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Rock Solid Sametime for High Availability

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© 2013 IBM Corporation Rock Solid Sametime For High Availability BP301: Rock Solid IBM Sametime For High Availability Gabriella Davis The Turtle Partnership
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  • 1.Rock Solid Sametime For HighAvailabilityBP301: Rock Solid IBM Sametime For High AvailabilityGabriella DavisThe Turtle Partnership 2013 IBM Corporation

2. Gabriella Davis Proud Nerd GirlMathmo / Problem Solver / System Designer / Optimist ccMail & Agenda then Lotus & WASIm much older than I look Co-Author of Sametime 8.5.2 Admin GuideAvailable at all good bookshops but mostly AmazonDomino & Exchange, Sametime & Lync Server, Sharepoint Co-Author Connections101.net (being updated for Connections 4) I present a lot globally & blog in fits and starts The Turtle PartnershipHigh Level Support of IBM Lotus products 20% support, 40% system design and implementation, 40% development 50% of our customers are in Europe and 50% in the US (nothing against Australasia mindyou)2 3. Theres Nothing Sexy About High Availability Believe me I tried to get as many jokes in as I could Theres high availability and theres disaster recovery and theres load balancing and a slew of options in between Your Sametime install could be 3 servers or it could be 50 servers. Ive done both ends of the scale Build for now but design for the future Adding new servers or services later on can be a simple process if youve designed correctlyfrom the start 3 4. How This Presentation Works Theres no single right way to do this, it depends on what services are critical to you and what demand you expect for each service My goal is to take you through each Sametime service and explain how you would design each for clustering, load balancing and failover I use lots of pictures so we can all visualise what Im talking about also hand puppets I also want to talk about the cool things that you may not know happen under the hood and some things you need to be careful of Theres a lot of information here and Im going to have to go fast so grab the presentation and feel free to ask questions afterwards ! 4 5. Sametime Servers and Services Instant Messaging Web clients, mobile clients, web based awareness Meetings Audio and Video services Audio / Video reflector services (for A/V across networks) Audio / Video traffic management 5 6. Sametime System Console The SSC is the management and administration environment for all Sametime servers and services You can build without a SSC but I dont recommend it unless you love messing about withXML files The SSC is a WebSphere based application and cannot be clustered Servers within the same SSC are aware of each other The Meeting servers know about the Media servers etc There can only be one cluster of each type in a SSC One meeting cluster One sametime proxy cluster One proxy registrar cluster etc THIS IS GOING TO BE CRITICAL LATER ON WHEN WE TALK ABOUT PLANNING You cant cluster the SSC (it was worth repeating) 6 7. Database Server Several of the Sametime servers use a DB2 database for management Meetings Gateway System Console Bandwidth Manager Advanced even the Proxy server has a DB2 database it uses for iPhone traffic DB2 has several high availability models but the DB2 9.7 license supplied with your Sametime licensing entitles you to use DB2 in a HADR configuration with a single active and another passive server The switchover from active to passive is manual The passive DB2 server cannot be used or accessed but will take updates from the activeserver and can itself be made the active server at any time Without HADR you could lose your DB2 server Instant Messaging, Audio and Video as well as Web / Mobile clientswill continue to work 7 8. Edge Load Balancer Licensed for use with Sametime Very easy to deploy and configure on a wide range of platforms with a GUI interface for management Always use the new ULB IPV4/IPV6 load balancer and not the older IPV4 one which is being deprecated To set up a server for load balancing you need to Assign a virtual ip address that can be used by each cluster of servers and that points to theULB machine So if youre load balancing Meetings, Sametime Proxy, Conference Manager, Proxy Registrar, Packet Switcher and TURN server you need 6 separate unique virtual ips all pointing to the load balancer Create a Loopback adapter on your backend servers (ie your Meeting, Media etc servers)configured to use the virtual ip address Create routing rules in the ULB (Edge Load Balancer) wizard to forward traffic to the backendservers 8 9. Load Balancer - Tips You can use any load balancer to manage traffic to the Meeting, Sametime Proxy, Gateway, Advanced and Community Servers but the Audio / Video components must be configured to use MAC forwarding For many