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GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES Improving conferencing for middle school students with Autism

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  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH

    AUTISM 1

    GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    Improving conferencing for middle school students with Autism

    Marion Piper

    Deputy Head of Shelford Girls Grammar

    Master of Education Torrens University, Australia

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    GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    Improving conferencing for middle school students with Autism

    Abstract

    Research into the most effective way to teach children with Autism has been widely

    written about in academic journals, yet there has been little written about how to conference

    with the middle school student identified on the Autism Spectrum. As the teacher-researcher,

    this paper reports on the findings of an Action Research project which was conducted involving

    the use of graphic organisers when conferencing with students during the writing process. The

    research was conducted to verify whether their inclusion would support and improve the

    learning of three high-functioning children with Autism in a middle years classroom at an

    independent K-12 school for girls in Melbourne, Australia. The study improved the

    conferencing and writing processes of middle school students on the Autism spectrum, gained

    as a result of including graphic organisers as part of explicit writing sessions. Using both

    qualitative and quantifiable data, the study examined how the inclusion of graphic organisers,

    tailored to support the writing of specific genre and aligned with individual students needs and

    goals, contributed to improved conferencing techniques by the teacher. The findings

    demonstrate conclusively that including a range of graphic organisers to support middle school

    students with Autism as they conference with the teacher has an outcome improving their

    writing abilities. This research validates the need for further research into the importance of

    conferencing between teacher and middle school learners as an integral part of the writing

    process, specifically for those identified on the Autism spectrum.

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    Background

    As a teacher who is committed to reflective practice, I am constantly striving to gather

    information about my students funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff & Gonzalez, 1992)

    as a way of gaining further insights into the way they learn. This assists me as I differentiate

    and modify the curriculum to improve learning outcomes in the classroom (Piper, 2016). I

    currently teach middle school students in an independent K-12 school for girls in Melbourne,

    Australia. In order to develop an effective literacy classroom whereby teacher-student

    conferencing is an essential element of the writing process (Hill, 2014, p. 340), I want to

    strive to improve my conferencing with the diverse range of students in my classroom. This is

    particularly so for those identified on the Autism spectrum, as these students appear challenged

    to me when writing text of different genre, most probably attributed to the ways in which they

    process information (Mercer, 2009; Merrifield, 2011). As a result of my quest to improve

    conferencing with students, I have updated and completed an Action Research Project (See

    Appendix A), allowing me to demonstrate how to plan for, undertake and report on my

    approach.

    Literature Review

    Action research is a systematic 7-Step approach (Walsh, 2014) to improving classroom

    practice and pedagogy (Burton & Bartlett, 2005). Undertaking a literature review forms part

    of this process as the teacher formulates the intention of the research to identify problems, pose

    questions, and consider aims and objectives to drive the research cycle. My Literature Review

    (See Appendix B) provided background information, debates, viewpoints, relevant papers and

    journal articles relating to the ways in which students with Autism communicate and learn.

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    This helped me develop a more informed understanding of the current and relevant issues

    related to the project, and were sourced through Google Scholar, EBSCO and several

    Education-specific data bases.

    All students, including the student on the Autism spectrum, must be able to make use

    of their literacy skills and understandings to become effective learners. A clearer definition of

    Autism is defined by The Australian Human Rights Commission (n.d.) as a lifelong

    developmental disability characterised by difficulties in social interaction and communication,

    restricted and repetitive interests and behaviours, and sensory sensitivities (p. 1). Students

    with learning difficulties, including the student with Aspergers Syndrome, deserve to have

    teachers who are knowledgeable in their disorder so that students receive the most appropriate

    education (Wagner as cited in Attwood & Grandin, 2006, p. 22). Around 1 in 100 Australians

    are on the Autism spectrum. In schools, 82% of students on the spectrum report facing some

    sort of difficulty in learning, with 24% of those in mainstream schools not being provided with

    any additional or specialised support (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009). As children with

    Autism are frequently included within mainstream classrooms (Attwood & Grandin, 2016;

    Robinson, n.d.), this presents specific challenges to the standard methods of teaching literacy

    because of the ways that they process information (Mercer, 2009; Merrifield, 2011).

    I was encouraged by the research of Tissot (2003, as cited in Merrifield, 2011) who

    argued that: Visual learners are children that process and retain information better if it is

    presented in a format where it is written down and can be seen, as opposed to information that

    is primarily heard (p. 246). I agree with Merrifield (2011) who perceives this as a direct

    reference to the benefits of visual supports for the student with Autism (p. 30). This resonates

    strongly with me as the literature I reviewed emphasised the importance of focusing on

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    questioning techniques, revealing the paucity of credible studies directly relating to Autism and

    middle years education to research. Through the inclusion of graphic organisers as part of the

    writing process, I attempted to improve my own teaching practice and enhance my middle

    school students ability to conference effectively.

    Action Research Question

    By examining various educational journals and studies by other authors, I was able to

    integrate the relevance of published readings leading me to my action research question: When

    conferencing, how can the use of graphic organisers improve the writing of high-functioning

    middle school students on the Autism spectrum? I wanted to improve my own practice of

    conferencing with students as a way of recognising the potential for improving and developing

    effective literacy teaching and instruction. By focusing on questioning techniques through the

    use of graphic organisers when conferencing with students on the Autism spectrum, my

    intention was to improve my own teaching practice; it would also enhance their abilities to

    conference effectively when writing text of different genre, improving their proficiency and

    adding to their literacy skills toolbox. This is the purpose, reason and inspiration for my action

    research project.

    Methodology

    My Action Research methodology saw me commence my project by selecting from

    within my class three students identified on the Autism spectrum (referred to by the

    pseudonyms Edwina, Harriet and Jasmine), and planning a Daily Diary to identify when to

    conference with them in preparation for data collection throughout the research cycle (See

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    Appendix C, Figure 1). I designed writing surveys as part of my inclusion of quantifiable data.

