people in TL say
ompong, people think of kadal that has no teeth. If it is happened in a long
time, something very bad will happen. Kadal will die. This natural kind
concept also exists in the TL. These similarities of exponent mapping of the
translation make toothless lizard and kadal ompong can be acceptable in both
SL and TL.
6. Metaphor the Lion of Panjshir into sang Singa Panjshir
Lion is a kind of animal, in mythology and fable, lion is described as
the king of jungle due to its courage and leadership. Everyone knows lion as a
predator in jungle, when people say The Lion of Panjshir, people think of
something powerful, courage and has leadership. In the text it refers to a
person. The person that has all characteristics; therefore, the followers feel
that something good will happen as they feel safe, secure and proud as well.
This kind of natural concept also occurs in the TL when it is literally
translated into sang Singa Panjshir. People in TL knows singa, it is kind of
animal. It has power and courage to do something. It can do something good
or bad. This animal concept and character make the exponent mapping of
both metaphors are similar. The translation become acceptable in the concept
7. Metaphor Flourished into menumbuhkan
Flourished is part of the growing cycle of plant. To some plants, this
stage is marked by the emergence of flower; therefore, flourishing is related
to something positive. From the context of the text, when Laila says
flourished in their wombs, Laila feels something good inside her, as at that
time she is pregnant. She feels like this because she knows there is something
alive living there and keeping growing. Something is ready to go out. As
flourished is a top part of growing levels. It is a thing; a part of her and the
one she loves the most. When Laila thinks about it she feels something very
good will happen. The exponent mapping referred to something (baby) and
the top stage of growing.
Flourished is translated into menumbuhkan and the exponent mapping
as follows: when people says menumbuhkan bayi, people think about the
place where something (baby) can live. Because of this place, something can
lives there. Laila feels this kind of thing live in her womb. She feels like this
because she knows there is something growing inside her in the moment. It is
a thing that is getting bigger after period of time. When Laila thinks about it
she feels that something good will happen. The exponent mapping of
menumbuhkan relies on the place of the baby to live (womb).
Through the exponent mapping, flourished emphasize the top level of
growing stage, while menumbuhkan involved the place and the process of
growing. Automatically, growing need more time to reach the flourished
stages. The differences could affect the TL reader as it conveys different of
sense. If the translator would like to keep the sense of flourished the
translation that could be suggested is tumbuh dan berkembang, the exponent
mapping will be: when people say this, people think about place for
something to tumbuh. People know something good will happened if
something can live longer and bigger. Laila feels something good because
inside her womb is living something. There is something that grows and will
be bigger in a period of time. It is a thing; a part of somebody. It will go out
when ready. when people think about it people know that something very
good will happen.
8. Metaphor Seed into Bibit
Everybody knows seed as a part of plant. It is a thing that needs a
place or media to grow. When people say seed people think of a kind of
something. It can be seed, small hard fruit, embryo and small plant. People can
see that when seed grows it is similar with the hosting plant. How bad or good
the plant is depends on the quality of the seed. Something good will happen if
the seed is good and something bad will happen if the seed is bad. People
know about this after they see it grows within certain of time.
In the TL when it is translated into bibit literally, the exponent
mapping will be: it is a kind of thing; it is a part of plant. It can be seed, a
small hard fruit or small plants. If this thing is good, something good will
happen, if it is bad something bad will happen. People know something good
or something bad will happen after a period of time. The exponent mappings
of both metaphors are similar, as both concept can be describe as original as in
the SL and TL. The translation conveys the same effect on the respective
9. Metaphor Well into sumur
As mentioned above, well is a part of building, it is kind of
underground tunnel for water supply. When people say well people think of a
place underground and water. People know that it is deep. It is very useful for
human life. If people have it something good will happen. When it is used for
a long time for people as water supply, it may be dried as the water inside will
be used up. In the text, the well here is described as something that is never
dry as the water supply is sustained. When people say this people feel
Sumur as the literal translation in the TL has exponent mapping as
follows: it is a kind of thing. If people say sumur people think somewhere
underground and water. People know that it is deep. It is useful for human
life. Something good will happen if people have it. If it is used in a long time
it will be dried and if it is happened, something very bad will happen. It
cannot be dried. When people say this people feel something good. The
analysis of the exponent mapping above showed the similarity of both
metaphor. It make the translation clear and understandable.