load balancer appliances thats a network wide configuration setting that administrators dont like to do (I have been told this many times :-)) In those cases you could deploy the Edge LB to handle the A/V traffic To configure a loopback adapter on Windows 2008 you need to go to Device Manager and right mouse click on the server name then choose Add Legacy Hardware - you can then go ahead and add a loopback network adapter by choosing Microsoft as the provider There are specific network configuration settings that need to be run on a Windows 2008server to set up the loopback adapter correctly http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg21304795 9 10. Domino Clustering What does Domino clustering give us in a Sametime world? vpuserinfo (contact list and privacy information) replicated between servers in seconds directory information replicated between servers, if you set it up correctly Beware of using a replica of Directory Assistance on multiple servers without proper configuration dont cluster stconfig.nsf, its information is server specific It cant replicate Sametime specific information such as policies (which are held in stconfig.nsf and business card configuration which is held in the file userinfoconfig.xml)10 11. Domino Clustering for Sametime - Tips If youre running the Sametime System Console, it controls Sametime configuration settings in stconfig.nsf including policies, trusted ips and LDAP configuration Changing the LDAP deployment in the SSC will cause it to overwrite the LDAP settings in stconfig.nsf when Domino next restarts but only once, if you then edit it the LDAP document in stconfig.nsf via Notes, it wont beoverwritten Make sure you edit the LDAP and Policies documents always in the same place - the SSC,dont be tempted to quickly edit a Notes document in stconfig.nsf as the settings may not hold11 12. Domino Clustering for Sametime - Weirdness If you have multiple LDAP configurations in stconfig.nsf the priority is NOT the Search Order as defined on the LDAP document but is the order in which the LDAP documents appear in the view (by modified date).This priority determines which directory is searched first when finding contacts To ensure this doesnt happen youll need to change the design of the All - by form and date view in stconfig.nsf to sort LDAP documents by Search Order fieldThe search order says that we want thisdirectory searched 2nd but because it was modified most recently, it will be searched first 13. Sametime Clustering What does Sametime Clustering give us? The Community Server is central to everything Sametime does. None of the other components function without a Community server to talk to This makes clustering and availability of Community servers the most important component inyour design Users can log on to any Community server in the cluster and expect the same experience Assuming you have your Domino clustering and Sametime customisation set up correctly vpuserinfo.nsf replicating sametime.ini with same settings userinfoconfig.xml the same LDAP configuration in stconfig.nsf the same Other Sametime components such as the Sametime Proxy or Meeting servers will be able torecognise a cluster mate as a failover alternative13 14. Sametime Clustering - Tips Verify Sametime.ini settings such as security level and allowable clients match on all cluster-mates VPS_ALLOWED_LOGIN_TYPES VP_ONLY_SINGLE_LOGIN_ALLOWED VP_SECURITY_LEVEL Dont have one cluster server running a different version of Sametime than its other cluster-mates Users with no Sametime Server defined in their person document have no home Sametime server and can log into any server in the Community (ie in the Domino Directory)Users with a cluster name in the Sametime Server field in the person document can log into another server in the clusterUse an LDAP attribute to store the home Sametime server name or cluster name for a user so its accessible to other products such as Connections The sametime server name should be in hierarchical format eg cn=st1,o=turtlehost or as acluster name cn=stcluster 14 15. Sametime Clustering - Weirdness Trusted ips in the stconfig.nsf determine what servers can connect to this Sametime server These might be other Sametime servers or Domino servers using iNotes or Sametime Proxyservers or Meeting or Media servers The list can get pretty long The list of ips is updated in the Sametime System Console if you have one and this overwrites the configuration document in stconfig.nsf Dont edit the list in stconfig.nsf if you are running a SSC as your edits will be overwritten One bug I continually see is when the trusted ips list in the SSC gets very long, it writes out to the Community Trusted IPs field in the Community Connectivity document as a long string instead of a list This breaks all trusted ip connections You can open and save the Notes document to fix it, saving recalculates the field