    These were administered before and after the final conferences to enable me to gain the

    students perspectives of a perceived improvement in attitude towards writing in addition to the

    types of genre they enjoyed writing about or sought to improve (See Appendix C, Figure 2).

    Personal student goals using the VOICES graphic organisers (Downunderteacher, 2014) aided

    in the preparation for explicit literacy writing sessions with my targeted students. Recognising

    the potential for my project, I conferred with my colleagues while undertaking my research.

    Their encouragement about my findings arising from initial research cycles resulted in them

    also displaying classroom goals using the VOICES graphic organisers in each of the middle

    school learning clusters (See Appendix C, Figure 3), and requesting to remain informed

    throughout the projects progress about my targeted students writing development.

    Formal and informal observations throughout the conferencing sessions were recorded

    and relevant and significant excerpts annotated (See Appendix C, Figure 4), with writing

    samples of different genre also collected as part of qualitative (observations, conferencing

    records) and quantifiable (surveys, questionnaires, rubrics) data (See Appendix C, Figures 5-

    7) to show what occurred during my research. By using a triangulation method of data

    collection, I was able to verify and validate the data I collected (Carter, 2014). This aided me

    as I organised my data and identified patterns and themes (See Appendices D and E). Seeking

    approval from the school, parents and students prior to my Action Research project

    commencing was essential as part of my data collection; identifying the participants through

    pseudonyms would safeguard their anonymity and privacy and was reflected in my Parent

    Consent Form (see Appendix F). This would ensure the adherence and maintenance of

    upholding the teaching standards, guidelines and principles as part of quality research practice

    (Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership, n.d.), adding to the ethical validity

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    of my project (Pine, 2009) and a requirement of government agencies (National Ethics

    Approval Form, n.d.; Victoria State Government, Education and Training, 2015).

    As the researcher, I was able to clarify, refine my topic and validate the project prior to

    it being undertaken as part of an initial research cycle (Burker, n.d; Koshy, 2015). Evaluating

    and managing literature which related to my research purpose assisted me as I explored the

    claim by Merrifield (2001, p. 50) and echoed by McConkey & Samadi (2011) that

    internationally the prevalence of Autism appears to be rising (p. 775). A significant

    observation of Professor Jordan resonated with me: the biggest thing you can give to people

    with Autism is time (as cited by Robinson, 2016, p. 42). Through making time to conference

    effectively with my students with Autism, it was anticipated that this would help better meet

    their writing needs. This impelled me as a teacher to understand how I can ameliorate the needs

    of the student with Autism when presented with a diverse range of students in a classroom.

    Findings from my literature review suggested that, by focusing on developing specific

    tuning-in words (such as think, remember and wonder) when making the time to

    conference with students, I can develop routine back-and-forth conversations with repeated key

    words leading to an improved influence and relevance in what I am doing. It was essential that

    this language was used consistently throughout each conferencing cycle. I have been teaching

    Jasmine for nineteen months, Edwina and Harriet for only seven; knowing what level of

    communication each student has enabled me to move forward throughout each cycle of action

    when conferencing with them. My familiarity of the students allowed me to recognise small

    but significant changes in both their written and verbal communication. These insights helped

    determine what strategies to implement during each conferencing opportunity with them

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    (Raising Children Network, 2016) whilst allowing me to rework my existing knowledge in

    new and innovative ways (McNiff, p. 9).

    For example, I continued to collect appropriate data, adding it to that which I had

    gathered from Cycles 1 and 2. This was in order to maintain student engagement and

    motivation. A 7 step research action cycle (Walsh, 2014) abled me to conduct surveys to

    determine the participants attitudes to writing, establish goals for writing with them, gather

    writing samples, source graphic organisers to be used as a stimulus to enhance the process of

    conferencing, document the conferencing process, and review my findings from the eight

    cycles of data I was able to collect. Reflecting throughout each cycle allowed me to determine

    and guide further action through application of the Action Research process into real practice.

    During the course of each research cycle I recognised the potential for conferencing

    opportunities beyond the timetabled explicit literacy writing sessions that were scheduled for

    my class. Furthermore, in consideration of the writing genre the participants were exploring

    across a range of lessons, I was able to source graphic organisers in addition to the VOICES

    graphic organiser statements (Downunderteacher, 2014). This allowed me to align the literacy

    needs of each student with the potential for observing writing development and improvement

    (See Appendix C, Figure 1). Cycles 1 and 2 outlined my initial research study which had been

    undertaken; Cycles 3 to 8 provided for the development of a more detailed and thorough study

    and analysis of collected data.

    Cycle 3 featured the inclusion of graphic organisers relating to information texts: the

    students were learning about natural disasters as part of their Humanities studies. Each student

    established the questions to which they were seeking answers as part of individual research.

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    This then contributed to an overall group PowerPoint or Prezi presentation using methods of

    inquiry. In Cycle 4, a Science Report was required as part of an experiment which was

    conducted in a Science lesson. The graphic organiser format (predict, reason, observe and

    explain) required the students to structure their writing in this way as part of their report; a book

    review also provided for writing in report genre. Cycles 5, 6 and 7 followed the students

    progress in composing persuasive writing text related to a workshop incursion in which they

    had participated, conducted through the Debaters Association of Victoria. As part of follow

    up activities to complement the incursion, group debates by all students were arranged. These

    were prepared and presented, and culminated in a rubric scoring them on the debating elements

    of manner, method and matter. The rubrics were included as part of the conferencing process,

    providing effective feedback to each student. Cycle 8 commenced when term resumed after a

    three-week holiday break: data was collected from narrative and recount writing opportunities

    in addition to my targeted students participating in a post-writing survey.

