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Top down process

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  • 1. TOP-DOWN Aini Mijah Fatin Yani

2. The top-down model looks at the readers knowledge base and his or her ability to make predictions using this base. The reader has the use of the printed text only to confirm and/or generate new hypotheses. (Lipson & Wixson, 1991). 3. TOP-DOWN reading process is a reverse of the bottom-up model reading is conceptually driven Readers use their background knowledge to make predictions as they read the text 4. MODEL OF TEXT PROCESSING past experience, language intuitions and expectations selective aspects of print Meaning sound, pronunciation if necessary (Cambroune, 1979) 5. that the model emphasises the reconstruction of meaning rather than the decoding of form. The interaction of the text is central to the process and the reader brings to this interaction his/her knowledge of the subject at hand, his/her knowledge and expectations about how language works, interest, motivation and attitude towards the subject or content of the text top-down model also employs a linear text processing approach. This model is also known as inside-out model, concept- driven model and whole-to- part model. 6. PURPOSES OF TOP-DOWN encourages students to focus more on understanding the main ideas of a passage than understanding every word if students do not understand each word, they are likely to grasp the meaning of a text as a whole encourages students to rely on their own knowledge and use context clues to understand new concepts or words help pupil determine what pronunciation was correct in a particular text. 7. allows students choose books to read based on their own interests New readers will begin to understand new vocabulary and increase reading fluency as they read engaging and interesting books. Teachers will encourage readers to develop speaking and listening skills by reading aloud to the class or to a smaller group of students (http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/topdown-reading-model-theory-13028.html) 8. TOP-DOWN THEORIES IN THE READING PROCESS During reading and learning to read, language is processed from the whole to the parts, as in taking a completed jigsaw puzzle apart. Learning how to read stories, sentences, or phrases is assumed to lead to a perception of the parts and their relationship to the whole text and meaning. Repeated readings of authentic books of interest with help or independently are assumed to lead to an ability to read fluently with comprehension. 9. Having a large oral language base gives students access to printed language. Comprehending texts provides access to new vocabulary words and increased insights into how the sound-symbol system works for decoding unknown words. (http://www.education.com/reference/article/top-down-reading-whole-word reading/) 10. READERS APPROACH TOWARDS READING COMPREHENSION (TOP-DOWN) They could be compared to an eagle with a good eyes view that can see everything better from the top like in a top-down model Figure 2. Top-down processing Source: Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language (Nuttall.Ch.1996) 11. BOTTOM-UP Readers as meticulous scientists who examine the text carefully from the bottom like Figure 3. Bottom-up processing Source: Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language (Nuttall. Ch. 1996) 12. FEATURES OF TOP-DOWN APPROACH Readers can comprehend a selection even though they do not recognize each word. Readers should use meaning and grammatical cues to identify unrecognized words. Reading for meaning is the primary objective of reading, rather than mastery of letters, letters/sound relationships and words. Reading requires the use of meaning activities than the mastery of series of word- recognition skills. The primary focus of instruction should be the reading of sentences , paragraphs, and whole selections The most important aspect about reading is the amount and kind of information gained through reading. 13. TOP-DOWN EXERCISES Schema Activation - by building background knowledge, we can increase students' understanding of texts. Cultural and experiential knowledge gaps can create the impression of a language barrier, when it is simply that the student lacks the appropriate schema. 14. Pre-reading exercises realia in the classroom bit-by-bit exposure to text visual representations semantic mapping sub/superordination comparisons with previous knowledge all ways to create understanding of the concept before the language. http://www.slideshare.net/rearojo/theories-in-reading-instruction-report

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