10. Metaphor ink their legend into menggoreskan tinta legenda
Ink, it is a kind of liquid used for printing, writing or drawing. When
people say ink people think about writing, drawing and pen as it is associated
with the use of ink and the tools that use ink. A story about mythical or
supernatural beings or events is called Legend, as it has happened since a long
time ago. When people say Ink their legend, people will think something to
do in a long time. People did this kind of thing because they want other
people in the future know what they are doing now.
Menggoreskan is a kind of activity using tools; menggoreskan tinta is
part of writing activity. When people say menggoreskan tinta legenda, people
think something to do in a long time. People did this kind of thing in the
moment because they want other people in the future know what they are
doing now. Both metaphors have similar and simple exponent mapping for
preserving the sense of metaphor.
11. Metaphor Bulldozed into Kekuatannya melululantahkan
People think about a thing called bulldozer when somebody says the
word bulldoze. People know that it s a kind of thing. People who have ever
seen how bulldozer operates know that it is powerful because when it moves,
it can flatten and demolish the area that it passes through. The association of
bulldoze and power is connected to what human thinks and experiences.
When it is translated into kekuatannya meluluhlantahkan, the
exponent mapping transferred as when people say kekuatannya people think
that there is a kind of thing. It is something has power because people can see
the power. Meluluhlantahkan brings the effect of power utilization that can
demolish something. People say meluluhlantahkan as people see the effect of
the power. People said kekuatannya meluluhlantahkan because people think
something powerful. People see this kind of thing that can demolish
Bulldozed as metaphor is clearly mapped the thing, power and the
effect. While kekuatannya meluluhlantakkan, the mapping of a thing becomes
abstract, however the power and effect is clearly mapped. From the
comparison the translation is considered understandable as there are two
similarities found in the exponent which are power and effect. The different
could be relies to the culture as in the TL concept the metaphor of bulldozed
12. Metaphor Puppet into boneka
Puppet it is a kind of thing. It is something like the figure of
somebody; it is made from wood, it is small. It can be moved if somebody is
operating it. People do this thing by using certain method; in this case they
are using strings. People say like this because people feel something good
when they play with puppet. Boneka is a kind of things. It is something like
figure or replica of person and could be figured of a thing (animal). It can be
small or big. It can be moved if somebody is operating it. People do not need
certain method to do this thing. People can use hands and fingers to play
boneka. People especially female feel something good when they play with
By the above mapping, although it is translated literally and can be
understood in the TL, puppet underlines the figure of person, puppet size is
determined to be small as it is operated by human called puppeter, and some
puppets have strings attached. Gender issue is not shown in puppet as it can
be operated by any gender. While boneka, generally can be a figure of both
human and animal. Boneka as a toy is not limited to a small one, as some
producers could make boneka as big as the original shape, for example,
people can make an elephant boneka as big as the real elephant. There is
gender issue in terms of who can operate boneka, as a toy, boneka is played
only by female. There is no certain method to play boneka.
Through the differences of mapping, the suggested translation will be
wayang. When people in TL say Wayang people know that it is a kind of
figure that can be person or animal. It is made from leather or wood carving.
It can be played by using certain method. It has handled at the bottom for
people to play it. Any genders can play wayang and they be called dalang.
This exponent mapping of wayang describes many similarities to puppet in
terms of material, figure, and method that using tools, no gender issue and it
has certain name for the person who play wayang or puppet.
13. Metaphor stormed out into menghambur
Stormed out with its translation menghambur can be compared
through the mapping below. Stormed out, people know storm as they have
probably seen and experienced storm. When somebody say stormed out,
people think something bad will happen because of the effect of the resultant
Storm is a kind of disaster caused by a violent weather condition with
wind and it can destroy everything that it passes through. People say stormed
out when they see somebody moving out. Because of that something bad will
happen. Sometimes people will think if this kind of thing happens, something
bad will come and they cannot do anything. It is associated with anger,
negative emotion that appears and is felt by the people around.