correctly asa list It will break again next time you update the SSC15 16. Community Multiplexors - Multiple Multiplexors! The Community Multiplexor (MUX) is a service running as part of your Sametime Community Server Its responsible for authenticating users and connecting them to the back end Sametimeservices In a standard install the MUX runs as a service on the Community Server You can install a Community MUX separately from the Community server to offload theauthentication and client network connections to another machine The MUX maintains a single network connection to the Sametime Community Serverincreasing the capacity of the server to 100k concurrent users A MUX can be used to front-end multiple servers in a cluster, the assumption being that users can connect to any and all of the listed servers The sametime.ini file in a MUX contains a list of servers it can connect to [Config] VPMX_CAPACITY=80000 [Connectivity] VPS_HOST=stchat1.turtlehost.net,stchat2.turtlehost.net, stchat3.turtlehost.net16 17. Community Multiplexors - Tips You dont have to have a separate multiplexor and if youre going to only have one it itself becomes a single point of failure It used to be that that MUXs were dumb in that they would round robin connections to their known servers, trying each one in turn, even if that server is down Thats no longer the case and the MUXs are now service aware and will not route traffic tounavailable servers They have become load balancers for Sametime Community Server traffic Everything in Sametime world pivots around DNS and fully qualified hostnames, the hostname your Sametime clients ask for must eventually resolve to a Multiplexor somewhere If you have multiple multiplexors you will therefore need to use a load balancer to make suretraffic isnt sent to a non responding multiplexor17 18. So What Does It All Look Like?18 19. Instant Messaging (Sametime Clients) Clustering Sametime servers clustered, users can access either server but the FQHN defined in their client connections will determine here they end up There is no failover in the Sametime clientDomino Cluster Domino Server A Domino Server B Sametime Cluster Sametime Server Sametime Serverstchat1.connect13.com stchat2.connect13.com19 20. Instant Messaging (Sametime Clients) Failover Load Balancer in front of Clustered Domino servers Users are directed to either server and get the same experienceLoad Balancerstchat.connect13.com Domino ClusterDomino Server A Domino Server BSametime ClusterSametime Server Sametime Server stchat1.connect13.com stchat2.connect13.com20 21. Instant Messaging (Sametime Clients) Failover Use a Multiplexor instead of a Load Balancer in front of your Sametime cluster and take advantage of the failover logic built into it Define multiple servers in the sametime.ini file in the Multiplexor Sametime Multiplexor stchat.connect13.comDomino Cluster Domino Server A Domino Server B Sametime Cluster Sametime Server Sametime Serverstchat1.connect13.com stchat2.connect13.com21 22. Instant Messaging (Sametime Clients) Failover If you dont want your multiplexor to be a single point of failure then put multiple multiplexors behind a load balancer. The client configuration FQHN points to the load balancer and the multiplexors connect to either Community serverLoad Balancerstchat.connect13.comSametime MultiplexorSametime Multiplexor stmux1.connect13.comstmux2.connect13.com Domino ClusterDomino Server A Domino Server BSametime ClusterSametime Server Sametime Server stchat1.connect13.com stchat2.connect13.com22 23. Instant Messaging (Web and Mobile) Clustering Multiple Community Servers Single Sametime Proxy Server Sametime Proxy Server can be directed to a single Community Server but can and will utilise any Community server it is trusted for in your Domino Directory Sametime Proxy ServerIBM WAS HTTP Proxy stproxy.connect13.com (80/443)Sametime Community ServersNot Necessarily Clusteredstchat1.connect13.com stchat2.connect13.com stchat3.connect13.comstchat4.connect13.com23 24. Instant Messaging (Web and Mobile) Clustering Clustered Community Servers Single Sametime Proxy ServersSametime Proxy Server IBM WAS HTTP Proxy stweb.connect13.com (80/443)Sametime Community Servers CLUSTERED stchat1.connect13.comstchat2.connect13.com stchat3.connect13.com24 25. Instant Messaging (Web and Mobile) Failover Clustered Community Servers Multiple Sametime Proxy Servers (not clustered) Load BalancerLoad BalancerSametime Proxy Server Sametime Proxy ServerIBM WAS HTTP ProxyIBM WAS HTTP Proxystweb1.connect13.com (80/443) stweb2.connect13.com (80/443)Sametime Community Servers CLUSTERED stchat1.connect13.comstchat2.connect13.comstchat3.connect13.com25 26. WebSphere Clustering Each Sametime server (other than the Community Server) is installed on a WebSphere node. Each node must have a single primary instance but can have multiple secondary instances installed as part