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Dairy Production Subsector

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  • 7/27/2019 Dairy Production Subsector




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    Market Profiles and Competitiveness

    Inventory Report

    Subsector Profiles

    September 2004

    Revised October 2005




    Markets toMarkets toMarkets toMarkets toMarkets to


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  • 7/27/2019 Dairy Production Subsector



    The Dairy Production Subsector Profile is 1 of 10 in-depth assessments of different agricultural prod-ucts conducted by the Linking Agricultural Markets to Producers (LAMP) Project team. Thissubsector profile is available in its original form in the compendium Market Profiles and Competi-tiveness Inventory ReportVolume 2, A Subsector Analysis, published in September 2004 under theRural and Agricultural Incomes with a Sustainable Environment (RAISE) Contract No. PCE-100-99-00001-00. Complete information about all the subsectors that the LAMP Project team exam-

    ined appears in the Volume 2 report. Individual profiles of the other nine subsectors are also avail-able on request.

    For more information about the LAMP Project, please contact:

    ARD, Inc.

    Ms. Jennifer Ward, Project Manager159 Bank Street, Suite 300Burlington, VT 05401Email: [email protected]: (802) 658-3890


    Josipa Stadlera 2471000 SarajevoBosnia Herzegovina387 33 273 590


    This report was prepared by the USAID LAMP Project team. Information contained in the reportwas gleaned from many sources:

    Personal interviews with producers, processors, producer associations and cooperatives, Instituteof Agriculture BiH, donor organizations, Chambers of Commerce, FBiH Custom AdministrationOffice, relevant complementary projects, and others.

    EC Agribusiness and Textiles in BiH, Phase I Agribusiness Report, prepared by Agrisystems and

    RES&Co. Development Studies for Sectors with PotentialFood Sector Study, Bosnia and Herzegovina, prepared

    by GTZ. Bosnia and Herzegovina Agribusiness StudyFinal Mission Report, prepared by IFC South East

    Europe Enterprise Development (SEED). A Market Intelligence Brief for the Agribusiness and Food Processing Sector, prepared by USAID

    Business Consulting Sarajevo. Reportsprepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Various information available on the Internet.

    Extrapolation of data and conclusions drawn by the LAMP Project team.

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    Market Profiles and Competitiveness Inventory Report: Dairy Production Subsector Profile 1



    Dairy Production


    Milk production is considered to be strategically important to the agricul-tural industry and the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). More than80% of the territory is suitable for raising livestock; hence milk produc-tion. Livestock rearing is the most prevalent form of agricultural produc-tion, employing a large percentage of the farming population. Improvingconditions for the dairy sector has been a priority of the BiH governmentsince the war, with an aim to provide for domestic consumption, productsfor export, and overall economic development.

    In prewar 1991, total annual milk production was estimated at 875 mil-lion liters (L). Annual average consumption of fresh milk per capita wasestimated to be 110.9 L, 6.3 L of yogurt, 7.4 kg of cheese, 0.6 kg of butter,and 3.6 kg of cream. (See sidebar and Table 1 for other characteristics ofprewar milk production in BiH.)

    1.1 Prewar Status

    Main Characteristics of Prewar Milk Production

    Small milk producers dominated. Most farms had no more than three cows. Low milk production per cowabout 1,400 L/year (3.8 L/day). Limited organized collection and marketing of milk from small farms (1216%). Most milk

    was for family use and the sale of homemade products in local markets. Genetic potential of native cows for milk production was very low. Cattle selection and

    genetic improvement were not developed in the private sector. State farms had higher production per cow. These farms supplied only a small percentage (29%) of total milk

    production in relation to public consumption; see Table 1. State farms received government subsidies. Small private farms were not a development priority and received

    no assistance. A great part of agricultural resources and production was organized through large agribusiness conglomerates

    (agrokombinats). These conglomerates integrated inputs and services with agricultural production, process-

    ing, marketing, and exports.

    Table 1. Prewar Milk Indicators in BiH

    Number of cows

    Total annual milk productionAnnual milk production per cow

    Milk bought from agrokombinats% of total milk production sold to dairy processorState farms share of total milk produced

    Farmers share of total milk produced

    Development Indicators Amount

    Source: BiH Statistic, 1991.

    623,000 head

    875,000,000 L1,410 L

    105,000,000 L1229%


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    Market Profiles and Competitiveness Inventory Report: Dairy Production Subsector Profile



    Foreign direct investments in dairy industry

    Strong existing processing capacity Favorable conditions to enter milk production

    Consumer preference for domestic dairy products

    Regionally recognized cheese types

    Economically competitive forage production

    Readily available labor at competitve cost.


    Small farms and segmented land holdings

    Farmers lack of knowledge of improved practices, such as feed formulations and herd management

    Poor infrastructure (roads)

    Poor quality of raw milk; poor sanitary conditions Low income and, hence, buying power of general population

    Low production per cow

    Obsolete milking technology

    Under-used processor capacity at current levels of production

    Processors lack of management know-how

    Insufficient cold-chain capacity and poorly organized milk collection in some areas

    Expensive milk production (per liter) owing to uncaptured economies of scale

    Lack of quality management systems

    Undetermined legal status of producer/farmers makes it difficult to get loans

    Late or lack of payment to farmers for milk produced

    Poor connection between extension services and producers and between agriculture institutions Nonexistent programs to improve cattle breeding and breeding centers and markets for selling cattle

    with improved genetics.


    Processing capacity available to support increased raw milk production

    Potential to replace imported dairy products

    Exploit the market for recognized cheese types

    Low-cost potential to increase milk yields and quality

    Geographic advantage for producing short shelf-life products.

    Threats Rural populations migrating to cities

    Aging farm population

    Poor rural sector liquidity

    Competitive equalization price supports for domestic products not likely to develop

    Institutions for quality control (export-import) and regulatory oversight are not developing adequately

    All levels of government jurisdiction will continue to delay unifying milk price and quality legislation (i.e.,

    FBiH floor price for raw milk).


    1.0 Overview


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    Market Profiles and Competitiveness Inventory Report: Dairy Production Subsector Profile 3

    1.0 Overview


    Impact of War on Milk Production

    Number of cows reduced by 60%.

    Total milk production reduced by more than 60%, in parallel with a decline in milk

    production per cow. State-owned dairies not able to modernize their processing facilities.

    Dairy sector infrastructure (e.g., barns, feed mills) destroyed, as was more than 80%

    of farm equipment. Significant farm holdings not accessible because of land mines.

    Four large state farms with 2,100 cows were destroyed.

    Milk supply chain (collection stations, milk cooling tanks, vehicles) ruined.

    Most of the specialized institutions that supported the dairy sector ceased operation.

    1.2 Current


    In recent years in both entitiesthe Republic Srpska (RS) and the FBiHdairies have collected from 10% to 12% of the total milk produced. Rea-sons for such low collection rates are related to high levels of milk sold

    locally and calf feeding. The prevalence of subsistence milk productionfurther accentuates this situation. However, it is likely that collection ratesare much higher in the more developed dairy areas (perhaps 30% or more)and much lower in the mountainous areas. See Table 2.

    In 2004, collected quantities increased significantly over 2003, with RScollection increasing 15% to 65.5 million L/year and FBiH collection in-creasing 30% to 56.6 million L/year. Overall, milk collection jumped from94.7 million L/year collected in 2003 to 122.2 million L in 2004, an in-crease of 23.5% within one year. BiH yields are relatively low comparedwith other European countries and have consid

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