Centre for Higher Education Transformation
Bergen, June 2012
• Reflecting on the role of academics/intellectuals in the struggle (Habermas) • Muller and Cloete. 1987. The white hands: academic social scientists,
engagement and struggle in South Africa'. Social Epistemology, 1,2, 141-154• Cloete and Muller. 1991. Social scientists and social change in South Africa.
International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 28, 3-4, 171-192.• Muller and Cloete. 1993. Out of Eden: modernity, post-apartheid and
intellectuals. Theory, Culture and Society, 10, 3, 155-172
• From protest to policy• National Education Crisis Committee (Wikipedia – Internal resistance to
apartheid (1987)• Education policy units (Wits, Natal , UWC- 1989 – activists on campus ) • National Education Policy Investigation (NEPI) – restructuring SA higher
education started with NEPI (web) • Union of Democratic University Staff Associations -1991(back to the street• UDUSA Policy Forum (1993) – prepared for NCHE• National Commission For Higher Education – Mandela appointed participatory
policy framework 2
History/Development of Approach
• Capacity building without a theory – Strengthening HE Governance (1997) (building the boat on the sea)
• Reviewing first 5 years of post Apartheid HE (2001) – performance indicators
• Policy formation has been SA local/Global (Manuel Castells – The Rise of the Network Society , 2000)
• Finding the rest of Africa – Higher Education Research and Advocacy Network in Africa (HERANA) (2009)
Chet - Capacity building vs research policy
• Loosely and tightly coupled networks • High profile Board, two person office, outsourced services (pay for
services) and commissioned experts (academics work for little – no consultants – must be employed elsewhere) and designated project managers
• Service providers• Publishing: Compress/African Minds• News: University World News• Events: Millennium Travel• IT: Tenet• Financial Support services: CHEC
• Construct research programmes with historical/new networks – local and global
• Connect capacity building – empirical research - training - advocacy • See Herana slide
Networked Higher Education Policy InvestigationS
1. Evidence-based: e.g. HERANA
HERANAHigher Education Research & Advocacy Network
Higher Education and DevelopmentInvestigating the complex relationships between higher education and economic development, and student democratic attitudes in Africa
The Research-Policy NexusInvestigating the relationship between research evidence and policy-making in selected public policy sectors in South Africa
University World News (Africa)Current news and in-depth investigations into higher education in Africa
The HERANA GatewayAn internet portal to research on higher education in Africa
Nordic Masters in Africa (NOMA)Collaborative research training by the Universities of Oslo, Makerere, Western Cape, and CHET
FUNDERSCarnegie, Ford, Rockefeller, Kresge, DFID, Norad
• Seminars are strategically inclusive• 10 to 15 seminars per annum over 1 or 2 days• includes multiple system levels, i.e. supra-national, government, university
management, academics, funders• Includes experts, university representatives and policy-makers
• Informational Development and Human Development: Creative Synergy or Mutual Destruction (August 2010)• Participants – Castells, 2 NEC members of ANC (coordinator of policy), 3
academic economists who advise minsters or Presidency, Deputy Director General of Budget in Treasury, 2 serious capitalists (Africa’s richest woman), 2 VC’s, 2 environmentalists ( SANBI), 2 ICT (researcher and director general), 6 academics and a political commentator (Mbeki’s brother)
• Main outcomes: why ICT failed and R300million grant to Sanbi
• Differentiation: Diversity and Stratification (January 2012) ◦ 7 senior officials from DHET, 1 National Development Plan (Presidency), 1
Higher Education SA, 3 university directors of planning, 8 Chet network◦ Outcome: DHET ask Chet to organize Differentiation Implementation meeting
Seminars and presentations
CHET website : www.chet.org.za
• “Covert and overt political and ideological agendas will always be there, but data is the starting point for a dialogue
• Leads to “empirical independence” of the organisation rather than it being an ideological hand-maiden (of government or others)
• CHET adds value to raw data collected by government and/or universities by cleaning, verifying and analysing source data
• Data is made public and focused presentations are made to government on key issues (e.g. differentiation; doctoral output, etc.) as well to the universities
• In doing so CHET • fills the capacity void in the ministry of HE and in many of the universities’
planning departments• provides government and institutions with an empirically-based picture of
post-secondary education in South Africa
Relentless reliance on data rather than ideology
Data on South African HE
Data beyond South African context
News: University World News
1. UWN Special Africa editions and fortnightly Africa newsletters
launched in 2008 in collaboration with the HERANA project.
2. More than 27 000 people in 150 countries receiving the weekly
3. Of UWN’s total of 27 026 registered readers, 13 280 receive the
4. More than 6 000 of UWN’s readers are based in Africa, in 29
(Figures as at December 2010)
Announcements: launches, conferences, mailings
Origins and Goals of HEMA
HEMA Higher Education Masters in Africa programme
Builds on previous masters programmes at UWC, UIO and MU
Main goal: “to build research capacity and expertise in higher education studies in Africa”
Research-focused degree Targeted at current and future researchers,
policy makers, managers with interest in higher education in Africa
Higher Education Master in Africa (HEMA) programme
Semester 1 2 3 4 5 6
Location UiO UWC Home country / field work UWC / Home country
Doing course work
Proposal & instrument development
Conducting field work
Exam (by Thesis)
HEMA degree programme structure
HEMA Programme Description of ComponentMaster’s Dissertation Compulsory; counts 100% of your overall assessment.
