GROUP MEMBERSM Tayab ismat
THE PARAGRAPH IS A SERIES OF SENTENCES OF DEVELOPING ONE TOPIC
THE REST OF THE PARAGRAPH CONSIST OF SENTENCES THAT DEVELOP OR EXPLAIN THE MAIN IDEATHE TOPIC OF A PARAGRAPH IS STATED IN ONE SENTENCE
Decide what the main topic of the paragraph is going to be?
Before you begin writing your paragraph, you must have a clear idea of what the paragraph is going to be about. This is because a paragraph is essentially a collection of sentences that all relate to one
In order to pin down the exact topic of your paragraph, you should ask yourself a number of questions:
Title LayoutWhat is the prompt I have been given?
If you are writing a paragraph as a response or answer to a particular prompt, such as "You have decided to donate money to charity. What is the prompt I have been given?
Which charity do you choose and why?" ," you will need to think carefully about that prompt and make sure you are directly addressing it, rather than going off topic.
What are the main ideas or issues that I need to address? Think about the topic you are being asked or have decided to write about and consider what the most relevant ideas or issues relating to that topic are. As paragraphs are usually relatively short, it is important that you try to hit on all of the main ideas, without going off topic.
Figure out how you want to structure your paragraph. Now that all of your thoughts, ideas, facts and figures are laid out clearly in front of you, you can start to think about how you want to structure your paragraph. Consider each of the points you wish to address and try to arrange them in a logical order - this will make your paragraph more coherent and easier to read.
This new order may be chronological, may put the most important information first, or may just make the paragraph easier and more interesting to read - it all depends on the topic and style of the paragraph you wish to write.
Once you have decided where you want everything to go, you can rewrite your points according to this new structure - this will help to make the writing process a lot faster and more straightforward.
The first paragraph is called the Introduction. The introduction paragraph has two main purposes:
1. It introduces the topic to prepare the reader for what you will be writing.2. It hooks the reader so that they will be interested in reading more.
The Introduction Paragraph
How do you begin to write an introduction paragraph?
1: Most essays begin with a general statement (generalization). This sentence typically acts as the topic sentence for the paragraph.2: Next, the supporting detail sentences are written to narrow the topic.3: In this first paragraph the writer must introduce the topic by making a thesis statement. A thesis statement is similar to a topic sentence. It is a general statement that tells the reader what you will be writing about. 4: The introduction should also hook the reader. This means that the introduction should draw the reader in. It should make the reader want to read more of the essay.
These 4 elements which makes the paragraph writing effective:
1: Unity. Unity in a paragraph begins with the topic sentence. Every paragraph has one single, controlling idea that is expressed in its topic sentence, which is typically the first sentence of the paragraph. A paragraph is unified around this main idea, with the supporting sentences providing detail and discussion. In order to write a good topic sentence, think about your theme and all the points you want to make. Decide which point drives the rest, and then write it as your topic sentence.
2: Order.Order refers to the way you organize your supporting sentences. Whether you choose chronological order, order of importance, or another logical presentation of detail, a solid paragraph always has a definite organization. In a well-ordered paragraph, the reader follows along easily, aided by the pattern youve established. Order helps the reader grasp your meaning and avoid confusion.
3: Coherence. coherence is the quality that makes your writing understandable. Sentences within a paragraph need to connect to each other and work together as a whole. One of the best ways to achieve coherency is to use transition words. These words create bridges from one sentence to the next. You can use transition words that show order (first, second, third); spatial relationships (above, below) or logic (furthermore, in addition, in fact). Also, in writing a paragraph, using a consistent verb tense and point of view are important ingredients for coherency.
4: Completeness. Completeness means a paragraph is well-developed. If all sentences clearly and sufficiently support the main idea, then your paragraph is complete. If there are not enough sentences or enough information to prove your thesis, then the paragraph is incomplete. Usually three supporting sentences, in addition to a topic sentence and concluding sentence, are needed for a paragraph to be complete. The concluding sentence or last sentence of the paragraph should summarize your main idea by reinforcing your topic sentence.
when you start a paragraph 5 weak words you should avoid, when u start a writing keep in mind not use that weak words which destroy the power of your work.