    Data Analysis

    Examination of the completed pre- and post- Writers Profile survey, observations,

    annotated notes and individual video feedback sessions taken during conferences throughout

    my research cycles provided me with a range of data to consider, analyse and interpret.

    Reflection of it enabled me to identify patterns and themes. From conferencing and assessing

    student work samples, I was able to identify which additional graphic organisers would best

    suit the writing needs of my targeted students, in addition to how often the graphic organisers

    were used to support writing opportunities (See Appendix D). This allowed me to recognise

    how the process of conferencing with students with Autism was enhanced. Dialogue with

    Torrens University Australia (TUA) colleagues and critical friends helped shape and guide the

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    research questions to which I sought answers. Their ongoing discussions helped me consider

    what other graphic organisers could be explored. This led me to sourcing ones specific to each

    student participants needs.

    It was noted from the initial survey that each of my targeted students could be

    considered to have a poor approach to writing opportunities. Whilst it was recognised that

    Elizabeth, Harriet and Jasmine considered writing to be okay - with their reasons indicating

    a lack of confidence in ideas, organisation and writing conventions - I was keen to see this

    attitude turned around by the conclusion of my study. Knowing what these students were

    interested to write about assisted me for future writing sessions: their preferences for writing

    in specific genre provided me with a starting point as I sought to improve their motivation and

    engagement in writing, essential to durable learning. For example, whilst Jasmine indicated a

    willingness to write everyday texts (letters, invitations and email), Elizabeth and Harriet had a

    preference to write in genre which included narratives, information reports and recounts.

    Harriet also shared that she sometimes likes to write responses to her lifeworld experiences.

    A plan for writing opportunities was designed which could include the genre preference

    for each student where possible. Taken into consideration were some logistical concerns,

    including the incursion by the Debaters Association of Victoria (booked and confirmed earlier

    in the year) and Elizabeths participation in an advanced maths class, often timetabled when

    conferencing could be scheduled. Similarly, Harriet was involved in attending an external

    music competition and performance, precluding her ability to conference with me during Cycle

    4. Jasmine was also absent from school due to illness (Cycle 6), which saw her struggle to

    effectively complete arguments for her persuasive text. However, a systematic evaluation

    procedure allowed conferencing to be maintained with as much consistency as possible

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    throughout each cycle, essential for my planning purposes (McNiff, 2002; Baumfield, Wall &

    Hall, 2008). It also became apparent that - for writing to be part of the everyday experiences

    for a student - other opportunities for learning across a range of other contexts could be, and

    would be provided, through Science and Humanities classes. I believe this added depth to my

    project and helped to validate my results.

    To assist my improvement in the skill of conferencing with students, I noted and

    considered the suggestions from the Hanen Centre (2011) which extensively explored what

    facilitates the communication development of children with high-functioning Autism for them

    to have successful interpersonal relationships with others. Through the inclusion of specific

    tuning-in words when conferencing with my targeted students - such as think, remember

    and wonder I was able to develop back-and-forth conversations between myself and each

    student. This saw them participating with enthusiasm, particularly when appropriate and

    carefully crafted open-ended questions were incorporated into each session. Additionally,

    choosing relevant graphic organiser statements for the specific writing needs of each student

    provided a baseline through which to promote rich discussion, assist student engagement and

    encourage motivation. As part of the process, it also enabled me to gauge students progress,

    not just in formal writing sessions in literacy classes, but across a range of learning domains

    (Lothian, N.D.), adding strength to my research findings.

    The quantitative analysis of the post- Writers Profile surveys (See Appendix C) yielded

    valuable information and feedback which was very telling: the students responses revealed

    that including graphic organisers had assisted them in specific areas of learning not only the

    VOICES organisers, but others that had been sourced to provide additional writing support.

    All students acknowledged the usefulness of rubrics in their learning. Edwina indicated that

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    the vocabulary pyramid and the format for Science reports provided writing support which

    allowed her to be more confident when responding to scientific questions. Harriet wrote of an

    improved confidence to writing Information reports, with the structure of them assisting her

    efforts. Similarly Jasmines post-survey saw an overall improved approach to each writing

    opportunity, identifying that conferencing was a valuable part of her literacy writing

    experiences. Students were also able to articulate what further support they still sought, with

    an indication of the types of graphic organisers they considered would assist them, particularly

    in the area of writing conventions (grammar, capitals and punctuation).

    Results and Discussion

    As I reflect on the results of taking action through my research, my findings within

    common patterns and recurring themes allow me to confirm that the inclusion of VOICES

    (Downunderteacher, 2012) and other selective graphic organisers - such as those published by

    Blake Education (1996) - assisted my conferencing with students and, when carefully chosen,

    can be used to target specific areas of writing opportunities transferring across a range of

    learning domains which can lead to literacy development and improvement. My targeted

    students were able to identify the ways in which the graphic organisers assisted them (See

    Appendix E). All students indicated that graphic organisers supported them in finding their

    writing voice, assisted them when word processing on the computer, and improved their

    confidence when writing or conferencing. By addressing the amount of time devoted to

    conferencing with each student, the way in which each organiser is presented, and by giving

    thought to the phrasing of questions in back-and-forth discussions, I recognised that my

    repertoire of conferencing techniques for the students with Autism in my class improved: this

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    was the overarching intention of my Action Research project. By considering my intentions

    for their writing, it was essential to differentiate the learning experiences for my targeted group.

    This means identifying where each student is at in the writing process, providing sufficient time

    with each student to discuss their intentions, being mindful of asking the right/write questions

    when conferencing, and relating the purpose and intention of specific graphic organisers in

    order to meet student needs and goals for learning.

    My results identify that it is essential that teachers of the student with Autism include a

    variety of techniques as part of their teaching repertoire as a way of fostering people skills

    Hanen Centre (2011). This allows them to connect well with others - both teacher and peers -

    in their classrooms: in order to maintain interest and motivation for learning, participating in

    effective conferencing sessions with activities related to the intended writing task is also how

    the child with Autism will best learn to communicate.

