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71786243 Networking Basics

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    Interconnection of two or more computers and

    peripherals

    Allows user to share and transfer information

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    Computer

    Networks

    Local

    Area Network

    (LAN)

    Campus

    Area Network

    (CAN)

    Metropolitan

    Area Network

    (MAN)

    Wide

    Area Network

    (WAN)

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    Networks are classified depending on thegeographical area covered by the network

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    Covers a small area Connects computers and workstations covering a

    local area like, office or home

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    Advantages of LAN: Improves productivity due to faster work

    Provides easy maintenance

    New systems can be installed and configuredeasily

    Disadvantages of LAN:

    Limited number of systems can only be connected

    Cannot cover large area

    Network performance degrades as number of

    users exceeds

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    LAN Types

    Ethernet Token Ring Token Bus FDDI

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    LANs are classified depending on the techniquesused for data sharing

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    Made up of multiple LANs within limited area Connects different LANs in a campus

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    Interconnects networks within a city

    Supports data and voice transmission

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    Covers a wide geographical area which includesmultiple computers or LANs e.g. Internet

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    Consists of two elements, Client and Server Server:

    A centralized element which provides resources to

    client

    Manages data, printers or network traffic

    Client:

    Manages local resources used by users such as

    monitor, keyboard, CPU and peripherals

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    Also known as ISO-OSI Reference Model

    Developed by International Organization for

    Standardization (ISO) Describes flow of information from one computer to

    another

    Consists of seven layers

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    Topology refers to physical or logicalarrangement of network

    Physical topologies are

    Single Node

    Bus Star

    Ring

    Mesh

    Tree Hybrid

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    Single device, at times device called dumbterminal is connected to the server

    Devices operates on files from server andreturns them back after completing task

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    Disadvantages:

    Network consists ofsingle device

    Dumb terminal isdependent on server

    Advantages:

    Easy to install,configure and manage

    Least expensive

    Single cable isrequired

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    All devices are connected to a common cablecalled trunk Maximum segment length of cable is 200 m Maximum of 30 devices per segment

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    Server is at one end and devices are at differentpositions

    50 ohm terminator is used

    Devices are not responsible for datatransmission

    Number of collisions are more

    Usually uses Thinnet or Thicknet

    Performance degrades as more computers areadded to the bus.

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    Advantages:

    Installation ofdevices is easy

    Requires less cablecompared to startopology

    Less expensive andworks better forsmaller networks

    Disadvantages:

    If backbone breaks,entire network getsdown

    Difficult to isolateproblems

    Limited number ofdevices

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    Each device is connected to a central device called hubthrough cable

    Data passes through hub before reaching destination

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    Advantages:

    Easy to install,configure, manageand expand

    Centralizedmanagement

    Addition or removalof device does notaffect the wholenetwork

    Disadvantages:

    Requires more cable

    Failure of hub affectsentire network More Expensive

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    Advantages:

    Data travels atgreater speed

    No collisions

    Handles largevolume of traffic

    Disadvantages:

    More cabling isrequired compared

    to bus

    One faulty deviceaffects the entirenetwork

    Addition of devicesaffect network

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    Consists of twoindependent primaryand secondary rings

    Secondary ring isredundant, used onlywhen primary stops

    functioning

    Chapter 2 24

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    Used in WANs tointerconnect LANs

    Every device isconnected to everyother device

    Use routers todetermine the best

    path ofcommunication

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    Full mesh topology All devices are connectedto each other

    Partial mesh topology - Some devices areconnected to only those with whom theyexchange most of the data

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    Types

    Full mesh Partial mesh

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    Advantages:

    Improves faulttolerance

    Failure of one linkdoes not affect entirenetwork

    Centralizedmanagement is notrequired

    Disadvantages:

    Difficult to installand manage

    Each link from onedevice to otherrequires individual

    NIC

    Very much expensive

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    Connects groups ofstar networks

    Devices are wired toroot hub

    Root hub isconnected to secondlevel devices

    Lowest level devicesare smallercomputers

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    Advantages:

    Easy to add newdevices

    Point-to-point

    wiring for eachdevice

    Fault detection iseasy

    Disadvantages:

    Difficult to configure

    If backbone breaks,entire network goes

    down More expensive

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    Combines two or more different physical

    topologies Commonly Star-Bus or Star-Ring

    Star-Ring uses Multistation Access Unit (MAU)

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    Advantages:

    Used for creatinglarger networks

    Handles largevolume of traffic

    Fault detection iseasy

    Disadvantages:

    Installation andconfiguration is

    difficult

    More expensive thanother topologies

    More cabling isrequired

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    Segment Length Length of single wire Attenuation Indicates loss of signal

    Bandwidth Amount of data carried by cable

    Number of Segments Maximum number of

    segments in network Cost Copper cables are cheapest, fiber optic

    cables are expensive

    Interference susceptibility and crosstalk Defines concept of electronic interference oncables

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    Copper medium is the cheapest mode of data transfer

    Types of cables

    Coaxial cable Twisted pair cables

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    Consist of a solid copper core surrounded by

    an insulator mainly made up of Poly VinylChloride (PVC) or Teflon

    Coaxial cables are less prone to interference(both internal and external)

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    Coaxial cables are mainly divided intofour categories

    Types of

    Coaxial cables

    RG58 RG8 RG6 RG59

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    Maximum segment length is 200 (185) meters Interference protection is better than twisted

    pair cables

    BNC-T connector is used to connect this cable

    Used in thinnet (10BASE2) network

    Mostly used in changing environments

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    Maximum segment length is 500 meters Interference protection is good compared to

    any copper cable

    BNC-T or Vampire Tap connector is used to

    connect this cable Used in 10BASE5 network

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    Broadband quad-shielded cable

    Provides lowerattenuationcharacteristics

    Useful in cable TV,CCTV and satellite dishantenna

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    Solid conductor issurrounded by afoam polyethylenedielectric

    Useful in securitycamera, cable TV andhome theatre

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    A pair of cables twisted around each other forms a

    twisted pair cable.

    Twisted Pair cables

    UnshieldedTwisted Pair

    ShieldedTwisted pair

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    Pair of unshielded wireswound around eachother

    Easily gets affected byEMI, RFI and crosstalk

    Maximum segment

    length is 100 meters

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    Cat 7

    Cat 6

    Cat 5eCat 5

    Cat 4

    Cat 3

    Cat 2

    Cat 1

    UTP

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    Pair of wires woundaround each other isplaced inside shield

    Better protectionfrom EMI, RFI andcrosstalk ascompared to UTP

    Maximum segmentlength of 100 meters

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    Consists of centre glass core surrounded bycladding

    Electrical signals are converted into light signals

    LED or laser is used to transmit signal

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    Bandwidth Carries large amount of dataranging from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps

    Segment Length Transmits data signals overlarger distance

    Interference No electric signals pass throughthese types of cables thus providing security

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    Fiber optic cables can carry signals in asingle direction.

    Fiber Optic Cable

    Types

    Single Mode Multi mode

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    A type of cable that has only a single strandof glass fiber with a thin diameter. Fiber optic cables that use lasers are known

    as single mode cable.

    Chapter 3 48

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    A type of cable that contains a glass fiber witha larger diameter.

    It is a 62.5/125 micrometer fiber cable.

    Chapter 3 49

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    Straight Tip (ST) Joins individual fibers tooptical devices

    Subscriber Connector (SC) Attaches two fibersto send and receive signals

    Medium Interface Connector (MIC) Joins fiberto FDDI controller

    Sub Miniature Type A (SMA) Uses individualconnectors for each fiber stand

    Fiber Jack Attaches two fibers in snap lockconnector

    Chapter 3 50

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    Characteristics UTP STP Coaxial Cables Fiber Optic Cables

    Bandwidth 10 Mbps100 Mbps 10 Mbps100 Mbps 10 Mbps 100 Mbps - 1 Gbps

    Maximum cable segment 100 meters 100 meters 200500 meters 2 k.m.100 k.m.