Menghambur brings the idea of moving outward instead of spread and
disseminate. People say this word when they see somebody moving outward
because of something. This kind of thing happens because something good or
bad has happened. It is a kind of action verb, it is done intentionally. The
difference between stormed out and menghambur is on the emotion conveyed
by being stormed out. Metaphorically, being stormed out based on the
mapping above expressed the anger of the doer, while menghambur only
expresses the action by the doer and the emotion of anger is left untranslated.
The suggested translation could be by adding word menghambur
dengan marah. When people say marah people think of something bad has
happened. It is something that people do not like to be happened. If it is
happen, something very bad will happen. The similarity of the exponent
mapping relies on something bad that will happen and people can do anything
to prevent this situation. By adding this word, the sense of metaphorical
expression of anger can be expressed and affected the TL reader.
14. Metaphor pressed down into menyesakkan
When people say pressed down, their mind thinks about a kind of
action to push something down. In the text, when people showed this kind of
thing (pressed down) the thing (the chest) cannot move and could be hard to
breath. People cannot do anything to avoid this kind of thing. Something bad
will happen as a result. Menyesakkan means overflowing. In the text, when
people say menyesakkan dadanya means people feel something overflowing
her chest. This thing (chest) as the container has limited space so that when it
is full to overflow it causes crowd and it is going to explode, something bad
will happen later because this person cannot do anything.
Comparing pressed down and menyesakan based on the mapping
above, the meaning underlines the difference on the quantifier; pressed down
means pushing something down and making it smaller while menyesakkan
brings the sense of making it bigger or full. The similarity of both meanings is
the impact of this kind of action as both indicate that something bad will
happen while the doer cannot do anything to avoid that. The translation is
considered accepted in TL reader’s sense.
15. Metaphor A wave of affection into Gelombang kasih sayang
Affection is a positive emotion of liking. When people say affection
people feel something because this person thought something. Sometimes,
people think that something very good happens and they want this to be
happened. The word wave represents how much the affection is described. So
the expression a wave of affection explains that people know what wave looks
like as they can see what the wave is like, people also can feel the power of
the wave. The bigger the wave, the bigger the resultant power that can pull
somebody or something to get into the wave will be.
When it is translated into gelombang kasih sayang, the same exponent
mapping is described as when people say gelombang, people see something
big, gradually bigger reach the ocean. People can feel this feeling if it is
compared to the power of kasih sayang. The mapping also plays around in the
level of feeling something good that people need to happen. The metaphor
meaning is well transfer to the TL as SL has the same concept and exponent
mapping to the TL.
16. Metaphor flooded into membanjiri
People know this kind of disaster and see how this water disaster
spread over the city, how it moves from the higher place to the lower place. It
could also happen when the water overflows. It is something that people
cannot control. When this happens something bad will happen after that.
When it is translated into membanjiri, the meaning remains the same.
Membanjiri is known in TL, the same mappings as people know this kind of
thing, and people see how it moves. They know the cause of this thing.
People cannot control if it is happened, something bad will happen later. Both
have similar meaning but in the text flooded and membanjiri do not determine
the negative effect of flooded but express the appearance of a number of
people that cannot be controlled and come from all over the city.
17. Metaphor squeezed into nyeri,
Squeezed means something that is compressed with violence and
makes a thing out of natural shape or condition. In the text, Her heart
squeezed means there is someone who did something to a part of the body
(heart) because of this something bad happened to this thing (heart). The
person did this using a certain method straightly as the person wants this to
happen. The heart turns to be out of its natural shape. When it is translated
into nyeri the method of performing action is not conveyed.
However, nyeri describes that the heart as a part of the human body
feels something bad. People do not want this to happen because they cannot
do anything when this happens. It makes people feel something very bad.
Based on the mapping above squeezed denotes the process and the method
used to make someone feel something bad while nyeri refers to the bad
feeling and it is getting worse as the person cannot do anything so that it leads
to the very bad feeling coming after. The process is not conveyed in the
mapping of nyeri. However the translation considered understandable as in
the context the sense of metaphor is underlined the effect not the process.