REALLYTHINGSI BELIVE / I THINK / I FEELWAS/IS/ARE/AMVERY
Types of Paragraphs
There are three main types of paragraphs:
The Narrative ParagraphThis type of paragraph describes one primary topic and narrates or tells its story
This topic usually involves one main event, adventure, scene, or happening
1.Start with a topic sentence that grabs the reader's attention.2.Write events in the order in which they occurred.3.Use plenty of interesting details.
The paragraph provides lots of detail but stays on topic.
Tips for Writing a Narrative Paragraph
Start your narrative paragraph with a strong topic sentence and beginning"This past weekend I had the time of my life.First, Friday night, I had my best friend over and we made a delicious, mouth-watering pizza. After we ate, we had a friendly video game competition."
When talking about the weekend, the paragraph starts with the first day.
Use transition words to move from event to event:"On Saturday, my dad took us out on the boat. The weather was perfect and the water was warm. It was a great day to go for a swim. Later that night, we went to the movies. We saw an action-packed thriller and ate a lot of popcorn."
Do you see how the bolded words move the narrative naturally from one thing to the next-
End your detailed description with a good concluding sentence:"Finally, on Sunday, we rode our bikes all over town. By the end of the day, my legs were very tired. I only hope that next weekend can be as fun as this one."
This paragraph keeps everything in order and gives lots of detail about one thing: the weekend.
The Descriptive ParagraphWhen writing this type of paragraph, you describe something with words that allow your reader almost to "see" what you're describing.
Use strong verbs and colorful adjectives in a Descriptive ParagraphVerb Examples (action words):
run, leap, shout, fly
Adjective Examples (describe nouns):
smelly, disgusting, gorgeous, radiant, brilliant, andgigantic
"Thepetite younggirl merrily skippedaround theblossoming, fragrantbushes."
"Astrong, putridodor flowedthrough themustyair outside the garbage dumpster."
Each sentence lets the reader see (and smell!) what is being described.
Sample Sentences with strong verbs and colorful adjectives:
When writing this type of paragraph, you provide information. You write it in a logical sequence so your reader can follow the ideas.
The Expository Paragraph
The topic sentence in an Expository Paragraph:This states the main idea, or what you are going to write about.
Example:"Going to college can be expensive."
Your reader knows this paragraph will be about the costs of going to college.
End with an appropriate concluding sentence:Example:"The fees required to attend college never seem to end."
This sentence ties back to the topic sentence, often by rephrasing it.
The sentence shows you where the sequence of information finally leads you.
ParagraphsCompare and contrastProblem and solutionCause and effect
Overview Of Topics
Topic vs. Main Idea
First, it is very important to recognize the difference between the topic of a reading selection and the main idea. The topic of a selection is the subject matter, what it is about. It usually is expressed in a word or phrase.
The topic of the movie Titanic is this : a love story of two lovers on the Titanic. The main idea would be what the author says about the topic, a complete sentence: The film describes the story of Jack and Rose, two lovers from radically different circumstances, who fall in love during the maiden voyage of the ship Titanic and who tragically sink with the ship.
Here is an example using a book you have probably read.
The topic of Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone is this: a boy with special skills entering a school for wizards.
1. Smoking has been proven dangerous to peoples health, yet many continue to smoke for various reasons. For young people, smoking often represents maturity and individuality. Many smoke as a way to reduce tension. In addition, the regular smoker becomes addicted psychologically and physically to the nicotine in cigarettes
Main Idea: a. Smoking has been proven dangerous to peoples health in various ways. b. Regular smokers become addicted to nicotine. c. Although smoking is dangerous, people continue doing it for various reasons. d. Nicotine is what smokers become addicted to, both psychologically and physically
Did you get the correct answer? The topic is b, Smoking. The main idea is c: Although smoking is dangerous, people continue doing it for various reasons.