    Interference rating Poor Better than UTP Better than twisted pairwires

    Very good as comparedto any other cable

    Installation cost Cheap Costly than UTP Costly than twisted pair

    wires

    Most costly to install

    Bend radius 360 degrees / feet 360 degrees / feet 360 degrees / feet or 30

    degrees / feet

    30 degrees / feet

    Security Low Low Low High

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    Networking devices interconnects networks Manage data flow and network traffic

    Networking

    Devices

    Repeaters Hubs Bridges Switches Routers GatewaysOther

    Devices

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    Operate at Physical Layer of the OSI model

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    Reshape the weak signal

    Connect two segments of the same LAN

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    Simplest and low cost device Also known as Multi-port Repeater

    Operate at Physical Layer like Repeater

    Data transfer to all the ports

    Hub types:

    Active hub Provides signal regeneration

    Passive hub No signal regeneration

    Intelligent hub

    Provides management of each port

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    Layer 2 devicesas works at Data

    Link Layer of the

    OSI model

    Interconnectmultiple LANs

    and manages

    data flow

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    Working of a bridge

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    Capable of passing a frame

    Check Physical address

    Pass frame to the specified segment

    Perform error checking on the frame

    Bridges

    Transparent

    Bridge

    Translational

    Bridge

    Source-route

    Bridge

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    Easy to use as just plug in device Helps in network expansion Divides large network into small segments Used for increasing network reliability

    Frames are buffered so provides network delay During high traffic may overload network Does not filter broadcast packets Expensive than Repeaters

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    Switching

    Methods

    Cut-through

    Method

    Store & Forward

    Method

    Fragment-Free

    Method

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    Provide signal flow management

    Replace slower hub

    Being a Data Link Layer device uses MAC address

    for data transfer

    Data transfer to specific port

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    Operate at Network Layer of the OSI model

    Can connect nearer or far network segments

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    Decide the best route with the help of network layeraddress

    Responsible for Source to Destination delivery of

    packet

    Route types: Static route Routing tables are manually configured

    Dynamic route Routing tables are automatically

    configured

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    Helps routers to learn network topology and

    network changes

    Routing algorithms are used by routing protocols for

    deciding the path

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    Gateway

    Types

    Address

    Gateway

    Protocol

    Gateway

    Application

    Gateway

    Transport

    Gateway

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    Operate at all layers of the OSI model Act as gate to other networks

    A default gateway is on the same subnet as your

    computer

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    OtherDevices

    Multi-Protocol

    RoutersBrouters

    Layer 3

    Switches

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    Multi-protocol router supports multiplecommunication protocols

    Like router, it operates at Network Layer

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    Brouter provides combined functions of Bridge and

    Router

    Works at two layers, Data Link and Network

    Can operate only as bridge or only as router

    High performance switch operating at network layeris Layer 3 Switch

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    Set of predefined rules used by devices innetwork for data transfer

    Network Protocols: TCP/IP ARP/RARP ICMP/IGMP UDP IPX/SPX HDLC/SDLC

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    Two layer communication protocol used byInternet

    TCP provides connection-oriented reliabletransport service

    Divides the message into smaller packets calledsegments

    IP is a connectionless and unreliable datagramprotocol and provides no error checking

    IP transfers data in the form of packets called

    datagrams

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    Designed beforeOSI model

    Consists of fivelayers

    Providesindependentprotocols at eachlayer

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    .

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    Fragmentation refers to breaking datagramsinto pieces

    Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) is maximumamount of data that frame can carry

    Datagram is fragmented when its size exceedsMTU of network

    Fragments follow different paths to reachdestination

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    To deliver packet both physical and logicaladdresses are necessary

    Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) providesphysical address when logical address is known

    Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)maps logical address to physical address

    RARP is useful when device is booted for firsttime

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    Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) provides

    error reporting and query managementmechanism

    ICMP handles problems occurring while packettransmission

    Internet Group Message Protocol (IGMP) managesmulticasting and group membership of devices

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    Error Reporting

    Destination

    Unreachable

    Router Solicitation

    and Advertisement

    Timestamp request

    and reply

    Address Mask

    Request and reply

    Echo request

    and reply

    Query

    Source Quench

    Time Exceeded

    Redirection

    Parameter Problem

    ICMP Messages

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    User Datagram Protocol (UDP) providesconnectionless process-to-processcommunication

    UDP packets are called user datagrams.