18. Metaphor battering into berdegup kencang
Battering is kind of action of subjecting to strong attack. Something
has happened. It moves forward and backward in a certain method (fast and
repeatedly). This kind of thing happens in a certain period of time. It is
happen when something good or bad happened.
Berdegup kencang consists of two words; berdegup itself shows that
something has happened. There is something inside the heart (valve). People
can see it opened and closed repeatedly in a certain method and people see it
like it is moving forward and backward. This kind of thing happens in a
certain period of time. Kencang shows the manner of this kind of action. In
battering, the fast and repeated method is clearly shown, but it does not exist
in the word berdegup. To strengthen the meaning of battering, by explaining
the method, the word kencang is added accordingly. It makes the translation
clear alongwith the sense of metaphor can be well transferred.
19. Metaphor fell into bergejolak
People say fall when they see something moving down from its place.
It is happened, because something bad has happened. People cannot do
anything if it is happen. In TL it was translated into bergejolak. Moreover,
bergejolak can be mapped; people say bergejolak when they see something
moving up and down repeatedly. It happens in a moment. It can be happened
repeatedly. It causes something bad has happened.
If compared both the words fell and bergejolak have similar mapping
in terms of movement and the cause. Bergejolak shows more attention to the
direction, frequency and the time. The suggested translation will be “Mariam
merasakan perutnya tertekan”; it underlines the word tertekan to replace the
word bergejolak as it considers having similar meaning with fell. When
people say tertekan people can see something that is pressed down. As it is
pressed, then there is something moving down. By this idea, if the translator
would like to preserve the meaning of movement, tertekan could be one of
20. Metaphor fell over into menyelimuti
People say fell when they see something moving down from its place.
Over means on top of and covering or in some case it can be throughout an
area. Fall over, sometimes people think something which is moving down. It
is a kind of action causing something to get down. This thing touches the top
of something and covers throughout an area. Menyelimuti is the translation of
fell in the text Kesunyian menyelimuti ruangan. It is a kind of situation.
People say menyelimuti, if they do something because something happens.
People want to cover something; people do this in a certain method
(covering). The similar mapping within both metaphorical expressions is in
the term of covering something. By this exponent mapping, the meaning of
the translation including the sense of the metaphorical expression is well
21. Metaphor falling apart into hancur
People say falling apart they think about something fall and broken. If
it is happened they feel something bad. People do not want this thing
happened. By this text, Laila felt something to Azizah. Laila knows
something bad is happening now as she will live separately with her own
daughter. She does not want things like this to happen; she knows she cannot
do anything, she feels something bad. It makes her feel down below and
become several small pieces. She feels like this.
People say hancur when people think about something has happened;
because of this something is broken. If it is happened they know something
bad will happen. People do not want this kind of thing happened. From the
exponent mapping falling apart emphasized on the process (falling), the
condition (apart) and the effect (feel something bad happened). Hancur relies
on the abstract process (think about something has happened), the condition
(hancur) and the effect (feel something bad will happened). Through the
mapping both rely on the same exponent mapping and make the translation
equivalent and understandable.
22. Metaphor looked down into menunduk
When people think of looked down people know that something bad
has happened. People do this thing because they think they did something
bad. By the text, Laila did this kind of thing as she thought that her mother
was mad at her. She felt something bad. She does not want this to happen.
She did it intentionally. Menunduk as the translation of looked down
expresses that Laila did this kind of thing as she thought that her mother was
mad at her. She did thing like this because she felt something bad. She did not
want this to happen. She did it intentionally. She did it this way. the
translation is acceptable in TL culture, the meaning of the word menunduk
preserves the emotion of something bad that is happening (sad).
23. Metaphor malika into malika, dehati into dehati,
In the culture that was written in SL, when people say Malika people
think of someone that has power and is superior. On the other hand, dehati is
invariably used for the persons of lower socio-economic class as “Abuse” not
as a simple reference to their rural connection. When people say Dehati,
people think of someone who has no power and becomes inferior. It makes
Malika and Dehati have opposite roles. Malika can do anything to dehati.
Malika feels something good in this kind of situation. Dehati do not want this
thing happened. Dehati cannot do anything. Dehati feel something bad in this
kind of situation. Since TL also used the same word, the mapping remain the
same, even this kind of concept do not exist in TL.