There is some evidence that colors affect you physiologically. For example, when subjects are exposed to red light respiratory movements increase; exposure to blue decreases respiratory movements. Similarly, eye blinks increase in frequency when eyes are exposed to red light and decrease when exposed to blue. This seems consistent with intuitive feelings about blue being more soothing and red being more arousing. After changing a schools walls from orange and white to blue, the blood pressure of the students decreased while their academic performance improved.
What is the topic? What is the main idea? What are the details?
Main Idea vs. Supporting Detail
The topic is colours
There is some evidence that colors affect you physiologically (main idea). For example, when subjects are exposed to red light respiratory movements increase; exposure to blue decreases respiratory movements. Similarly, eye blinks increase in frequency when eyes are exposed to red light and decrease when exposed to blue. This seems consistent with intuitive feelings about blue being more soothing and red being more arousing. After changing a schools walls from orange and white to blue, the blood pressure of the students decreased while their academic performance improved. (supporting details)
Where are Useful Places to Look for the Main Idea Statement?
Topic sentence Supporting detail Supporting detail Supporting detail
Americans even differ in their preferences for munchies. The average consumer eats 21 pounds of snack foods in a year (hopefully not all at one sitting), but people in the West Central part of the country consume the most (24 pounds per person) whereas those in the Pacific and Southeast regions eat only 19 pounds per person
However, topic sentences are not always the first sentence in a paragraph. Sometimes, a topic sentence may be in the middle. Here is an example of main idea in the middle: Unlike people in the United States, who believe that different individuals have different abilities, the Japanese believe that all students have much the same innate ability and that differences in academic performance must be due to differences in effort. Therefore, the key to superior performance is hard work, which begins at an early age. Before most Japanese children even enroll in school, their parentsusually their mothershave taught them numbers, the alphabet, and some art skills. By age four, more than 90% of Japanese children are attending preschool in order to receive a head start on their education. The typical Japanese student spends six to seven hours a day in school, five full days a week and a half-day on Sunday.
Sometimes a topic sentence may be at the end of a paragraph as represented in this type of structure:
Here is an example: We can measure the radioactivity of plants and animals today and compare this with the radioactivity of ancient organic matter. If we extract a small, but precise, quantity of carbon from an ancient wooden ax handle, for example, and find it has one-half as much radioactivity as an equal quantity of carbon extracted from a living tree, then the old wood must have come from a tree that was cut down or made from a log that died 5730 years ago. In this way, we can probe into the past as much as 50,000 years to find out such things as the age of ancient civilizations or the times of the ice ages that covered the earth
Sometimes, a writer may start a paragraph with a topic sentence and restate the main idea at the end as well. The study of prehistoric humans is, of necessity, the study of fossil remains. To begin to understand who our ancestors were and what they were like, we must be able to interpret the fragments of them that are coming to the surface in increasing numbers. Given fairly reliable methods to determine their age, we can now turn with more confidence to primate fossils for an answer to the all-important question: How do we tell monkeys, apes, and humans apart? For present-day species this is no problem; all have evolved sufficiently so that they no longer resemble one another. But since they all have a common ancestor, the farther back we go in time, the more similar their fossils begin to look. There finally comes a point when they are indistinguishable. The construction of a primate fossil family tree is essential if we are ever going to discover the line of descent from early hominid to modern human.
Controlling IdeasA controlling idea limits the subject.It can express an opinion.It may suggest a list.It can provide focus by answering a question.
EXAMPLE:If you want to Create high quality Ice-Cream, you must be aware of several Precautions.The subject is making ice-creamThe controlling idea is Precautions The Paragraph will talk about taking precautions when making Ice-Cream, the subject is controlled by precautions
There are two ways to make an Ice-Cream at home.The subject is making ice-creamThe controlling idea is ways to do it This time the paragraph will talk about the ways of making your own Ice-Cream. The subject is controlled by ways.