    Asperger's syndrome is sometimes described as mild or 'high-functioning' Autism

    (Macintosh & Dissanayake, as cited in Connor, 2004). Keens (2008) research claims that

    students with Autism who receive support for learning earlier, rather than later, significantly

    improve their chances of learning new skills (p. 3). Including graphic organisers to support

    learning has enabled my targeted students to identify and revise goals for learning as part of the

    conferencing process. For girls with Autism and identified with Aspergers Syndrome within

    the spectrum, they can become quite adept at camouflaging their difficulties (Attwood &

    Grandin, 2006, p. 2). Because my current teaching context is within a single-gender (girls only)

    school, this finding resonated strongly with me as part of my research; effective conferencing

    techniques which included open-ended questions relating to favourite topics allowed my little

    professors (Attwood & Grandin, 2006, p. 4) to reveal their motivation to learn, particularly

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    when the topic they were writing about interested them. Although my targeted students

    sometimes have difficulty interpreting social or language cues - indicative of Aspergers

    Syndrome/Autism - their display of advanced language skills for their age sometimes saw them

    initiating discussions (Attwood & Grandin, 2006; Raising Children Network, 2016), reminding

    me to be actively attending to back-and-forth discussions when conferencing with each student

    in order for the process to be effective. This can lead to enhancing meaningful, purposeful and

    improved writing engagement.

    Summary and Conclusions

    A review of literature suggested that students with Autism can improve their writing

    ability with appropriate support and direct instruction when scaffolding by the teacher is

    provided, teaching approaches and strategies are relevant, and when classroom routines are

    consistent and positive (Iovannone, Dunlap, Huber & Kincaid, 2003). I hypothesised that my

    targeted students would improve their approach to writing tasks through effective conferencing

    with me, as my project reminded me to consider the findings of Stroh, Robinson & Proctor

    (2008) and Robinson (2016): focus on what the student can do, rather than what they cannot;

    all students are able to participate in a range of everyday activities, regardless of their abilities,

    which ensures their inclusion in the classroom (Reid, 2005). Such research has enabled me to

    contemplate findings from the perspective of my current practice and how to consider the

    inclusion of graphic organisers as a way of providing support and improved communication

    when conferencing with students. My middle school students, although indicating a diverse

    range of writing ability, are all keen to learn and desire to perform well in their approach to

    learning, including the chance to improve and develop their writing skills. Attwood & Grandin

    (2006), Mercer (2009), Mede (as cited by Merrifield, 2011) and Merrifield (2011) claim the

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    use of graphic organisers can be used specifically to support students and assist the teacher

    during the writing process. My results certainly reflect this claim.

    I concluded that the quantitative and qualitative data that I gathered showed that, when

    conferencing with middle school students with Autism and including graphic organisers as part

    of the consultative nature of the process, the development of their writing skills is supported.

    These areas include intentionally providing the opportunity for students to write in different

    genre (narrative, report, information, persuasive, recount) in order to assist their writing to

    evolve, together with the intention of it developing sufficiently to meet the standards expected

    of a middle school student. This necessitates the organisation of the students writing for an

    audience to enable readers to understand what is written, presenting writing which is clear,

    focused and interesting, and ensuring that the conventions of writing (proper grammar, capitals

    and punctuation) are evident. Including appropriate words - in addition to sentence fluency

    (beginnings, length and type) should also reflect the writing expectations, standards and

    benchmarks for middle school students. The positive effects arising from this conclusion is

    that the range of graphic organisers which were sourced and included as part of the

    conferencing process also helped these students to improve their attitude to writing. This has

    significant repercussions: providing time to conference with each student enables them to

    become more confident to discuss their writing efforts; effective discussions throughout the

    conferencing process, both with students and colleagues, provided deeper insights into their

    abilities, encouraging me to peruse which graphic organisers may best suit my intentions and

    help meet individual student needs. As there are many factors that can impact conferencing

    practices for students with Autism, my strategy for conducting an internet search for

    appropriate and relevant graphic organisers enabled me to focus on the specific literacy

    requirements each student had, in addition to determining which area of writing development

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    they desired to improve upon. This aided me to develop and implement particular strategies,

    lending support to the specific learning abilities of each student.

    Future Actions and Directions

    The Raising Children Network (2016) suggest that knowing what level of

    communication the child with Autism has, and how to move forward when communicating,

    will determine what strategies to implement during the conferencing process of a writing task:

    revisiting the personal VOICES goals of my targeted students they initially identified will also

    help me to consider other gains in areas of development, such as behaviour and learning. Such

    findings also lend support to similar literature presented by Dickerson & Calhoun (2005) and

    Rupley (2009), both cited in Merrifield (2011). Their suggestion is that graphic organisers can

    include concept mapping as a way of sequencing ideas, in addition to being used as a reference

    for the student, when reflecting on learning. This allows for repetition of key ideas to be

    reinforced. They also support the ability to identify basic story structures for students (using

    words or pictures) (p. 20). Each of these notions could form part of future actions for the

    teacher-researcher whose intention it is to add to their own literacy repertoire to enhance the

    communication and writing skills of the student with Autism.

    Arising from my research are additional findings to be considered from others.