24. Metaphor Dragged into merayap
Being dragged involves slow motion of something and as if with great
effort. It is also showing proceed for an extended period of time. When
people say being dragged, people think of something move. It moves in
certain way. It moves slowly. This kind of thing happens within a period of
time. People do this thing by walking without lifting the feet. Similar to being
dragged, when people say merayap, people think of something. They thing
something move. Something move slowly in certain way. When they think of
this, they know that merayap is moving slowly. This kind of thing happens
within a period of time.
Both has similar exponent in terms of moving slowly in a period of
time and using certain method. However, the difference is on the way of
method has been applied, dragged method of moving without lifting the feet
while merayap is moving by doing a slow mode of locomotion on hands and
knees. This difference can not affect the translation as the context underlined
the sense of slow movement not the method used. Therefore, the translation is
still understandable by the TL reader.
25. Metaphor fought into berjuang
The lexical item fought is from the form of fight, meaning making a
strenuous or labored effort. When people say fight, people think of a kind of
situation. In this situation something has happened. It is something good or
bad. People feel something good in a good situation (win). People feel
something bad in a bad situation (lose). People will do anything to be good
(win) therefore people do something continuously and vigorously within a
period of time. Similar to the lexical item berjuang, when people say
berjuang, people think of a kind of situation. People do not want this to
happen. Something god or something bad will happen. People feel something
good in a good situation (win) people feel something bad if in bad situation
(lose). People do something continuously and vigorously within a period of
time. Both metaphors strengthen the meaning of a good effort that has been
done within a period of time. The translation is acceptable in TL concept and
26. Metaphor rest in peace into beristirahat dalam kedamaian
Rest as a pause for relaxation, has extended meaning if it is added and
became rest in peace. Some people know rest in peace, when they say rest in
peace, they think of something good and bad in the same time. This thing can
be a good thing when people think that in rest people have some relaxation
since life after death is not as complicated as life prior to death. This thing
could be bad if people feel something missing because somebody is already
dead. The word peace shows that something good will happen anyway. It
will bring the peace for the people who die and people who are left behind.
Rest in peace was literally translated into beristirahat dalam
kedamaian. Beristirahat has similar exponent mapping to rest as both
conveyed the meaning pause of relaxation. Dalam kedamaian also bring the
similar exponent mapping of showing something good has happened. The
translation is understandable in TL as the culture of TL is known this kind of
27. Metaphor Punishment into hukuman
Punishment for someone is made to do to compensate for a
wrongdoing, especially for crime; the act of punishing. When people say
punishment, people think of something that has happened because this thing
is a bad thing. People know that if people do a bad thing they can have this
kind of thing. If this thing happens they think that something very bad will
happen after. The translation is hukuman. When people say hukuman, people
think of something that has happened because this thing is a bad thing. People
know that if people do a bad thing they can have this kind of thing. If this
thing happens they think that something very bad will happen after. This
similar concept of mapping leads to the similar metaphor meaning and sense.
It makes the translation in TL clear and understandable.
28. Metaphor Mighty, the Great forgiver into Mahaperkasa lagi Maha
Mighty is having or showing great strength or force or intensity.
People say mighty because they think of something that has very big power.
When people think like this, they feel nothing; they can do because they are
powerless. When people say The Great forgiver, people think of something. It
is a very big thing. People feel that something very good has happened
because of this thing. People like to hear this thing.
People say Mahaperkasa, because they think of something that has
very big power. When people think like this, they feel nothing; they can do
because they are powerless. When people say Maha pengampun, people think
of something. It is a very big thing. People feel that something very good has
happened because of this thing. People like to hear this thing.
By the mapping above, the similar exponent mapping of Mighty as
super power that related to the exponent mapping of Mahaperkasa. The same
exponent mapping is also mapped in the metaphor The Great forgiver and
Maha Pengampun. This concept are applied in both SL and TL, and it makes
the translation is being understood by the TL reader.
4.3.2 Metaphor Translated into Non-Metaphorical Expression
This part analyzed the metaphor which was translated into non-
metaphorical metaphor in general, there are about eleven data that showed this
kind of translation.