    User Datagram Format:

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    Novell NetWare system uses IPX/SPX ascommunication protocol within networks

    IPX operates at Network layer forconnectionless communication

    SPX operates at Transport layer for connection-oriented communication

    Together, IPX/SPX provides same services asTCP/IP

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    High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) andSynchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) are bit-oriented synchronous protocols in which dataframes are interpreted as series of bits

    Both are useful for half-duplex and full-duplexcommunication

    Windows XP still support DLC

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    OSI Layers Protocols

    Physical Layer No protocols defined

    Data Link Layer HDLC, SDLC

    Network Layer NetBEUI, IP, ICMP, IGMP, ARP, RARP, IPX

    Transport Layer NetBEUI, TCP, UDP, SPX

    Session Layer NetBIOS, SAP, SMTP, FTP, DNS, SNMP,

    Presentation Layer NCP, RIP, NLSP, SMTP, FTP, DNS, SNMP, NFS

    Application Layer SMTP, DNS, SNMP, NFS, TFTP

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    Specifies how mail should be delivered fromone system to another

    Standard protocol used for transferring emailfrom one computer to another

    Makes connection between senders server andrecipient and then transfer messages

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    A two-way transmission channel established between the

    sender SMTP and a receiver SMTP

    Commands are generated by sender SMTP and sent toreceiver SMTP

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    Set of rules used to exchange files on WorldWide Web

    Users can exchange text, graphic images,sound, video and other multimedia files

    Defines how messages are formatted andtransmitted over the Internet

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    HTTP works on requestand response betweenbrowser and server

    Web server is designatedto handle HTTP requeststhen sends requestedHTML page

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    Proxy servers is used with firewalls to monitor and

    direct HTTP traffic through proxy to externalinternet

    File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

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    Used over Internet to exchange files Uses Internet's TCP/IP protocols to enable data

    transfer

    Establishes two way connections between

    computers

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    File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

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    Machine that are involved in an FTP transaction Client (local host) machine and a server(remote host)

    Client machine initiates transfer

    Get command used tocopy files from server to

    client

    Put command is used to

    copy files from client to server

    Ch

    apt

    er

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    Used to transfer files to and from a remotecomputer

    Used by servers to boot diskless workstations,X-terminals and routers

    Start with a small amount of built-in software

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    Connection and Communication betweenClient/Server

    Communication and messaging different in TFTPwhen compared with FTP

    TFTP uses UDP Process of transferring a file:

    Initial Connection

    Data Transfer

    Connection Termination

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    Used to transfer Usenet news from onemachine to another machine

    Usenet news is a large collection of discussiongroups, covering a wide range of topics

    NNTP provides connection-oriented service Communication takes place between a client

    and a server that keeps netnews on both theplaces

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    Framework for managing devices over Internetusing TCP/IP protocol suite

    Provides set of fundamental operation for

    monitoring and maintaining devices in thenetwork

    Agent is server process that maintainsManagement Information Base (MIB) database

    for host

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    Used to retrieve email from remote server tolocal client over TCP/IP connection

    E-mail clients using POP3 connect, retrieve allmessages or store them on user's PC as newmessages or delete them from server and

    disconnect POP3 is a TCP/IP client/server protocol Session States:

    Authorization State

    Transaction State Update State

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    Enables the users to work with the mail on theserver

    Does not download the mails

    Used to access e-mails from a local server

    Working with mails Accessing and deleting mails

    Attachments

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    Advantages: As the e-mail folders

    are stored on theserver, the user isable to read email

    from any computerwhich belongs to thenetwork

    To access more thanone account fromdifferent locations,IMAP will be the mostefficiently