    Merrifield (2011) acknowledged previous research (Williams et al, 2002, Basil & Reyes, 2003

    as cited in Merrifield, 2011) suggesting Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) can include

    graphic organizers which provide immediate feedback to students, individualize instruction,

    and allow for extensive rehearsal and repetition (p. 29). Similarly, research conducted by

    Smith (as cited by Merrifield, 2011) noted improvement in writing and fluency ability when

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    students used technology software as part of regular instruction. Accessing graphic organisers

    through CAI is an area which other educators, including myself, might consider. Claims by

    Merrifield (2011) and Kamaruzaman, Rani, Nor & Azahari (2016) that positive gains are

    achieved from CAI encourages me to consider how conferencing and writing for my targeted

    students in this way - rather through the conventional methods of writing or perhaps a

    combination of both - may better engage them, leading to an improved approach and more

    positive attitude to writing tasks. Basil & Reyes (as cited in Merrifield, 2011) also identified

    CAI as more meaningful and interesting for the students, with their ability to construct

    sentences enhanced greatly in a short period of time (p. 29). For this reason, further

    investigation of educational interactive software to motivate, support and engage student

    learning is warranted and being explored: Blake Education (1999), for example, has a range of

    interactive resources to enhance both the primary and secondary literacy development of

    diverse students, particularly in the area of writing; collaboration with staff sees this software

    being trialled more extensively within my Learning Cluster, with the focus on its effectiveness

    for teaching Exposition genre.

    When supporting middle school students identified on the Autism spectrum, of further

    interest to me is consideration for the way in which Thinking Routines, advocated by Harvard

    University researchers Ritchhart & Perkins (2008), can further support effective conferencing

    opportunities between teacher and student. This links to my research, as their suggestion is

    also to encourage the time for back-and-forth discussions between teacher and student by

    including a range of repeated routines embedded as part of classroom culture: such

    implementation allows for thoughtful and purposeful conferences to be better promoted,

    leading to greater motivation for learning and deeper understanding and engagement in the

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    classroom. I would thus anticipate that more meaningful connections could be made to enhance

    the writing process.

    I recognise that my project could have a significant impact for teachers exploring ways

    to support students with Autism in their learning, so I am excited that these considerations will

    be discussed and shared further with colleagues in my current school setting as part of

    professional learning opportunities: my suggestions can contribute to progressing current

    thinking towards girls education, with the potential for influencing positive changes to current

    literacy practices and pedagogy within our curriculum. By presenting my findings to different

    sectors of the school, I am providing further knowledge to help shape 21st century approaches

    to education whilst also upholding the teaching standards within my profession (Australian

    Institute for Teaching and School Leadership, n.d.; Thompson & Kamler, 2013).

    Reflections

    My findings support my claim that, when taking the time to conference effectively with

    students, using graphic organisers can enhance the literacy toolbox for the student with Autism.

    By developing my Teacher Action Research to explore additional ways in which continued

    improvement can be made, further research must be completed to determine if conferencing in

    this way genuinely affects the enhancement of improved teaching and student learning. By

    considering critical questions and values relevant to conferencing practices within my current

    teaching context, I was able to explore how to improve the writing abilities of students with

    Autism and so improve their chances of learning new literacy skills. I consider my systematic

    and rigorous approach to research has produced evidence which validate and support my claims

    about improved practice within the classroom (McNiff, 2002).

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH

    AUTISM 19

    I also recognise that my research can be developed further: by conferencing with

    students within the same year levels, or in other sectors of the school (lower primary, middle

    primary and secondary) to meet the needs of a diverse range of learners, support for a wider

    group of learners - which includes both boys and girls as part of the targeted study group - can

    lead to enhancing school literacy improvement (Burker, n.d; Koshy, 2015). For this reason, a

    larger scale study is recommended. To return again to the research of Tissot (2003, as cited in

    Merrifield, 2011) who state that Visual learners are children that process and retain

    information better if it is presented in a format where it is written down and can be seen, as

    opposed to information that is primarily heard (p. 246), I strongly encourage the reflective

    practitioner not to undermine the inherent value and benefit that graphic organisers bring as a

    visual learning and writing support for the students with Autism which many of us teach in 21st

    century classrooms.

    The Action Research Project I have conducted has indicated the value of purposeful

    graphic organisers as an integral component of conferencing with middle school students with

    Autism when included as part of daily writing opportunities. It is hoped that - for the teacher

    who takes the time to engage deeply and effectively in the conferencing process across any

    learning domain - their inclusion within a literacy writing toolbox are recognised for

    contributing successfully to the motivation and engagement of the diverse range of students

    with whom they teach and learn, leading to pedagogy and practice which is both enriched and

    improved.

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH

    AUTISM 20

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  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH

    AUTISM 28

    Appendix A

    EDUC 6004/6014/6018: Capstone Action Research Planning Tool 4 UPDATED ACTION PLAN FROM

    CAPSTONE A

    1. What is the problem/issue?

    My focus question is: When conferencing, how can graphic organisers assist and improve the writing of

    high-functioning students on the Autism spectrum?

    The problem I have been addressing is how to improve the effectiveness of conferencing with students,

    specifically those whom have been identified on the Autism spectrum (Jasmine, Edwina and Harriet), as they

    participate in the Writing process, using the graphic organiser (VOICES).

    2. What is one goal (or change) you hope to achieve?

    Throughout my initial Action Plan I have been using selective questions/statements from the VOICES graphic

    organisers to improve my questioning techniques as I conference with these particular students. These graphic

    organisers have enabled me to recognise the potential for improving conferences when including them in

    ongoing discussions throughout the writing progress with my targeted students.

    3. What do you hope to achieve by solving the problem/addressing the issue? (1 possible solution)

    Identification and recommendations/suggestions for specific statements to be selected from the VOICES

    graphic organisers when conferencing with students on the Autism Spectrum during the Writing Process.

    Edwina, Harriet and Jasmine have each responded well to the VOICES graphic organisers. Edwina and Harriet

    are ready for further differentiation to support their learning; Jade still needs to have intervention which

    supports her ORGANISATION she stays on topic but has difficulty with grouping similar thoughts together in

    each paragraph.

    Edwina has enjoyed the focus on IDEAS, and uses some interesting words when writing. I feel she can be

    extended in this area, so am keen to introduce her to more ambitious vocabulary to use when writing

    narratives.