Main Idea in Paragraphs
Main Idea in Essays
Topic sentence may be first sentence. Topic sentence may be last sentence. Topic sentence may be first sentence and also at the end. Topic sentence may be in the middle. There may not be a topic sentence. Main idea is implied
Thesis often is in the introductory paragraph. Thesis may be presented at end. Thesis may be stated in beginning of essay and also restated at the end. Thesis may be in the middle of the essay. There may not be a thesis. Main idea is implied
Implied Main Idea
It is important to recognize that you may not always find a topic sentence in each paragraph. Sometimes the main idea is implied. What this means is that there is not an explicitly stated main idea sentence but one that you, as a reader, must figure out.
How Do You Understand An Implied Main Idea?
First, identify the topic of the paragraph. What is this paragraph about? Then read carefully all the supporting details. What does the writer want you to know about the topic? How do the details connect? What larger idea do they explain? Express this idea in your own words. The implied main idea sentence must be broad enough to cover all the details in the paragraph but must not be too narrow so that some details are left out.
Let us look at an example.
Birds that roost in communities keep warmer and save more energy than those who roost separately. Another advantage to staying in flocks is that many birds are more likely to find food and detect danger than a solitary birdseveral pairs of eyes are better than one. In addition, birds that eat on the ground with their flock can more easily escape attack because at least one member of the flock will alert the others. Then, when all the birds fly upward to escape together, they cause confusion, turning a predators interest away from any one individual. Several small birds may even act together to mob a larger intruder and drive it away.
What is the implied main idea?
The texas spirit of fun nd hospitality lights up paseo del rio the san Antonio Riverwalk this festive and popular travel destination shimmers with color and light along the left bank two lines of brightly colored caf umbrellas tropical red cancun blue emerald green lemon yellow shelter outdoor diners and adorn the cobblestone walk above the rainbow rows of umbrellas white light strung between oak trees along the walking path glimmer softly in the dusk miniature white lights rim the eaves and roofs of the buildings behind the diners and illuminate the graceful drape of the oak branches bending over them diners can stay warm on cool damp evenings with spicy fajitas and salty margaritas as they watch the lights of the Riverwalk and the sunset glimmer upon the waterEXERCISEFIND THE MAIN IDEA
EDUCATION IS CONSIDERED ASD THE BASIC RIGHT OF EVERY INDIVISUAL POVERTY IS A BIG PROBLEM IN OUR SOCIETY DUE TO WHICH CHILDEREN REMAIN DEPRIVED OF EDUCATION POVERTY BADLY AFFECTS THE FUTURE OF THE CHILDEREN FIRST IT INCREASES THE ILLETRERACY RATE CHILDREN DONT GET EDUCATION FROM THE SCHOOL SO THE ILLETRA CY RATE IS RISING SECOND MOSTLY PEOPLE ARE UNEMPOLYED THEY CANNOT SEND THEIR CHILDEREN TO SCHOOL BECAUSE THEY CANNOT PAY THE FEE OF THEIR STUDIES THEY CANNOT GET ANY JOB AND THEY REMAIN UNEMPLOYED FOR A LONG TIME THIRD THE COST OF EDUCATION IS VERY HIGH BECAUSE PEOPLE CANNOT AFFORD THE EXPENSIVES OF THE SCHOOLS. THE STANDARD OF THE EDUCATION OF TRHE PRIVATE SCHOOL IS BETTER THAN GOVERNMENT SCHOOL BUT THE EXPENSIVES ARE VERY HIGH THAT A POOR ,MAN CANNOT AFFORD THEM IF THEY SEND THEIR CHILDEREN TO THE GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS THEY FAILED TO PROVIDE BETTER EDUCATION THE FUTURE OF THE CHIDREN IS BASED ON THE EDUCATION BUT THEY CANNOT GET IT AND IT AFFECTS THE LIFE OF THE CHILDREN AND ALSO THEIR FUTUREEXERCISE FIND CAUSE AND EFFECT