of a cluster in either Horizontal (servers installed on different machines) Vertical (servers installed on the same machine but uses their own dedicated resources) WebSphere has built in logic to share resources across Sametime servers in a cluster You dont have to configure it to do that BUT, the Sametime System Console can only manage 1 cluster of each server type26 27. WebSphere - Tips Attempting to deploy multiple applications on a single server is a very bad idea Each application (Meetings, Media etc) must have its own FQHN and dedicated ip address To ensure WebSphere binds the correct ip address to the correct application (and avoids port conflicts with other applications already installed) you have to explicitly edit the underlying XML files to creating the hostname bindings Even then WebSpheres will bind the bootstrap port to the first ip address on the box Weve also discovered that all traffic sent from any of the servers has a source ip of the first ip on the box (Windows 2008 R2) In general its to be avoided. It can be done but Virtual Machines is a far cleaner, easier and more reliable way to go27 28. WAS Proxy Clustering The WebSphere WAS Proxy server can act as both a HTTP or SIP proxy to sit in front of your Sametime servers Each Sametime server installs on its own application port (default is 9081 / 9043 secure but that will increment by one for every other server installed on the same machine that conflicts) We dont want to construct URLs that have port numbers in them so for HTTP services we use a WAS HTTP Proxy server in front of the Sametime application to manage the traffic on port 80 /443 secure They are cluster aware, able to identify when an application server is unavailable and redirect the traffic to that servers cluster mate which provides built in failover The WAS Proxy is often installed on the same node and server as the application server it is managing but that doesnt have to be the case, it can install standalone28 29. WAS HTTP Proxy - Tip The WAS HTTP Proxy is much more than a reverse proxy It is part of the Sametime System Console and will authenticate users before directing thetraffic onto a single destination - the application server it is supporting A reverse proxy doesnt have the same intelligence to validate that traffic should be allowedthrough and should only be allowed through to a specific destination We primarily use WAS HTTP Proxies with Meeting and Sametime Proxy servers You can have multiple WAS HTTP Proxies providing service to the same application server You can cluster WAS HTTP Proxies and then they will also monitor each other Dont create WAS HTTP Proxies with the SIP checkbox enabled, we use SIP for Audio / Video traffic and it can cause conflicts in the environment with other servers if you leave it enabled29 30. Meeting Server Clustering Meeting Servers can be clustered in Sametime by installing a single server as a primary node and then a series of secondary nodes either on the same machine (vertical clustering) or, more usually, on multiple machines (horizontal clustering) All Meeting servers in a cluster share the same DB2 database In a Meeting server cluster WebSphere treats all the servers as equal When a user creates a meeting WebSphere will decide which of the Meeting servers will host that meeting This is very important as all users attending the meeting will be directed to the same hostmeeting server it is outside of your control to determine which server will be selected30 31. Meeting Server Clustering - Tips If you build a Meeting Server cluster with servers in France, Singapore and Chicago - a meeting of users in Chicago could just as easily be directed to France WebSphere will choose which cluster-mate hosts each meeting when the meeting is firstcreated The WAS HTTP Proxy will be able to detect if the host meeting server is down and redirect all user requests to an alternate server by rewriting the URL Dont create a meeting server cluster with one server inside a firewall and one outside unless you are prepared to open ports to allow public access to your internal servers Consider your network architecture when designing your meeting servers, if you want multiple clusters you will need to have multiple System Consoles The Community Server a user logs in to determines their environment from SSC to Meeting, and Media Servers but users can log into different environments depending on where they are31 32. Meetings Multiple Servers Three Meeting Servers, all independent, none clustered, each with their own DB2 database (and different DB2 servers if you want) Meetings will be created on a specific server as determined by the user creating the meeting where do you want to create this meeting The WAS HTTP Proxies are to ensure servers are accessible on 80 /443Sametime Meeting Servers stmeet1.connect13.com DB2Active ServerIBM WAS HTTP ProxySTMeet