    For Harriet, who is also responding well to the VOICES graphic organisers which focus on ORGANISATON, we

    have discussed the use of including connecting words in her writing so that it is easier for readers to follow and

    understand her narrative.

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

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    AUTISM 29 Articulating smaller strategies for success

    What will you do to

    achieve you

    goal/change?

    How will you

    implement the

    action(s) to

    achieve the

    goal/change?

    When will you

    implement your

    action(s)?

    What resources

    do you need,

    human and

    otherwise?

    How will you

    measure success

    or progress?

    What data do you

    need to collect to

    determine

    success or

    progress?

    Where/from

    who will you

    collect the

    data?

    For Edwina:

    at the brainstorming

    stage of the Writing

    Process focus on the

    need to expand her

    vocabulary:

    incorporate the

    ambitious

    vocabulary pyramid

    from Andrell

    Education

    Present

    ambitious

    vocabulary

    pyramid for

    sharing and

    discussion as part

    of the

    conferencing

    process

    During the

    brainstorming

    stage so that it

    can be referred to

    by Edwina

    throughout the

    Writing Process

    Ambitious

    Vocabulary

    pyramid

    include as a

    personal copy for

    inclusion in her

    Writing Book;

    Through the

    quality of

    discussions that

    arise when

    conferencing with

    Edwina

    Anecdotal

    notes/recorded

    discussions;

    Evidenced in

    completed writing

    samples

    From

    conferences

    held with

    Edwina;

    follow up

    discussions

    with Edwina

    and critical

    friend (TUA

    colleagues,

    parent and

    Kim)

    For Harriet:

    at the brainstorming

    stage of the Writing

    Process focus on the

    need to suggest

    using the

    connectives

    pyramid from

    Andrell Education

    Collect further

    evidence from

    Step 2 of the

    Writing Process

    (Outline) to

    further organise

    the thoughts

    students have

    revealed from

    brainstorming.

    During

    conferencing

    sessions with

    Harriet; ensure

    she understands

    the purpose of

    including

    connectives when

    writing to

    enhance her

    thoughts, ideas,

    phrases and

    sentences.

    Connectives

    pyramid

    include as a

    personal copy for

    inclusion in her

    Writing Book ;

    Quality of

    discussions held

    through

    conferencing with

    Harriet

    Anecdotal

    notes/recorded

    discussions;

    Evidenced in

    completed writing

    samples

    From

    conferences

    held with

    Harriet

    follow up

    discussions

    with Harriet,

    parent and

    critical friend

    (TUA

    colleagues

    and Kim)

    For Jasmine:

    Continue to

    conference with

    Jasmine as she

    includes relevant

    statements from the

    VOICES graphic

    organisers, targeting

    ORGANISATION (I

    arrange my writing

    so readers can

    understand it.)

    Provide a list of

    general and

    specific questions

    and instructions

    from the

    ORGANISATION

    planner with

    Jasmine

    During

    conferencing

    this will guide

    discussion and

    assist Jasmine in

    her writing efforts

    List of general and

    specific questions

    focusing on

    spelling,

    grammar,

    paragraph,

    sentence length;

    Passion, desire

    and patience!

    Quality of

    discussions held

    through

    conferencing with

    Jasmine;

    Feedback on

    editing required

    through

    conferencing with

    Jasmine

    Proofing and

    editing as part of

    conferencing with

    Jasmine

    From

    conferences

    held with

    Jasmine;

    follow up

    discussions

    with Jasmine,

    parent and

    critical friend

    (TUA

    colleagues

    and Kim)

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 30

    Appendix B

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (AITSL, n.d.)

    (Victoria State

    Government, Education

    and Training, 2015)

    (West, 2011)

    Ethical validity all

    participants within the

    study to remain

    anonymous to uphold

    privacy;

    add to engagement of

    professional learning

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design?

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Boucher, 2009)

    (Pittman, 2007)

    (Dittrich & Tutt, 2008)

    (Robinson, n.d.)

    Aspergers Syndrome

    and Literacy

    A look at the disorder

    and instructional

    approach for teachers

    Traditional methods of

    teaching phonemic

    awareness to children

    with Autism spectrum

    disorders do not work

    Students have to

    acquire essential

    cultural skills if they

    are to express

    themselves in literate

    ways

    Consider how best to

    scaffold learning for

    Aspergers Syndrome

    students using historic

    and contemporary

    research

    (Deoell, 2011)

    Use Individual

    Education Plans (IEPs)

    to monitor progress

    Consider inclusion of

    IEPs to monitor

    progress of project

    participants

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design?

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 31

    (OBrien, 2003)

    The effects of story

    mapping on students

    with learning

    disabilities

    Completion of a story

    map with related

    questions. Pre-test and

    post-test to determine

    growth

    Data revealed

    improvement in growth

    Reading intervention

    can improve reading

    comprehension for

    students with learning

    disabilities

    Further research can

    determine if story

    mapping genuinely

    affects the

    comprehension of

    students on the Autism

    spectrum

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Smith, 2004)

    The effect of mini-

    lessons in writing

    strategies combined

    with the assistive

    technology program

    Write: OutLoud on the

    writing fluency skills of

    a learning disabled

    student

    A case study

    methodology used for

    middle years student

    Indication of an

    increase in the writing

    and fluency ability

    An increase in the

    writing and fluency

    ability of this student as

    well as an increase in

    the students perception

    of his writing ability

    Exploration of the Test

    of Written language

    pre- and post-test and

    the Writers Self-

    Perception Scale pre-

    and post-test

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (MacDonell, 2015)

    (Jordan as cited in

    Robinson, n.d.)