You have to write a dissertation of 40,000 words under the supervision of academics attached to HEMA
HEMA Introduction to Higher Education Studies @ University of Oslo
Compulsory course; counts towards academic progress (credits certified by UiO); Introduction to the field of higher education studies
HEMA Higher Education & Development @ UWC
Compulsory course; counts towards academic progress; in-depth introduction into the history of higher education in Africa and the nexus of higher education and (economic, political, social) development in Africa.
HEMA Research Design & Methods @ UWC
Compulsory course; counts towards academic progress; introduces students to the basic steps and the practical methods of conducting empirical research, along with the development of a research proposal.
CHET Dialogue Series & HERANA Workshops
Highly recommended; opportunities to engage with African and inter-national HE researchers; workshops on specific HERANA projects
Higher Education Seminar Series at CSHE @ UWC
Highly recommended; seminar presentations and discussions on current research topics in HE.
Education Postgraduate Students’ Methodology & PET Workshops
Highly recommended; weekly sessions on research methods and proposal development jointly with Master’s and Doctoral candidates of the Faculty of Education & Workshops organised by PET on Social Research Methods.
HEMA Degree Programme at UWC
Cohort 1: Jan. 2008 (10 students) Cohort 2: Aug. 2009 (6 students) Cohort 3: Aug. 2011 (5 students)
5 graduates (2 cum laude)
Picture: Cohort 3 at University of Oslo (Helga Engs Huis), August, 2011.Randall, Ntimi, Lineo, Thierry (coord.), Theo, Agnes.
Cohort 1 (started January 2008)Graduated:
Samuel N. FONGWA, Cameroon - Contribution of Higher Education to Regional Socio-economic Development: A case study of the University of Buea in the Fako Region, Cameroon (2010, cum laude)
Angolwisye M. MWOLLO-NTALLIMA, Tanzania - Higher Education and Democracy:A study of students’ and student leaders’ attitudes towards democracy in Tanzania (2011, cum laude)
Hanitra RASOANAMPOIZINA, Madagascar – HE Policy changes in Madagascar and the Government’s Approach to Steering these Changes During the Last Two Decades (1990-2008) (2011)
Pam WATSON, South Africa - Contextual and Policy Positioning of Higher Education for Development: a Comparative Study of two Southern African Countries (2011)
Francois VAN SCHALKWYK, South Africa - Responsiveness and its Institutionalisation in Higher Education (graduated 2011)
Biko GWENDO, Kenya - Human Capital Formation in Kenya; the Interconnectedness Between the State, Higher Education Institutions and the Labour Market
Jennifer Sarah HUGOW, South Africa - The Dynamics of Policy Implementation: How Internal Visions Shape Faculty Responses To Steering In South African higher education
Nita CHIVWARA, Malawi - Governance of Higher Education Demand And Supply In Malawi
Wanangwe D. WANJIKU, Kenya - The Provision of Access and Skills Development by Private Universities in Kenya
HEMA Students: Dissertations & Progress (1)
Cohort 2 (started August 2009) Daniel CHIHOMBORI, Zimbabwe –Cost-Sharing in Higher Education Financing in Zimbabwe,
1957-2009: A Historiography (Proposal)
Lucky KGOSITHEBE, Botswana – Higher Education and Democracy: Attitudes and behaviours of students and student leaders towards democracy in Botswana (Data Analysis)
Domingos Jaime LANGA, Mozambique – Understanding the process of defining the roles of public universities in Mozambique: The cases of Eduardo Mondlane University and Pedagogical University (Editing final)
Doreen Nakasaga LWANGA, Uganda – Investigating the extent to which Institutionalization of Donor Funding Strengthens the Academic Core at Makerere University Kampala (Proposal)
Keitumetse Gofaone LEBOTSE, Botswana - Organisational assessment of the Tertiary Education Council in Botswana (Data Analysis)
Refiloe Moratuoa MOHLAKOANA, South Africa - Students’ Experiences of the Work-Study Programme at the University of the Western Cape (Data Collection and Analysis)
HEMA Students: Dissertations & Progress (1I)
Cohort 3 (started August 2011) Lineo KOLOSOA, Lesotho – (Proposal) Responding to challenges of knowledge production in
Southern Africa: the comparison of Botswana and Lesotho
Randall Stephen LANGE, South Africa – (Proposal) Student engagement with Citizenship at UCT: The contribution of curricular, co-curricular and community involvement
Agnes LUTOMIAH, Kenya - (Proposal) An examination of incentive and reward structures for knowledge production : the case of the University of Nairobi
Ntimi MTAWA, Tanzania – (Proposal) Knowledge Connectivity, Academic Core and Pact in Community Engagement: The models of Sokoine University of Agriculture inTanzania and Stellenbosh University in South Africa
HEMA Students: Dissertations & Progress (1II)
Next Cohorts / Plans Planned Master’s Intake 2013 (Cohort 4)
Planned Extension of HEMA to a Doctoral Programme (HE – PhD)
Other plans: HEMA Summer School 2013; Post-doctoral Fellows
HEMA Evaluation Survey 2011 - Objectives
Conduct a critical and holistic self-evaluation of the current operation of the HEMA programme at UWC
Evaluating the programme against the goals of HEMA and NOMA
Review of programme documents Survey staff and student perceptions and
experiences (Conduct in-depth interviews with staff and
students; - still to be completed).23
Conceptualisation and Methodology Is the HEMA programme achieving its main
objective of increasing higher education research capacity and producing a new generation of HE researchers in Africa?