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    Disadvantages: Complicated

    Results in higher server

    loads than POP3

    Utilizes a lot of server

    resources

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    BOOTP First automated configuration tool for

    IP hosts Bootstrapping Provides the host with the

    capability of getting IP addresses while machineboots

    Requires two phases: Client provided with address and other parameters

    Client downloads softwares to function on network andperform tasks

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    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Successor of BOOTP with different features

    Dynamically assign addresses to clients andcentrally manage

    Consists of two major components 1.Address allocation mechanism 2. Protocol thatallows clients and server to communicate

    DHCP standard includes three different address

    allocation mechanisms: Manual , Automatic and Dynamic

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    Network protocol used on internet or local areanetwork connections

    Terminal emulation program for TCP/IPnetworks

    Enables to control server and communicatewith other servers on network

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    1

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    Telnet client Software that acts as interface touser, processing user commands andpresenting output from remote machine

    Telnet server - Program running on remotecomputer that has been set up to allow remote

    session Telnet runs over connection-oriented TCP TCP connection maintained for duration of

    Telnet session Client and server send information at same

    time over Telnet session because TCP is a full-duplex

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    WWW is a network of Internet servers, whichsupport documents that are developed usingHTML

    Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a

    language in which these documents areformatted

    Client-side

    Computer application Web browser that runs on

    users local computer and connects to server Interpreter that interprets code in an HTML page

    Operations carried out on client-side

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    3

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    Server Side Software program Web server that runs on a

    remote server

    Manages and shares web based applications

    Operations include processing and storage ofdata from client to server

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    Wireless networking allowsyou to establish: Communication using standard network

    protocols

    Communication without the use of

    cables Technologies used for wireless access

    based on

    Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)

    Home Radio Frequency

    (HomeRF)

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    Peer-to-Peer(P2P) or Ad-Hoc Connected wirelessly with the use of wireless

    Network Interface Card (NIC)

    Computers can access printers and share files

    Wired LAN can be accessed using bridging

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    Access point orInfrastructure wireless LAN

    Wireless device connectsto the access point toconnect to the network

    Access point acts as ahub to connect twowireless devices

    Wireless bridge used toconnect wireless networkto wired network

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    Security Four methods of wireless network security:

    Data encryption - WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)and WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)

    Port based access control Service Set Identifier (SSID)

    Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering

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    9

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    The important components required for settingup a wireless network are:

    Medium

    Access point and Extension point

    Wireless bridges and Power line bridges Antennas

    Wireless adapters

    Wireless Station and Server

    Software

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    0

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    Wireless medium is an unguided form ofnetworking medium

    Wireless transmission involves use of technologiessuch as Bluetooth, Infrared, Lasers, Radio signalsand Microwave technologies

    Mobile computing allows users to do their work atany location

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    1

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    Access Point Device that bridges a wireless connection and a

    wired connection

    Two types of access points: Hardware access

    points and Software access points Extension Point

    Used if single access point is not able to coverentire area

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    2

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    Hardware access point is a physical device that

    is used to establish a connection between awired network and a wireless network

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    3

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    Software Access Points are computer whichincludes a wireless network interface card.

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    4

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    Extension points are used if a single accesspoint is not able to cover the entire area.

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    5

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    Antennas are used to increase the range ofwireless network

    Types of antennas used: Omnidirectional antennas - Used indoors and

    small in size Directional antennas - High gain and used for

    long range outdoor use Wireless adapters help to connect computer or

    PDA to a network Wireless adapters are available as PC cards, PCI

    and mini PCI, USB, and CompactFlash.

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    6

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    Wireless Local Area Network consists ofwireless station and wireless server

    Wireless station - Connects wireless networkinto a wireless medium

    Wireless Stations

    Wireless Clients Access Points

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    Wireless server The main server which controls

    all devices within the wireless network

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    Wireless network adapter requires two types ofsoftware so as to function properly:

    Driver

    Configuration Utility

    Windows XP has built-in tools for configuringnetwork adapter settings

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