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IPCC Fifth Assessment Report Synthesis Report2014/12/25  · IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report IPCC Fifth...

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  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    IPCC Fifth Assessment ReportSynthesis Report

    Prof. Dr. FredolinTangang

    IPCC WG1 Vice‐Chair

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Outline

    • Introduction to IPCC: Organization structure and roles

    • Key messages of AR5 SYR• Observed changes in physical climate &

    human influence attribution• Observed impacts of climate change• Projected climate change and potential

    impacts• Options in limiting future climate change

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Inter‐governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): Organization Structure

    • IPCC plenary comprises of all countries in the world

    • IPCC Bureau comprises of 30 elected members; IPCC elects its bureau members once in a 6‐7 years cycle

    • 3 working groups & a Task Force on NGGI

    • Authors, Contributors, Reviewers, Review Editors

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    IPCC Organization Structure

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Why IPCC?

    • Prior to the establishment of IPCC, growing number of literatures indicate the Earth’s climate system is warming due to increasing GHG concentration in atmosphere

    • Independent, objective, fair and transparent assessment of the state of global climate system is required

    • For this reason, United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) 42 proposed the establishment of IPCC and in 1988 IPCC was established under WMO and UNEP

    • The IPCC provides such assessment and this becomes the source of information particularly to policy makers and UNFCCC on 1. Causes of climate change, 2. Potential impacts on built and natural systems and socio-economic, 3. Possible response options.

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    IPCC Assessment Reports

    FAR 1990 SAR 1995 TAR 2001 AR4 2007

    AR5 WGII 2014AR5 WGI 2013 AR5 WGIII 2014

  • IPCC Assessment Process

    IPCC assessment is based on available peer‐reviewed publications

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    AR5 WGII 2014

    AR5 WGI 2013

    AR5 WGIII 2014

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Key Messages

    ➜ Human influence on the climate system is clear

    ➜ The more we disrupt our climate, the more we risk severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts

    ➜ We have the means to limit climate change and build a more prosperous, sustainable future

    AR5 WGI SPM, AR5 WGII SPM, AR5 WGIII SPM

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal

    AR5 SYR SPM.1

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Oceans absorb most of the heat

    ➜ More than 90% of the energy accumulating in the climate system between 1971 and 2010 has accumulated in the ocean

    ➜ Land temperatures remain at historic highs while ocean temperatures continue to climb AR5 SYR

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Oceanic uptake of CO2 has resulted in acidification of the ocean

    The pH of ocean surface water has decreased by 0.1 (high confidence), corresponding to a 26% of increase in acidity, measured as hydrogen ion concentration

    AR5 SYR; AR5 WG1 SPM.4b

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Humans are changing the climateIt is extremely likely that we are the dominant cause of warming since the mid-20th century

    AR5 SYR SPM.3

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Humans are changing the climateIt is extremely likely that we are the dominant cause of warming since the mid-20th century

    AR5 SYR 1.10

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    GHG emissions growth between 2000 and 2010 has been larger than in the previous three decades

    AR5 SYR SPM.2; AR5 WGIII SPM

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Sources of emissionsEnergy production remains the primary driver of GHG emissions

    35% 24% 21%14% 6.4%

    2010 GHG emissions

    Energy Sector

    Agriculture, forests and

    other land uses

    Industry TransportBuilding Sector

    AR5 WGIII SPM

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Some of the changes in extreme weather and climate events observed since about 1950 have been linked to human influence

    AR5 SYR SPM; AR5 WGI SPM

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Impacts are already underway

    • Tropics to the poles• On all continents and in the ocean• Affecting rich and poor countries

    AR5 SYR SPM; AR5 WGII SPM

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    AR5 SYR SPM.4

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Projected climate changesContinued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in the climate system

    Global glacier volume will further decrease

    Global mean sea level will continue to rise during the 21st century

    It is very likely that the Arctic sea ice cover will continue to shrink and thin as global mean surface temperature rises

    Oceans will continue to warm during the 21st century

    AR5 WGI SPM

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Cumulative emissions of CO2 largely determined global mean surface warming by the late 21st century and beyond

    AR5 SYR SPM.3

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Surface temperature & sea level are projected to increase / rise during 21 century

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Strongest surface warming is projected for tropical and NH subtropical regions; high latitudes and equatorial Pacific are likely to experience increased precipitation 

    AR5 SYR SPM.7

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Potential Impacts of Climate Change

    Food and water shortages

    Increased poverty

    Increased displacement of people

    Coastal flooding

    AR5 WGII SPM

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    AR5 SYR SPM.8

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Climate Change Poses Risk for Food Production

    AR5 SYR SPM.9

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Climate Change Poses Risk for Food Production

    AR5 SYR SPM.9

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Figure SPM.10, A reader’s guide

    From climate change risks to GHG

    emissions

    AR5 SYR SPM.10

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Limiting Temperature Increase to 2˚C

    Measures exist to achieve the substantial emissions reductions required to limit likely warming to 2°C

    A combination of adaptation and substantial, sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can limit climate change risks

    Implementing reductions in greenhouse gas emissions poses substantial technological, economic, social, and institutional challenges

    But delaying mitigation will substantially increase the challenges associated with limiting warming to 2°C

    AR5 WGI SPM, AR5 WGII SPM,AR5 WGIII SPM

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Stabilization of atmospheric concentrations requires moving away from the baseline – regardless of the mitigation goal.

    Based on Figure 6.7

    AR5 WGIII SPM

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Stabilization of atmospheric concentrations requires moving away from the baseline – regardless of the mitigation goal.

    ~3°C

    Based on Figure 6.7 AR5 WGIII SPM

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    The window for action is rapidly closing65% of our carbon budget compatible with a 2°C goal already used

    Amount Used1870-2011:

    515GtC

    Amount Remaining:

    275GtC

    Total Carbon Budget:

    790GtC

    AR5 WGI SPM

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Mitigation Measures

    More efficient use of energy

    Greater use of low-carbon and no-carbon energy• Many of these technologies exist today

    Improved carbon sinks• Reduced deforestation and improved forest management

    and planting of new forests • Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage

    Lifestyle and behavioural changesAR5 WGIII SPM

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    Ambitious Mitigation Is Affordable

    ➜ Economic growth reduced by ~ 0.06% (BAU growth 1.6 - 3%)

    ➜ This translates into delayed and not forgone growth

    ➜ Estimated cost does not account for the benefits of reduced climate change

    ➜ Unmitigated climate change would create increasing risks to economic growth

    AR5 WGI SPM, AR5 WGII SPM

  • IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    The Choices We Make Will Create Different Outcomes

    With substantial mitigation

    Withoutadditionalmitigation

    Change in average surface temperature (1986–2005 to 2081–2100)AR5 WGI SPM

    IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report

    IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

    Synthesis Report(http://www.ipcc.ch)

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IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report IPCC Fifth Assessment Report Synthesis Report Prof. Dr. FredolinTangang IPCC WG1 ViceChair IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report Outline Introduction to IPCC: Organization structure and roles Key messages of AR5 SYR Observed changes in physical climate & human influence attribution Observed impacts of climate change Projected climate change and potential impacts Options in limiting future climate change
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