Charcoal Carbon Sequestration & and Carbon TradeChristoph SteinerThe University of Georgia, Dep. Bio & Ag Eng.Estado da Arte das Terras Pretas de ndio no mbito Mundial (; Christoph Steiner - University of Georgia, Athens GA. USA; William Woods University of Kansas Lawrence, KS, USA)
I am very grateful for this the opportunity to be here, to learn about Terra Preta and to see Terra Preta again. With our presentation we want to summarize The history of Terra Preta and and also charcaol research, current materail flow management and what we could learn from the past (if such a learning process exists?)
1Avoid Carbon EmissionsAbout 22% of the worlds total energy are utilized just in the United States, which has only 4.5% of the worlds population (USCB 2007)
North Americans consume more than twice as much energy (per capita) than Europeans (7,943 and 3,773 kg of oil equivalent respectively http://earthtrends.wri.org)Each year, the USA population uses three times more fossil energy than the total solar energy captured by all the plants in the USA per year (Pimentel et al. 2009)
In the USA, only 1% to 2% home heating is achieved with wood (USCB 1990).
How Much Biomass is Available?
FAO, The State of Food and Agriculture 2007Waste Biomass Example Galveston, Tx
Preserve Carbon Stocks in Vegetation and Soil
Picture: Christian FischerSequester Carbon
What is Sustainable Biomass?Example Slash and Char
1.31 Pg yr-1 (billion tons) of biomass is cleared in all secondary forests (fallow vegetation) (Fearnside 2000, Climatic Change)
Is secondary forest re-growing biomass?
Should forest re-grow and increase the stock in living biomass?
Can living biomass be utilized for biochar carbon sequestration?
Under which conditions? Alternative to fire?7Biochar Production emissions of PICGlobal Warming Potential (GWP)Emission Factors from Biomass Burning 1GHG20 yr100 yr500 yrTropical ForestCharcoal MakingAgricultural residuesCO211115804401515CH472257.66.810.72.7N2O3102891530.200.030.071 Emission factors are given in gram species per kilogram dry matter burned.(Andreae and Merlet, 2001)8
Biochar Production emissions of PIChttp://www.twinoaksforge.com/http://www.biochar.org/How much recalcitrant carbon is in biochar?Proximate Analysis 50 C/min to 950C and held for 7 mins30 35%Keith Harris, [email protected] aliphatic content (200 - 400 C)PN Char = 4.6 %PC Char = 3.4 %How much recalcitrant carbon is in biochar?Keith Harris, [email protected] of biochar?Keith Harris, [email protected] in Emissions Reducations Is biochar different?
Is the carbon value of biochar more than that of charcoal used to substitute fossil fuel?
Additionality? Is biochar additional as it will always compete with charcoal?
How to provide access to carbon credits for small scale projects (small farmers)?
Photo: BiocharfundHow to provide access to carbon credits for small scale projects (small farmers)?Aggregated transaction costs are currently averaging about $200,000 per project. (UNDP, CDM Users Guide)