1. Metaphor Headed into Menuju
Everyone knows that head is part of the body. Everyone knows that
head is a place where the brain is located. In that time, if people think of
something, it controls what they do later. The way the brain controls the
direction, movement or people’s activity is attached to the concept of head.
The people want to move because they think of something. They know that
the people around them do the same thing (the flock of women and children).
Therefore, headed is associated with the brain activity to direct people to
move from one place to another that they know (the same way).
Menuju, it is kind of activity of someone to move to a place. By this
context, it happens as the people think (brain activity) that they want to do it
because they know people do it the same way. They do it intentionally and
they move to one direction that they know (tempat yang sama).
The exponent mapping of headed and menuju relies on the similar
concept that they want to move because they think of something. They know
people around them do the same thing. They moved to a place, they do
something like this because they want this to happen. By this analysis both
headed and menuju are equivalent.
2. Metaphor shoulder into menanggung
The component mapping of the shoulder is based on the text that is is
a part of the human body as the place to carry on something. It explains the
heaviness of a thing, and it considers the use of the shoulder as metaphorical
meaning will be negative as it can be something bad has happened at that
moment. By the text, Laila feels something bad now. She does not want this
to happen. She does not know what she can do to avoid this situation, because
it happens in a long time. When the shoulder is translated into menanggung
the negative effect is being transferred as menanggung means that Laila feels
something bad and it has happened now, because she does not know what to
do as it happened a long time ago. She carried the burden on her shoulder for
a long time.
The similarity of exponent mapping of both words is relying on the
negative effect that has happened within a period of time. Even shoulder is
being translated into a non-metaphorical imagery the similar concept is
described and makes the translation understandable.
3. Metaphor foot into telah menanti
People know foot as part of the human body, foot is used to make a
step or move the body from one place to another within a period of time. If
people say foot they think that it functions to make a move, because it can
move the body from one place to another that happens in certain time. When
people say New era in history people think that there should be the old era
before. The change of old era becoming new era shows the process or time
movement. This concept is similar to the body movement concept. When
people say telah menanti people think that something has happened; it means
the process or the time movement has passed. People feel something good
will happen. Foot and telah menanti has different exponent meaning,
however, the context strengthened the concept of foot and make the
translation can be mapped properly.
4. Metaphor infecting into mengacaukan
Infecting is kind of way in which something bad interferes something
good and may possibly change something good into bad. People do not want
this to happen because they think if this happened in a long time, something
very bad may have happened. Because of that, people would do something to
avoid this. In the text, the attendance of Tariq amongst the girls is considered
a kind of way in which something bad happened for a moment. The girls do
not want this to happen because if it happened in a long time, the girls could
not have done their work properly; therefore, the girls do something to avoid
this by sending him out of the room.
Mengacaukan in the TL is a way of changing something good into
bad. When people say mengacaukan, people think that something bad will
happen and people do not want this to happen in a long time because
something very bad may happen. The idea of infecting and mengacaukan
based on this exponent mapping is considered similar. Although infecting
reflected the way of how something bad has happened, and it is not reflected
in mengacaukan. However mengacaukan underlined the similar concept of
something turn to bad. If the sense of metaphor lying on the concept, the
translation is understandable.
5. Metaphor growing into terjadi
The idea of growing conveys the meaning of something alive that
grows. When people say growing, people see something gradually bigger, it
is like a baby inside the mother’s womb; keeping growing from time to time.
Because of that people feel something good. Therefore, people say something
like that, as growing is considered a positive thing.
Growing in the TL was translated into terjadi. In the TL, People say
terjadi because people feel something. The reason why people feel something
it is not clearly conveyed by the word terjadi. It can be something good has
happened or something bad has happened. Terjadi only mapped the exponent
of the situation that has happened while the sense of something alive, period
of time and the feeling is not conveyed. The difference of exponent mapping
affects the TL in understanding the metaphor. The suggested translation is
keeping the metaphor expression by translated into tumbuh. the exponent
mapping of tumbuh reflect the entities of something alive live inside the
womb, it is a kind of thing that gradually bigger. something good will happen
within a period of time.