Database(s) stmeet2.connect13.comIBM WAS HTTP ProxyDB2 Passive Server STMeet Database(s) stmeet3.connect13.comIBM WAS HTTP Proxy32 33. Meetings Clustering Three Meeting Servers, this time in a cluster Meetings are created on any of the three servers, determined by WebSphere and outside of user control The WAS HTTP Proxies can proxy traffic for only one server each Its your decision if you want to separate servers and proxies onto their own machines, you dont have to Sametime Clustered Meeting Serversstmeet1.connect13.comDB2Active ServerSTMeet Database(s)stmeet2.connect13.comstmeet3.connect13.com DB2Passive ServerSTMeet Database(s)IBM WAS HTTP Proxystmeet.connect13.com IBM WAS HTTP Proxy stmeet.connect13.comIBM WAS HTTP Proxy33stmeet.connect13.com 34. Meetings Failover With the WAS HTTP Proxies themselves clustered together, each one can provide service for any of the Meeting servers that are clusteredClustered Meeting Serversstmeet1.connect13.com DB2 Active Server STMeet Database(s)stmeet2.connect13.comstmeet3.connect13.comDB2 Passive Server STMeet Database(s)Cluster WAS Proxy ServersIBM WAS HTTP Proxystmeet.connect13.comIBM WAS HTTP Proxystmeet.connect13.com Load Balancer34 35. Media Manager Media Manager - contains all media components (other than Bandwidth Manager) Conference Manager Proxy Registrar Packet Switcher Up to two Media Managers can be clustered, but only two and only one cluster in a SSCSametime Media ServersCLUSTERED stmedia1.connect13.com stmedia2.connect13.com35 36. WAS SIP Proxy When deploying a Proxy Registrar or Conference Manager as standalone components, each needs to have a dedicated WAS SIP Proxy server to handle traffic between the servers themselves and to / from the clients WAS SIP Proxies arent clustered and are deployed usually in a 1 - 1 relationship with the application server However any of the servers can provide Audio / Video service to users so it doesnt matterwhich server a request is directed to The Packet Switcher component cannot be clustered and does not require a WAS SIP Proxy When creating a new WAS Proxy server for Audio / Video components you deselect HTTP and select SIP to tell the newly created server it will be handling SIP traffic only WAS SIP Proxies deploy on the standard ports of 5062 (SIP) and 5063 (SIPS). These may be incremented by 1 if there is conflicting port activity on the same server36 37. Audio Video Components - Clustered Some Individual components can be clustered Proxy Registrar Conference Manager Packet Switchers cant be clustered but there can be multiple PS instances SIP Proxies must be installed in front of the Proxy Registrar and Conference Managers Sametime Media ComponentsCLUSTEREDConference Manager Cluster stcm1.connect13.com IBM WAS SIP Proxy stcm.connect13.comMultiple Packet Switchers(NON CLUSTERED) stcm2.connect13.com stps1.connect13.comstps1.connect13.com stps1.connect13.comProxy Registrar Cluster IBM WAS SIP Proxystpr1.connect13.com stpr.connect13.comstpr2.connect13.com37 38. Audio Video Components - Failover In this design I have clustered the SIP Proxies so they provide failover for each other via a Load Balancer This isnt strictly necessary if you have a Load Balancer in front as it should be able to detect an unavailable SIP Proxy and redirect the user requests accordinglySametime Media Components CLUSTEREDConference Manager Cluster SIP Cluster IBM WAS SIP Proxy stcm1.connect13.com stcmsip1.connect13.comMultiple Packet Switchers IBM WAS SIP Proxy (NON CLUSTERED) stcmsip1.connect13.com stcm2.connect13.comstps1.connect13.com stps1.connect13.comSIP Cluster stps1.connect13.comProxy Registrar Cluster IBM WAS SIP Proxystpr1.connect13.comstprsip1.connect13.com IBM WAS SIP Proxystpr2.connect13.comstprsip1.connect13.com38Load Balancer 39. Audio Video Failover - With Bandwidth Manager Bandwidth Manager should be deployed in any environment where there is a significant requirement for Audio / Video or where the user network is not consistent The Bandwidth Manager cannot be installed in the same cell as the Media components because of conflicts with their SIP configurationSametime Media Components Bandwidth Manager CLUSTERED Cluster SIP ClusterSeparate CellConference Manager Cluster IBM WAS SIP Proxy stcm1.connect13.com stcmsip1.connect13.comMultiple Packet Switchers BWM Cluster IBM WAS SIP Proxy (NON CLUSTERED) stcmsip1.connect13.comstbwm1 stcm2.connect13.comstps1.connect13.com stps1.connect13.com stbwm2SIP Cluster stps1.connect13.comProxy Registrar Cluster IBM WAS SIP Proxystpr1.connect13.comstprsip1.connect13.comSIP Cluster WAS SIP Proxy IBM WAS SIP Proxystbwmsip1stpr2.connect13.comstprsip1.connect13.com WAS SIP Proxystbwmsip2 Load Balancer39 40. Sametime Advanced Sametime Advanced can also be deployed as a cluster of multiple servers Each cluster-mate will use the same DB2 database We dont deploy a WAS HTTP Proxy with Sametime Advanced because although many of the