Formative evaluation improvement focus Critically reflexive practice subjectivity! Asking pertinent questions about:
Programme structure Student and staff experiences Research training, course work, supervision,
management, Quality and outcomes Resourcing and programme sustainability
NB. Qualitative dimension still to be completed (in-depth interviews with students and staff) 24
Student respondents by
Cohort 1: 6 (of 10) Cohort 2: 5 (of 6) Cohort 3: 5 (of 5)
by international mix
by gender: Males: 10 (of 10) Females: 6 (of 11)
Student respondents to HEMA survey
13 staff respondents◦ permanent and part-
time teaching staff.◦ 10 academic, 3 admin
All academic staff/tutors have PhD or are PhD candidates (4).
2 professors of HE Studies
Lect/Doc Admin Lect/Posdoc prof lect0
2 2 2
Staff respondents to HEMA survey
Goal Achievement: Programme OverallIs the HEMA programme achieving its main goal of building research capacity and expertise in higher education in Africa?
• Almost all staff respondent are very positive about• the achievement; half of student respondents DK
Agree/ strongly agree It's too early to tell / Don't know
Disagree/ strongly disagree0
Cohort 1 and 2Academic staffAdmin staff
Quality: Programme OverallOn the whole, how would you rate the academic quality of the HEMA programme?
• Therefore: very positive overall evaluations.• All except one student and all academic staff say they would
recommend the programme to students.
1 02 1 0
Cohort 1 and 2Academic staffAdmin staff
Research trainingLearning outcomes: Are students successfully acquiring key research skills through HEMA?
SupervisionIs the co-supervision model a strength or a weakness?
Responses from senior students and staff are mixed on the merits of the co-supervision model.
It's a strength Neither a strength nor weakness
It's a weakness0
Cohorts 1 and 2Academic staff
Student-Supervisors relationshipHow do students perceive their relationship with their supervisors?
Most students perceive their supervisors in a very positive light; while supervisors themselves are more critical of their ‘empathy’, expertise etc.
Supervisors are well-engaged in
Supervisors have empathy
Supervisors have expertise in my
Supervisors give timely comments
4 4 4
Students (cohorts 1 & 2)
Relevance of CourseworkIs the HEMA course work / seminars at UiO/UWC relevant to prepare students for research?
Most students (8 of 11) and academic staff (6 of 9) indicate that they consider the course work relevant.
Agree/ strongly agree
Neither agree nor disagree
Disagree/ strongly disagree
0Cohort 1 & 2Academic staff
Quality of Course materialIs the HEMA course material and additional academic resources of high quality?
• All student respondents considered course material as “excellent” or “good with minor problems”;
• Some academic staff (5) answered they “don’t know” while the other three academic staff respondents also consider course material and additional academic resources to be of high quality.
Excellent/ good with minor problems Don't know0
5 Cohort 1 and 2Academic staff
Presenting, publishing and networking
Presenting & publishingas learning opportunitiesand outcomes?
Are HEMA network links considered asstrengths of the programme?
HERANA CHET UWC Broader Network
108 8 8
Present to students
Present to academics/
Write/ co-write conference/
Publish online (e.g. ahero)
Publish in peer reviewed journal(s)
1 1 1 1
Where to from here?
Expected graduate destinations
Some possible improvements
Add PhD Programme From Full Thesis to Coursework & Minithesis
Summary and Conclusions• HEMA programme seems to be doing well overall &
quality from staff and student perspective (self-evaluation)
• Staff seems to be more critical than students• Research training overall seems to be working (key
skills)• Need to look at
• Overall programme structure / examination• Co-supervision model • Financial sustainability & resourcing• Look at partnerships• Institutionalisation in academic core of UWC is NB.
• Regular review and continued reflection• Track graduate destinations • Consider developing a Doctoral-level programme
University of the Western CapeCentre for the Study of Higher EducationDr Thierry M. Luescher-Mamashela Coordinator HEMA 2012