6. Metaphor wheeled into berpaling dan menatap
When people say wheeled, people will think about wheel, people can
see how it works and moves. By this idea, when the text said” Laila wheeled
around to face her mother”, people think that Laila is moving her head back
to see her mother which is standing behind her and see her mother’s face. It
happens because her mother said something to her. At the same time when
people say berpaling means somebody is turned her head back because
something has happened behind. People say Menatap people know that it
means as seeing. The mapping of wheeled underlined the movement and the
ability to see. Berpaling and menatap underlined the same exponent mapping
and it conveyed the sense of the metaphor wheeled, therefore the translation
7. Metaphor expense into melontarkan
Apart from expense as mentioned above is the amount paid for goods,
it could also be said as money spent, both definitions reduce the estimate
value of something; therefore, when people say expense people think
something that is reduced because of that people should have something in
return. People say melontarkan because people think of something. People
do this thing intentionally to have feedback from the hearer. Here, in the
context expense has correlation with the word melontarkan as a means of
giving something out while the concept expecting something in return is not
conveyed in the word melontarkan.
However, the translator add the word saling with following mapping,
people do something like this. People did kind like this because they know
something good will happen to them. The concept of expecting something in
return is clearly show through the mapping. By adding the word saling the
metaphor expression become clear and understandable in TL.
8. Metaphor filled her into membuatnya
The lexicon filled is taking up all the available space. People say filled
when they want to move something into some place. This kind of thing is
done repeatedly until the place is full. When people feel like this something
bad will happen. The exponent mapping of membuatnya is expressed by
people when they want to do something, because of this something bad will
happened. The entities of moving and process in filling a certain place are not
conveyed by the word membuatnya. The difference of the exponent mapping
make the TL reader can not feel the same effect as the word feel.
The suggested translation probably will be tubuhnya dipenuhi with
following mapping; there is something that move and take place inside the
body. This kind of thing is done repeatedly until the place is full. When
people feel like this something bad will happen. The similar exponent
mapping is conveyed the sense of metaphor. The translation will affect the TL
9. Metaphor contain into menekan
Contain as lexicon means having within; she could barely contain her
own happiness brings the idea that she thinks of something, because of this,
she feels something inside her. She has much of this kind of thing. She wants
a bigger place to have this feeling in. She wants this to happen. Menekan
expresses that she thought something; because of this, she feels something
inside her. She has much of this thing. She does not want this to happen. She
knows she can do something.
The mapping shows different concept between contain and menekan.
Contain relies that something that cannot be controlled, if it has limit it is
going to overload. While menekan, refer to the process of controlling
something into the limit. Feeling is kind of abstract thing that has no limit,
therefore when the translation of contain is menekan the sense of metaphor
cannot be conveyed properly. The suggested translation that probably used in
this case to convey the sense is menampung kebahagiaan. People say
menampung when they think something that could be filled of something.
People feel something inside. People will need something bigger if the fill is
overload. People want this thing happened.
10. Metaphor spent into menghuni
Spent explains the mapping that Tariq did something; because of this,
something happened to Tariq. Tariq did not want this to happen. Tariq knows
that he cannot do anything to avoid this kind of situation. He did it in a long
time. Comparing to menghuni, if people say menghuni, people think of
something. Tariq lives in a kind of place. People know that this place is for
somebody who did something bad. Tariq did something bad. He lived at this
place for a long time. People say things like this. By the mapping above,
spent conveys the meaning of something bad done by Tariq, and he has to
redeem it in a long period of time, he cannot do anything accordingly. While
menghuni explains about the place where Tariq lives after he does something
Another suggestion is the translated equivalent should be
menghabiskan instead of menghuni. Here, if people say mengabiskan people
know that Taris did something, because of that something happened to Tariq.
Tariq did not want this to happen. Tariq knows that he cannot do anything to
avoid this kind of situation. He did it in a long time. The word menghabiskan
refers to the process and time consuming as the impact of something bad done
by Tariq as well as the word spent. If the text strengthens the time spent by
Tariq then the adequate translation should be menghabiskan. However, if the
text is focused on the place where Tariq lives for the period of time then the
word menghuni is enough.