applications are on HTTP ports (9080 / 9443), the Broadcast Tools are on ports that cannot be proxied (1883, 8883) Since we cant use a proxy in front of Sametime Advanced servers, if you want to access them from a public network, they must be located in a DMZ or somewhere you are confident exposing to a public interfacePublic DMZ Internal Clustered Advanced Serversstadv1.connect13.comDB2 Active Server STMeet Database(s)stadv2.connect13.com Load Balancer40 41. TURN Servers TURN Server handle audio and video traffic being redirected between clients on different networks Similar to the old reflector service on pre 8.5 Sametime The TURN Server is defined by its hostname in the configuration of the Media Components in the SSC A user is assigned media components based on which Community server and therefore SSCenvironment they log into Meetings dont use the TURN server You can have as many TURN servers as you want fronted by a Load Balancer users involved in a conference dont need to be on the same TURN server41 42. TURN Server - Tip If you deploy TURN configuration on your Media servers then the FQHN you use for the TURN server has to be resolvable for all clients, both internal and external Multiple TURN servers on different networks can cause Audio and Video latency issues if the users involved in a conference are directed to different TURN servers such as one internal and one in a DMZ All users must be able to access the TURN server on port 3478 either UDP or TCP (whichever youve configured) UDP is more efficient than TCP for routing this type of traffic42 43. Public Access, Firewalls and DMZ The biggest issue you may find with deploying high availability Sametime is in deciding how access will work If youre prepared to deploy a VPN to all users then you are basically building an internal only environment If you want to deploy publicly then there are a few things to consider In the DMZ we deploy the WAS proxy elements only ie the WAS HTTP Proxy that thenaccesses the Meeting servers on the internal network WebSphere has about 20 ports that need to be bi-drectionally open between the SSC and allother server components, even those in the DMZ In addition each server has to be able to connect to each other on discovery ports, there areabout 10 of those that need to be open and accessible between every server in theenvironment For public access both the Sametime Gateway and Sametime Advanced applications must bein the DMZ as their traffic cant be proxied Think about how iPad, Android, Smartphone access will work - will have need to have WAS HTTP Proxies to the Sametime Proxy servers in the DMZ to support them? For notifications to iOS devices youll also need to open access to the apple gateway43 44. Thank You ! Gabriella Davis [email protected] blog.turtleweb.com www.twitter.com/gabturtle bleedyellow.com (IM) lotuslive.com (IM) greenhouse.com (IM) gabrielladavis (skype) www.turtlepartnership.com44 45. Legal Disclaimer IBM Corporation 2009. All Rights Reserved.The information contained in this publication is provided for informational purposes only. While efforts were made to verify the completeness and accuracy of the information contained in this publication, it is providedAS IS without warranty of any kind, express or implied. In addition, this information is based on IBMs current product plans and strategy, which are subject to change by IBM without notice. IBM shall not beresponsible for any damages arising out of the use of, or otherwise related to, this publication or any other materials. Nothing contained in this publication is intended to, nor shall have the effect of, creating anywarranties or representations from IBM or its suppliers or licensors, or altering the terms and conditions of the applicable license agreement governing the use of IBM software.References in this presentation to IBM products, programs, or services do not imply that they will be available in all countries in which IBM operates. Product release dates and/or capabilities referenced in thispresentation may change at any time at IBMs sole discretion based on market opportunities or other factors, and are not intended to be a commitment to future product or feature availability in any way. Nothingcontained in these materials is intended to, nor shall have the effect of, stating or implying that any activities undertaken by you will result in any specific sales, revenue growth or other results.IBM, the IBM logo, Lotus, Lotus Notes, Notes, Domino, Quickr, Sametime, WebSphere, UC2, PartnerWorld and Lotusphere are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States,other countries, or both. Unyte is a trademark of WebDialogs, Inc., in the United States, other countries, or both.IJava and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both.Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.45


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