    Research exploring the

    characteristics of girls

    and Aspergers

    syndrome

    Consideration from a

    range of authors and

    studies

    Girl with Aspergers

    syndrome who are

    included in mainstream

    classrooms require

    accommodation from

    the school

    Consider how best to

    assist these students to

    move forward when

    conferencing

    The way in which I

    effectively conference

    with students can

    influence how well

    their communication

    skills develop,

    particularly by giving

    them time.

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 32

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Hanen Centre, 2011)

    Research developed

    from how to improve

    communication

    development in young

    children with Asperger

    syndrome

    Talkability Progam

    Talkability strategies to

    teach parents how to

    talk to their children so

    that they are able to

    have successful

    conversations

    Foster people skills in

    students with Autism to

    assist their connection

    with others in the

    classroom. This can be

    achieved through

    everyday conversations

    and activities

    Use the Is (include

    childrens interests,

    ideas and words;

    interpret message;

    introduce your own

    ideas; insist on change

    of topic.

    Use the cues - comment

    and wait; ask a question

    and wait; make it easier

    to answer your question

    and wait; hint and wait;

    make a suggestion and

    wait; tell the child what

    to say or do and wait

    Development of

    strategies to teach how

    to talk to the autistic

    child so that they can

    learn how to have

    successful

    conversations

    Video recording of

    conversations with

    Autistic children

    What works best when

    teaching strategies for

    extending

    conversations that there

    is much opportunity as

    possible to learn

    Observations from

    Video feedback when

    attempting to conduct

    good discussions with

    autistic students to

    improve practice

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 33

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Raising Children

    Network, 2016)

    (Jordan as cited in

    Robinson, n.d.)

    Consideration of how

    to support parents and

    teachers when

    communicating with

    autistic children

    A range of settings and

    experiences as part of

    research to provide

    specialist knowledge

    and support for parents

    and practitioners

    Sometimes children

    with ASD do not seem

    to know how to use

    language, or how to use

    language in the same

    ways as typically

    developing children

    Autistic children can

    find it difficult to relate

    and communicate with

    other people using

    language

    With help and

    understanding, your child

    can develop

    communication skills

    Autistic children might

    be slower to develop

    language, have no

    language at all, or have

    significant difficulties

    in understanding or

    using spoken language

    Communication is a two-

    way process that uses eye

    contact, facial expressions

    and gestures as well as

    words; How well a child

    with ASD communicates

    is important for other

    areas of development,

    such as behaviour and

    learning

    Assist the students

    attempts to

    communicate by using

    strategies

    Consider using these

    strategies when devoting

    TIME to conferencing:

    1. use short sentences

    2. use less mature

    language

    3. exaggerate tone of

    voice

    4. provide

    encouragement and

    prompting when it

    is their turn in a

    conversation

    5. ask questions that

    require a response

    6. provide enough

    time to respond

    7. encourage eye

    contact

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 34

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study? (Attwood, n.d.)

    The central theme

    provided by these authors:

    the effects of instruction

    of graphic organizers in

    terms of students

    attitudes towards reading

    in English

    These researchers were

    cited by Merrifield as part

    of her literature review

    The quality of these

    studies were validated in

    Merrifields studies Graphic organizers can

    aid learners applications

    and have a positive

    influence on attitudes

    towards reading

    Consider how to use

    graphic organisers as a

    positive way to aid

    conferencing and writing

    of my target group

    (OBrien, 2003)

    (Mede, 2010)

    (Mercer, 2009)

    (Merrifield, 2011) Descriptive analysis using

    data from pre and post

    questionnaires, focus

    group interviews

    Analysis of learners

    attitudes were considered

    (Dickerson & Calhoun,

    2005)

    (Rupley, 2009)

    (Montague, Graves &

    Leavell, 1991)

    Examination of middle

    school compositions

    through comparative data

    Use of data collection

    through inclusion of story

    grammar cue cards

    Significant differences

    were no longer apparent

    when time and structure

    were provided for

    planning narratives

    Consider identifying and

    extracting relevant cue

    cards from graphic

    organisers when

    conferencing

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Burker, n.d.)

    Identifying previous

    studies helps validate

    studies

    Consider design process

    carefully

    Provides helpful

    information for Action

    Research that is to be

    undertaken by putting I

    context

    Design of project

    clarifies, refines topic and

    validates research

    Teaching/conducting

    international research;

    Validates project

    (Koshy, 2015)

    (Fox, Green & Martin,

    2007)

    Hopkins (2008)

    (Lankshear & Nobel,

    2004)

    (Noffke & Somekh, 2009)

    (Pine, 2009)

    (Somekh, 2006)

    (Whitehead & McNiff,

    2006)

    (Williams, 2015)

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 35

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Attwood, n.d.)

    The central theme

    provided by these

    authors: the effects of

    instruction of graphic

    organizers in terms of

    students attitudes

    towards reading in

    English

    These researchers were

    cited by Merrifield as

    part of her literature

    review

    The quality of these

    studies were validated

    in Merrifields studies

    Graphic organizers can

    aid learners

    applications and have a

    positive influence on

    attitudes towards

    reading

    Consider how to use

    graphic organisers as a

    positive way to aid

    conferencing and

    writing of my target

    group

    (OBrien, 2003)

    (Mede, 2010)

    (Mercer, 2009)

    (Merrifield, 2011) Descriptive analysis

    using data from pre and

    post questionnaires,

    focus group interviews

    Analysis of learners

    attitudes were

    considered

    (Dickerson & Calhoun,

    2005)

    (Rupley, 2009)

    (Montague, Graves &

    Leavell, 1991)

    Examination of middle

    school compositions

    through comparative

    data

    Use of data collection

    through inclusion of

    story grammar cue

    cards

    Significant differences

    were no longer

    apparent when time and

    structure were provided

    for planning narratives

    Consider identifying

    and extracting relevant

    cue cards from graphic

    organisers when

    conferencing

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Burker, n.d.)