11. Metaphor crawl into pergerakan
The lexical item crawl means moving slowly; in the case of people or
animals, the body is near the ground. When people say crawling people think
of something. This kind of thing is moving slowly. The part of the body of
this thing is near the ground. When people say pergerakan, they think of
something. This kind of thing is moving. When crawl is translated into
pergerakan, the meaning only relies on the similar concept of movement.
However, the word crawling describes the method of how the movement is
performed. This entity is not conveyed by the word pergerakan as this word
is limited to describing the movement while the manner or method of
movement (slowly) is distorted.
The suggested translation is the metaphor crawl is translated into
metaphor expression that known in TL such as merangkak. When people say
merangkak, people think of something is moving. This kind of thing is
moving slowly. The part of the body of this thing is near the ground. The
similar exponent mapping is clearly described and the sense of metaphor is
well transferred to the TL.
12. Metaphor I’m gone into mati
Gone can be defined as moving away from a place into another
direction. When people say gone, people think of something, because people
feel something bad, if hearing this thing. When people think of this thing,
people think that somebody is moving from one place to another place. This
thing can happen when somebody dies because if somebody is already dead,
the person will move from the place where she lives now to another place
The lexical item mati as the translation of gone is considered a
journey. When people say mati people think of something, because people
will feel something bad if hearing this thing. When people think of this thing,
people think that somebody is moving from one place to another place
because if somebody is dead the person will move from the place where she
lives now to another place forever. The translation of the metaphor is
acceptable since the exponent mapping conveyed the same idea of moving
and the effect of moving.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Based on the data analysis in the previous chapter, the conclusions are
drawn out from the types of metaphor, translation techniques and the analysis of
The data showed that the conceptual metaphor can be categorized into
source domain and target domain. The source domain is furthermore identified
into the conceptual metaphor of human body, health and illness, animals, plants,
building and construction, machines and tools, games and sport, money and
economic transaction, heat and cold, forces and the last one is movement and
direction. While in the target domain, the metaphors that can be found in the data
are emotion, society/nation, time, life and death and religion. From thirteen
classifications of the conceptual metaphor from the source domain, this study
found eleven types of conceptual metaphors from the source domain and it is
replicated into nine out of thirteen types of target domain.
In regard to the five ways of translating metaphor, all metaphor data if it
is translated into metaphor, the translation are understandable as the sense of
metaphor is preserved. If the translation is changing the form into simile form
the metaphor meaning is acceptable as long as the translation has similar concept
in TL. The translation in way of substitute the same meaning of the metaphor by
finding out equivalence translation on the receptor language depended on the
word choice of the translator. In some cases, the existing word should be added
another word to explain the metaphor meaning. It leads to the way of translating
metaphor by keeping the metaphor and explain the meaning especially the topic
and the point of similarity. This way of translation makes the metaphor
expression is understandable and clearly described. The sense of metaphor is well
transferred to the TL reader. When the metaphor is translated into a non
metaphorical imagery, the translation depended on the sense that the translator
would like to focus. Some cases can be literally translated if the metaphors are
known in TL, some shall need additional explanation to convey the sense.
The analysis of metaphor translation in by using NSM approach, it is
broken down the meaning as simplest as possible and as natural as the original so
that it determined the closest equivalent of a word. From the data analysis,
metaphor data if it is translated into another metaphor expression that exist in the
TL, the translation are understandable as the sense of metaphor is preserved,
However if the metaphors are translated into non-metaphorical expression, it
depended on the context of the situation. If the translator overlooked the context
of situation the translation tend to shift.
Metaphor can be translated into several different meanings. However, the
use of NSM by mapping the meaning in detail made the interpretation and the
translation of metaphor become comprehensive. In some cases when the
translator would like to translate the metaphor it is suggested to keep the
metaphorical expression by finding out the same metaphorical expression in the
target language. Besides, it is understandable for the readers in TL that the
mapping meaning remains equivalent so the meaning is not shifted and distorted.
However, if the translator would like to substitute the meaning or translate the
meaning without keeping the metaphorical imagery it is advised to consider the
word choice so it is translated into an appropriate word.
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