    Identifying previous

    studies helps validate

    studies

    Consider design

    process carefully

    Provides helpful

    information for Action

    Research that is to be

    undertaken by putting I

    context

    Design of project

    clarifies, refines topic

    and validates research

    Validates project (Koshy, 2015)

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 36

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Australian Human Rights

    Commission, n.d.)

    General information

    provided by a range of

    authors through websites and

    blogs helping to define and

    identify characteristics of the

    autistic child

    A range of authors and

    studies considered

    Excellent evidence to assist

    others in identifying autistic

    children

    Definition of Autism

    Identifies target group,

    assisting in research

    (Macintosh & Dissanayake,

    2004)

    Characteristics of Autism (Attwood & Grandin, 2006)

    (Steward, 2014)

    (Raising Childrens

    Network, 2016)

    Determine level of Autism in

    student behaviour and

    learning; identify the stastics

    of children in mainstream

    schools with Autism and the

    level of support they receive

    Australian Bureau of

    Statistics (2009)

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study? (Mercer, 2009)

    Assisting the teacher to

    understand the literacy

    difficulties autistic children

    experience in middle years

    classrooms

    A review of literature from a

    range of author identifying

    specific challenges teachers

    face in traditional classrooms

    when teaching autistic

    children

    Autistic children process

    information differently

    This presents challenges for

    teaching methods

    Consider other teaching

    methods, including

    technology, to engage and

    motivate targeted students as

    part of appropriate support

    and intervention

    (Merrifield, 2011)

    (Wagner as cited in Attwood

    & Grandin, 2006)

    Teachers need to be

    knowledgeable about Autism

    Pennington & Delano, 2012)

    Ensure students are provided

    with models of quality

    writing, access to word

    processing and other

    components for writing

    productivity

    Hanbury (2012)

    (Iovannone, Dunlap, Huber,

    & Kincaid 2003) Appropriate support and

    direct instruction improves

    student writing (Reed, 2014)

    (Tissot, 2003)

    Information is retained if it is

    written down and seen rather

    than heard

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 37

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Attwood, 2011)

    What instructional

    approaches can be

    suggested for teachers?

    A review of literature

    from other authors

    Differentiating

    instruction helps to

    include the autistic

    child in the classroom;

    very helpful studies.

    Autistic students are

    identified/included in

    mainstream classrooms

    How to differentiate

    instruction for

    successful inclusion

    when meeting needs as

    part of curriculum

    planning

    (Doell, 2011)

    (MacDonell, 2015)

    (Hanberry, 2012)

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Hanen Centre, 2011)

    Central theme: What

    can facilitate the

    communication

    development of

    children?

    Professional advice

    provided through the

    website

    Expert opinions

    provide helpful advice

    to those engaging with

    autistic children

    Fostering people skills

    in autistic students

    allows them to connect

    with others in

    classrooms Consider language use

    when conferencing

    with students. Individual video

    feedback sessions when

    collecting data

    Development of

    Talkability Program

    focusing on specific

    tuning-in words when

    conversing with

    students

    The Talkability

    Program supports

    back-and-forth

    discussions when

    conversing with autistic

    students

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Burton & Bartlett,

    2016)

    Focusing on how to

    conduct the process of

    action research cycles

    by identifying patterns

    in collected data

    Providing advice re

    undertaking action

    research

    Valid advice to inform

    the researcher

    Consider research time-

    line; plan in practical

    steps

    Crucial as part of the

    process, as time is

    limited for the project (Izzo, 2006)

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 38

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Merrifield, 2011) Central theme: How to

    enhance reading

    comprehension for

    students with Autism

    with the inclusion of

    Computer Assisted

    Instruction

    Data collected through

    student questionnaires,

    parent conversations,

    classroom observations,

    work sessions

    Computer Assisted

    Instruction (CAI)

    includes graphic

    organisers and showed

    improvement in student

    learning

    Positive gains in

    learning through

    including CAI when

    teaching autistic

    students;

    ability of students to

    construct sentences

    enhanced greatly in a

    short period of time

    Consider CAI as part of

    my research project (Williams et al, 2002)

    Research of others

    taken into consideration

    as part of findings

    (Basil & Reyes, 2003)

    (Smith, 2004)

    (Kamaruzaman, Rani,

    Nor & Azahark, 2016)

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Merrifield, 2011)

    How to enhance

    reading comprehension

    for students with

    Autism How to

    enhance reading

    comprehension for

    students with Autism The research of others

    helped to inform the

    details provided

    Results of studies both

    here and overseas assist

    in contributing to

    findings and

    recommendations

    Autism continues to

    grow: this has

    important implications

    from research for others

    that follow; use

    findings to develop and

    improve curriculum

    design

    Take into account the

    research of others as

    part of literature review

    in preparation for

    Action Research

    Project; as it is

    conducted and

    completed, share your

    findings to contribute to

    current thinking and as

    a way of providing

    knowledge and

    strategies to improve

    student learning and

    outcomes

    (McConkey & Samadi,

    2011) The articles were

    written to provide

    practical advice for the

    teacher of autistic

    children. (Hutten, 2010)

  • GIRL TALK AND WRITING VOICES:

    IMPROVING CONFERENCING WITH MIDDLE SCHOOL AUTISTIC STUDENTS 39

    Author/

    Date?

    Research

    Question(s)?

    Action Research

    Design

    Results?

    Major findings?

    How does this

    research inform your

    study?

    (Pine, 2009)

    The reason this article was

    written: How to build

    knowledge within context

    through Action Research

    Design

    The research of others

    helped to inform and guide

    the design of research to be

    undertaken

    Insightful information

    provided excellent source

    of information for anyone

    considering undertaking

    Action Research Projects

    Access a range of

    professional journals, official

    government publications,

    search e

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